Greener Journal of Agricultural Sciences

Vol. 8(10), pp. 300-303, 2018

ISSN: 2276-7770

Copyright ©2018, the copyright of this article is retained by the author(s)

DOI Link: http://doi.org/10.15580/GJAS.2018.10.102918052

http://gjournals.org/GJAS

 

 

 

 

 

Evaluation of Adaptability and Improvement of Tef [Eragrostis Tef (Zucc.) Trotter] Varieties in Western Part of Ethiopia

 

 

Addisu, Dereje Jinfessa

 

 

 

Ethiopian Institute of Agricultural Research, Assosa Agricultural research Center, Plant Breeder.

 

 

 

 

 

ARTICLE INFO

ABSTRACT

 

Article No.: 102918052

Type: Research

DOI: 10.15580/GJAS.2018.10.102918052

 

 

Thirty six Tef varieties including local check were evaluated with the objective of Evaluation of Adaptability and Improvement of Tef [Eragrostis Tef (Zucc.) Trotter] in Western Part of Ethiopia during 2016/17 G.C cropping season at Assosa Agricultural Research Center, Tongo and Begi sub-site; Benishangul Gumuz Regional Sate of Ethiopia.

This trials were put into trial at Assosa Agricultural Research on station,Tongo and Begi sub-site. The trial was conducted in Randomized Complete Block Design with three replications. The size of the plot was 1.2m x 2m with gap of 1m between plot and 1.5m between blocks. Various character data were collected such as days to heading, days to maturity, above ground biomass, grain yield, and plant height and panicle length. Data was subjected to analysis of variance and there was highly significant difference (p<0.01) among the varieties and other agronomic traits. The combined analysis of variance indicated that there were highly significant yield difference between the local check and the released Tef varieties over three locations. Tseday, Boset, Simada, Amarach and Lakech gave the highest grain yield; 1892.1, 1752.5, 1709.7, 1664.5, and 1653 kg/ha respectively. Therefore, based on objectively measured traits (days to heading, days to maturity, above ground biomass, grain yield, plant height and panicle length), Tseday and Boset were recommended for wider cultivation in three locations of western part of Ethiopia while varieties Simada, Amarach and Lakech, showed specific adaptability.

 

Submitted: 29/10/2018

Accepted:  10/11/2018

Published: 15/11/2018

 

*Corresponding Author

Addisu Dereje Jinfessa

E-mail: adisudereje2018@

gmail.com

 

Keywords: Tef; Agricultural research; Grain yield; agronomic traits

 

 

 

 

 

                               

 

 

 

 

INTRODUCTION

 

Tef [Eragrostis Tef (Zucc.) Trotter] is an annual grass crop and important cereal harvested for grain in Ethiopia where not only the origin of Tef but it is also the center of diversity [1]. Tef is adaptable to a wide range of ecological conditions in altitudes ranging to 3000 m above sea level and it can be grown in an unfavorable environment condition, while the best performance occurs between 1100 and 2950 m above sea level in Ethiopia. [2]

Tef is grown in 2,404,674 hectares and the production is about 24,377,495 quintals annually    [3]. Its flour is preferred in the production of enjera, a major food staple in Ethiopia. It is also grown on a limited basis for livestock forage in other parts of Africa, India, Australia, and South America. In the U.S small acreages of Tef is grown for grain production and used to Ethiopian restaurants [4]. In Benishangul Gumuz Regional State, the main Tef producing zones were Metekal, Assosa, and Mao komo leyu wereda. The region covered with 19,389.08 hectares by Tef crop and 246, 591. 44 quintals were grown by 45,457 stakeholders [5].

This crop is important for human consumption, straw for animal and plastering compounds for construction purposes. Tef can be produced under adverse environmental condition such as water lodging, drought, pests and disease which makes this crop very important. Still the production is minimum (11.5quntals/ha) in Western part of Ethiopia due to lack of improved Tef varieties, on- adoption of improved technologies, disease  and pest management.Tef varieties were released by federal research center (Debre Zeyit  Agricultural Research Center ) in Ethiopia. However; most of genetic resources have not been evaluated in western part of the country.

