Greener Journal of Agricultural Sciences

Vol. 9(2), pp. 259-267, 2019

ISSN: 2276-7770

Copyright 2019, the copyright of this article is retained by the author(s)

DOI Link: http://doi.org/10.15580/GJAS.2019.2.032819057

http://gjournals.org/GJAS

 

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Survey of Cotton Weeds in Middle Awash of Ethiopia

 

 

Workishet Taye; Silesh Getahun; Zemedikun Alemu; Nurhussien Seid; Sharew Abate

 

 

Ethiopian Institute of Agricultural Research, Werer Agricultural Research Center, Ethiopia

P. O. Box 2003, Addis Abeba, Ethiopia

 

 

 

ARTICLE INFO

ABSTRACT

 

Article No.: 032819057

Type: Research

DOI: 10.15580/GJAS.2019.2.032819057

 

 

Cotton is a widely cultivated fiber crop and plays an important role in the globe. In Ethiopia, cotton is produced in small and large scale, but commercial farms are greatly affected by the problem of weed infestations. Weed survey was done in the potential irrigated cotton growing areas of Middle Awash at seedling and flower initiation stages of the crop. From all locations, the specimen was collected and tagged. Identification of the specimen in the field was done based on weed identification guidelines and those specimens difficult to identify in the field were identified by the national herbarium of Addis Ababa University. Frequency, Abundance, Dominance and Similarity Index were done according to their formula. A total of 27 weed species from 17 families were recorded from all locations. The most dominant weed species are from Poaceae, Amaranthaceae, Euphorbiaceous, Malvacea, Convolvulaceae and Asteraceae weed families in all locations. Weed species composition are different among crop growth stage and similar between districts and across districts and hence, a similar management practice will be applied for the districts.

 

Submitted: 28/03/2019

Accepted: 01/04/2019

Published: 13/06/2019

 

*Corresponding Author

Workishet Taye

E-mail: workishet@ gmail.com

 

Keywords: Weeds; Cotton; Gossypium hirsutum L.

 

 

 

 


 

BACKGROUND

 

Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) is a very important and widely cultivated fiber crop in the world, which is produced for its lint which is the primary commercial product that generates income for cotton producers and fabric for the textile industries (Basra 2002 and MOI, 2015). In Ethiopia, cotton is produced in small and large-scale commercial farms. Suitable arable land for cotton production in the country was estimated at about 3,000,810 hectares (MOA, 2010). Total annual national production was estimated at about 148,649MT raw cotton (EIAR, 2016).

The major cotton growing areas of Ethiopia include the Awash River basin, Northern and Southern Omo, West Gambella, North Bale and Northwest of Metema and Humera. Also the largest potential areas for cotton production were identified in the Western and Southern parts of the country (MOA, 2010). The major pest problem of cotton production in Ethiopia are lack of effective insect, disease and weed pest management practices(WARC 2000). According to Benedict and Altman (2001) infestation level of any specific pests largely varied from year to year and place to place.

Yield of cotton was greatly reduced due to the natural occurring mixed weed population, which the seed cotton yield loss 62.43 - 96.21% was recorded; when weeding was completely denied throughout the crop growing season (Esayas et al., 2013). Losses caused by weeds in Arkansas, USA were estimated 34 million dollars annually (Smith, 2000). Survey conducted in Middle Awash during 2000 cropping season indicated that the infestation level was very high for most of the weed species, thus broad leaf, grass and sedges. Higher weed densities were recorded at flowering and near harvesting growth stage of cotton resulting in reduction of yield and harvest efficiency (WARC 2000). Weed species such as Xanthium strumarium that was not economical weeds are critical weeds in cotton fields (Esayas and Abraham, 2000). Similarly a seed cotton yield loss of 35.03-88.13% and 56.45-94.44% occurred when weeding was delayed for 60 and 75 days, respectively. So it could be shown that the major yield loss occurred up to 75 days during the cotton growth period (Esayas et al., 2013). Seed cotton yield was increased with the advancement of weed-free period (Esayas et al., 2013). On the other hand, the longer weeds were allowed to grow and compete with the crop, the higher the seed cotton yield reduction (Esayas et al., 2013). Bishnoi et al., (1993) reported that weed free field from 20 days after sowing produced highest seed cotton yields (2798 kg ha-1) compared to unweeded control (1614 kg ha-1). Khan and Khan (2003) reported that grassy weeds cause 15 40% and broad leaf weeds 15 30% yield losses in cotton crop. Keeley and Thullen (1991) reported that 16 and 26% of yield losses occurred when Bermuda grass was permitted to compete with cotton for 12 and 20 weeks, respectively. Also yellow nut sedge (Cyperus esculentus L.) infestation in cotton field was reduced up to 34% seed cotton yield (Mofett and Mcclosky, 1998).Tillage systems and fertilization determines the composition and abundance of weed species in crop fields and can be helpful in understanding how particular weed species increase or decrease, in terms of numbers and diversity, and how crop management can contribute to the suppression of weeds (Travlos et al., 2018)

Weed flora in different locations differ widely in their diversity depending upon environmental and soil conditions and hence the appropriate identification of the weed flora species in the cotton field is essential for the use of effective weed management practices. Therefore, survey of weed flora species composition, distribution and frequency in irrigated Middle Awash potential cotton production areas is essential for a comprehensive understanding of the weed problem that poses negative impacts on cotton production in the study area.

 

 

METHODOLOGY

 

The study was done during 2016 cropping season, between June to September, to determine weed densities, distribution and intensity in irrigated cotton growing areas of middle Awash. The study was carried out in two districts of Middle Awash Rift valley of Ethiopia Amibara (Werer, Badhamo and Melkesedi, Ambash and Billen) and Gewane (Amasabure, Deble, Eglay, Galeallo and Galeallo bora) known by their high potential of irrigated cotton farming. From each irrigated cotton growing districts, 5kebeles and from each kebele, 10-20 farms were randomly selected at every 1-5 Km intervals. The survey was done at seedling and flowering cotton growth stage. The study focuses on small scale farms, private sector and Commercial farms of cotton. During weed sampling, small and large scale areas were considered.

The weed sampling was randomly selected within trisected diagonal in the form of X pattern thereby systematically walked in each sample field and the data were counted within 1m2 quadrant and a total of 5 samples were taken per hectare.The number of samples per hectare was determined by species in the areas and condition (Pohlan, 1984).Specimens of all weed species encountered in the sampling areas was collected, tagged and pressed in the field using a newspaper and herbarium presser. Field notes were documented by the colour of the flower, fruit, fragrance or any special features of the plants collected. Plant specimens in the field were identified using the available plant identification guides. Identification in the field was based on weed identification guides (Stroud A and Parker C. 1989). Those species that were difficult to identify in the field was tagged, pressed, and sent to the National herbarium of Addis Ababa University and identified.

The data was analyzed by using descriptive statistics to determine weed species composition of abundance (A), dominance (D), frequency (F), and similarity index (SI). The determinations were illustrated by the use of the following formulae (1-4) that was described by Taye and Yohannes (1998).

 

Frequency: F = X/N x 100.. (1)

 

Where, F = frequency, X = number of occurrences of a weed species, N = sample number.

 

Abundance: A= W/N (2)

 

Where, A = abundance, W = number of individuals of a weed species, N = sample number

 

Dominance: D= A/ A*100 (3)

 

Where, D = dominance, A = total abundance of all species.

 

Similarity Index (SI): (Epg)/ (Epg+Epa+Epb)x100 (4)

 

Where, SI= similarity index; Epg = number of weed species found in all locations; Epa = number of species only in location a; Epb = number of species only in location b.

 

 

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

 

Weed species composition

 

A total of 27 weed species within 17 families was recorded in the cotton-growing areas of Middle Awash (Amibara and Gewane) at seedling and flowering stages of cotton growing periods (Tables 1 and 2). From these weed species, 21 were recorded in both locations and weed species only found in Amibara and Gewane were one and six respectively. The prevalence of weed species at cotton seedling stage was higher than that of flowering stage in both locations. In this study the ten most dominant families of the highest diversity according to the represented weed species were Poaceae, Amaranthaceae, Euphorbiaceous, Malvacea, Convolvulaceae, Asteraceae, Aizoaceae, Cyperaceae, Solanaceae and Chenopodiaceae. Most of the weed species (74 %) were erect annual broad leave herbs, (18.5) grasses, (3.7) Sedges and the rest were annual or perennial climbers or perennial shrubs.