Therefore; the objective of this study was to evaluate improvement of Tef varieties which are adaptable, high yielding and stress tolerant to insect, pests and disease management in western part of Ethiopia

 

MATERIALS AND METHODS

 

Study area

 

The experiment was conducted at Assosa Agricultural Research Center; Assosa on Station, Begi and Mao-Komo sub-site between end of August and early September 2016/17 cropping season.

Assosa is located at 1547 m above sea level 10°­ 002'.922'' N latitude and 34° 33 '.868'' E longitude. Assosa Agricultural Reaserch Center is far from Addis Ababa 660 km and has uni modal rainfall distribution which starts at the end of April and extends to mid-November. The total annual average rainfall of Assosa is 1141.26 mm. The mean annual air temperature is 23 °C [6].The dominant soil type of Assosa area is Dystric Nitosols and Fluvisols [7].

Mao Komo site is also situated in Benishangul-Gumuz at 9° 23 '.165''N latitude and 340 24 ' .380'' E longitudes at an altitude of 1820 m above sea level. The study area is located east of Assosa Agricultural Reaserch Center and west of Addis Ababa about 125 km and 685 km distance respectively.  MaoKomo sub-center is also characterized by uni-modal rainfall which starts in April and extends to end of November with maximum rainfall received in June, July, August, September, and October. The total annual average rainfall of Maokomo is 1316.00 mm. The mean annual air temperature from 2009 to 2010 is 20 °C varies from 13 °C to 26 °C [6]. The major soil types found in the experiment area is Eutric Nitisols followed by Orthic Acrisols and Eutric Fluvisols [7].

Thirty six Tef varieties namely, Enatit, Asgori, Walankomi, Magna ,Menagesha , Melko, Gibe, Dukam, ziquala,Koye,Kuncho,Tsedey,Gerado,keytena,Kora,Simeda,Boset,Gimbichu,Amarach,Holetakey,Ambotoke,Gemechis,Gola,Genete,Zobe,Mechere,Lakech,Yilmana,Etsb,Dima,Guduru,Kena,Ajora,Dega tef and Woriye were collected from Federal Research Institute Debre Zeyt Agricultural Research Center. These trials were put into trial at Assosa Agricultural Research on station, Tongo and Begi sub-site. The trial was conducte in Randomized Complete Block Design with three replications. The size of the plot was measured 2.4 m2 (1.2m x 2m) with the gap of 1m between plot and 1.5m between blocks. Sowing was done by row planting at seed rate of 15 kg/ha within the last week of August and first week of September in 2016/17 cropping season. All other recommended agronomic practices were kept normal and uniform to ensure normal plant growth and development. Seed yield of each plot was recorded and then converted into kg/ha. Data on plant height, panicle length, days to heading, days to maturity and grain yield were collected and subject to statistical analysis using SAS statistical software [8].

 

RESULT AND DISCUSSION

 

The analysis of variance showed that there were highly significant difference (p<0.01) among varieties for all traits evaluated (days to heading, days to maturity, above ground biomass, grain yield, plant height and panicle length (Table 1). These results were also supported by the findings of Ashamo et al [9] who evaluated 22 Tef genotypes at four locations and reported significant variations in grain yield of Tef at all test locations and Chondie YG, Bekele A (2017) [10] evaluate eight Tef varieties planted with one local check at Areka and Hossana stations of Areka Agricultural Research Center in the Southern region of Ethiopia. Varieties like Tseday, Boset, Simada, Amarach, Lakech should be score the highest grain yield 1892, 1752.5, 1709.7, 1664.5 and 1653 kg/ha than local check respectively. Those mentioned above had yield advantage of 274, 134.4, 91.6, 46.4 and 34.9% over the local check respectively. (Table 1).

 

 

 

Table 1: Mean grain yield and agronomic data of Tef varieties tested combined over location (Assosa,Tongo and Begi)

 

Varieties

DH

DM

AGB

GY

PH

PL

% yld adv /L

 

1

DZ-01-354(Enatit)

42.5556

98.2222

2474.4

1329.7

100.658

44.004

-

 

2

DZ-01-99(Asgori)

42.5556

94.5556

2866.7

1327.1

93.9

41.258

-

 

3

DZ-01-787(Walankomi)

43.7778

98.4444

2788.9

1367.4

103.867

45.389

-

 

4

DZ-01-196(Magna)

42.4444

94.5556

2711.1

1220.5

102.711

40.291

-

 

5

DZ-Cr-44(Menagasha)

41.8889

96.3333

3055.6

1461

102.313

42.018

-

 

6

DZ-Cr-82(Melko)

42.5556

98.6667

1966.7

1140.2

103.311

42.316

-

 

7

DZ-Cr-255(Gibe)

40.7778

96.4444

2822.2

1467

98.578

40.144

-

 

8

DZ-01-974(Dukem)

42.5556

96.7778

3155.6

1570.6

109.378

45.491

-

 

9

DZ-Cr-358(Ziquala)

44

98.3333

2377.8

1329.1

96.878

43.022

-

 

10

DZ-01-1285(koye)

42.6667

98.4444

2655.6

1331.9

96.178

41.111

-

 

11

DZ-Cr-387/RIL-355(Quncho)

43.4444

95.7778

3066.7

1440.9

112.533

47.091

-

 

12

DZ-Cr-37(Tseday)

36.8889

93.7778

2822.2

1892.1

87.189

33.949

274

 

13

DZ-01-1281(Gerado)

41.2222

97.3333

2766.7

1429.2

98.311

40.591

-

 

14

DZ-01-1681(kayt-ena)

41.6667

95.7778

2633.3

1203

93.322

40.084

-

 

15

DZ-Cr-438(kora)

43

95.2222

3088.9

1478

111.4

43.744

-

 

16

DZ-Cr-385 RIL 295(Simada)

36.8889

93.5556

2811.1

1709.7

78.678

30.022

91.6

 

17

DZ-Cr-409/RIL 50d(Boset)

39.5556

93.7778

2833.3

1752.5

86.344

32.256

134.4

 

18

DZ-01-899(Gimbchu)

42.4444

95.7778

2311.1

1237.8

95.778

39.289

-

 

19

Ho - cr-136(Amarach)

39.1111

92.8889

2788.9

1664.5

86.333

33.2

46.4

 

20

DZ-01-2053(Holeta key)

41.3333

93.3333

2666.7

1141.7

84.929

34.889

-

 

21

DZ-01-1278(Ambo toke)

42.2222

94.3333

2777.8

1370.4

97.34

40.351

-

 

22

DZ-Cr-387 RIL# 127(Gamechis)

42.3333

93.8889

2655.6

1552.5

97.111

39.878

-

 

23

DZ-01-2054(Gola)

42.3333

95.3333

3144.4

1587.8

105.624

44.731

-

 

24

DZ-01-146 (Genete)

43.2222

96.1111

2488.9

1338.7

102.058

43.589

-

 

25

DZ-01-1821 (Zobe)

42

96.3333

2744.4

1371.9

102.644

43.947

-

 

26

Acc.2055953(Mechere)

42.2222

97.2222

2677.8

1374.4

98.689

41.333

-

 

27

SR-RIL-273 (Lakech)

43.2222

97.1111

3322.2

1653

105.856

41.391

34.9

 

28

DZ-01-1868( Yilmana)

41.1111

97.4444

2755.6

1447.2

98.056

39.678

-

 

29

DZ-01-3186 (Etsb)

42.7778

98.1111

3000

1588.6

106.089

43.913

-

 

30

DZ-01-2423 (Dima)

40.5556

97.7778

2966.7

1508

93.547

34.878

-

 

31

DZ-01-1880 (Guduru)

42.4444

96.2222

3444.4

1485

112.622

47.542

-

 

32

23-tafi-adi-72(kena)

42.3333

95.3333

2911.1

1243.5

101.022

40.213

-

 

33

PGRC/E205396 (Ajora)

39.1111

93.5556

2777.8

1560.1

99.756

40.491

-

 

34

DZ-01-2675 (Degatef)

41.4444

97.4444

2588.9

1057.8

100.844

40.456

-

 

35

21476A (Woriye)

41

94.3333

2777.8

1521.5

101.978

41.844

-

 

36

Local check

40.8889

92.8889

3166.7

1618.1

94.444

37.789

-

 

 

Mean

41.6821

95.87346

2801.759

1438.121

98.8964

40.6162

 

 

 

R-square

0.864731

0.964437

0.926824

0.655796

0.80303

0.81417

 

 

 

CV (%)

3.959066

1.860404

16.84263

17.73907

5.95433

6.81853

 

 

 

LSD (5%)

1.5334

1.6573

438.48

237.05

5.4717

2.5733

 

 

Keys: DH=days to heading, DM=days to maturity, AGB=above ground biomass, GY= grain yield, PH= plant height, PL=panicle length, %yl d adv/L=percentage of yield advantage over local variety

 

 

The maturity period of all selected varieties indicated specific difference compared to local check except Lakech which was 97days (Table1) which is the same with the findings of Bakala N, Taye T, Idao B 2018. In western part of Ethiopia the production is still 1150 kg /ha due to lack of improved Tef varieties, non- adoption of improved technologies, disease and pests. However, the study shows that some varieties such as Tsedey, Boset. Simeda, Amarach and Lackech   had good adaptability and performance than local variety in terms of grain yield. We believe that the production and productivity of this area will be increased   if those verities were used instead of local variety.

 

 

CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

 

The combined analysis of variance for three test site showed that varieties were significantly different for all traits evaluated. Tsedey and Boset had the same days to maturity (day length to mature) but different days to heading and score the highest grain yield.

Therefore, based on researcher’s idea and mean grain yield of released Tef varieties evaluated, it was concluded that Tsedey and Boset were recommended for wider cultivation whereas Simeda, Amarach and Lakech are specifically recommended for western part of Ethiopia

 

 

REFERENCES

 

1.  Assefa, K., Yu, J.-K., Zeid, M., Belay, G., Tefera, H., Sorrells, M. E., 2010, Breeding tef [Eragrostis tef (Zucc.)  Trotter]: conventional and molecular approaches (review). Plant Breeding. doi:10.1111/j.1439–0523.2010.01782.

2.  Hailu T, Seyfu K (2000) Production and Importance of tef in Ethiopia Agriculture. Tefera H, Belay G, Sorrels M (eds.), Narrowing the Rift: Tef research and development Proceedings of the International Workshop on Tef Genetics and Improvement, 16-19 October 2000, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

3. Central Statistic Authority (2003) urban bi-annual employment unemployment survey. 1st Year, Round 1.

4. Wondimu A, Mekbib F (2001) Utilization of tef in the Ethiopian diet.  Tefera H,Belay G, Sorrells M (eds.), Narrowing the rift: Tef research and development.Proceedings of the International Workshop on Tef Genetics and Improvement, Debrezeit, Ethiopia, pp: 239-244)..

5. Central Statistic Authority   (2014/15) Benishangul Regional State

6.  National Meteorological Service Agency, 2010

7.  Assosa Agricultural Research Center, 2007.

8.  SAS institute (2002). SAS system for windows release 9.2 Inc, Cary, NC, USA.

9.  Ashamo M, Belay G (2012) Genotype x Environment interaction analysis of Tef grown in southern Ethiopia using additive main effects and multiplicative interaction model. Journal of Biology Agriculture and Healthcare 2: 66-72.

10. Chondie YG, Bekele A (2017) adaptability evaluation and selection of improved Tef varieties in growing areas of southern Ethiopia. Hydrol Current Res 8: 266. doi: 10.4172/2157-7587.1000266.

 

 

 

 

Cite this Article: Addisu, D.J. (2018). Evaluation of Adaptability and Improvement of Tef [Eragrostis Tef (Zucc.) Trotter] Varieties in Western Part of Ethiopia. Greener Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 8(10), 300-303, http://doi.org/10.15580/GJAS.2018.10.102918052

 

 

 

 

Evaluation of Adaptability and Improvement of Tef [Eragrostis Tef (Zucc.) Trotter] Varieties in Western Part of Ethiopia