 

 

Table 1: Number and proportion of weed species within the seventeen diverse families

No

Family

Life Form

Number of Species

Percent Flora

1

Poaceae

Grass

5

17.85

2

Amaranthaceae

Herb

3

10.74

3

Euphorbiaceae

Herb

3

10.74

4

Malvacea

Herb

2

7.14

5

Convolvulaceae

Herb

2

7.14

6

Asteraceae

Herb

2

7.14

7

Fabaceae

Shrub

1

3.57

8

Cyperaceae

Sedge

1

3.57

9

Cucurbitaceae

Shrub

1

3.57

10

Tiliaceae

Herb

1

3.57

11

Commeliaceae

Herb

1

3.57

12

Solanaceae

Herb

1

3.57

13

Capparaceae

Herb

1

3.57

14

Zygophyllaceae

Herb

1

3.57

15

Chenopodiaceae

Herb

1

3.57

16

Papaveraceae

Herb

1

3.57

17

Aizoaceae

Herb

1

3.57

 

 


Frequency and Abundance

 

The result of weed survey revealed that the dominance level of individual weed species varied across locations and crop growth stages. Asteraceae family has a higher dominance percentage at flowering and lower dominance percentage at seedling in Amibara district and no dominance at Gewane district, while Tiliaceae family has higher dominance percentage at flowering and lower dominance percentage at seedling in Gewane district and lower dominance percentage at Amibara district in both stages

The frequency occurrence of individual weed species ranged from 4 to 80 and 12 to 62 at seedling and flowering stages, while the infestation level based on weed dominance at seedling and flowering cotton stages ranged between 1 to 15, 1 to 37 respectively occurred at high weed density(Tables 1 and 2). This result is supported by Taye and Yohannes (1998), weed species having frequency and dominancy levels below 5.0% and 0.05%, respectively, weeds occurred rarely and at low density. In both Amibara and Gewane districts, higher densities of weed species were recorded during seedling stage. The range of weed species per sample was higher in both locations Amibara and Gewane during cotton seedling stage. In previous studies on different crops such as field pea, faba bean, barley, wheat and teff, weeds had a positive and significant relationship among the weed species abundance, dominance and frequency (Taye and Yohannes, 1998 and Kedir et al., 1999 a b).

The weed flora in cotton fields of Amibara and Gewane were infested by a number of weed species, these weed species infestation of cotton fields can be attributed due to the use of Awash River as irrigation which brings weed seeds and fertile soils from the highland parts of Ethiopia which are required by the crops that create conducive environment for germination and growth of weeds. The average of weed species frequency value over locations, were ranged from 2-80% in both growth stage and districts. The highest weed frequency was recorded by Digitaria abyssinica (78%) followed by Corchorus trilocularis (74%) and Eriocloa fatmensis (72%) at seedling stage in Amibara districts. The lowest frequency value was recorded by Polypogonmon speliensis L. (8%) followed by launaea cornuta, and Acalypha crenata (11 and 12%) respectively. The abundance value of the weed species varied from 1 to 10 plants m-2. The highest abundance value (10 plants m-2) was recorded by Echinocloa colane followed by Digitaria abyssinica (9 plantsm-2), Corchorus trilocularis and Eriocloa fatmensis (7 plants m-2). Whereas, the least abundance value (1 plants m-2) was recorded by Commelina benghalensis and Datura stramonium followed by Abutilo hirtum(Lam.), Ipomea ariocarpa and Cucumis dipsaceus (2 plants m-2) (Table 1). The highest weed frequency value at cotton flowering stage was recorded by (62%) Digitaria abyssinica and followed by (60%) Zaleya pentandra(L.) and (50%) Eriocloa fatmensis. Whereas the least weed frequency was recorded by (10%) launaea cornuta and Cucumis dipsaceus and followed by (12%) Amaranthus spinosus and Sorghum arundianaceum. The abundance value ranges from 2 to 38 plants m-2. The highest weed abundance value were recorded by 38 plants m-2 Xanthium strumarium and followed by 22 plants m-2 Cyperus esculentus and the least abundance value was(1 plant m-2)Datura stramonium and (2 plants m-2) Abutilo hirtum(Lam.), Commelina benghalensis and Digera muricata.

The highest frequency value of Gewane location at seedling stage is recorded by Zaleyapentandra (L.) (80%) followed by Echinocloa colane and Eriocloa fatmensis (78%), whereas the least frequency value recorded by Abutilo hirtum (Lam.) (4%) and followed by Argemone mexican (7%) and Gynandropsis gynandra (10%). The weed abundance at seedling stage was varied from 1 to 36 plants m-2. The highest weed abundance value (36 plants m-2) was recorded by Cyperus esculentus and followed by 17 plants m-2 Zaleya pentandra (L.). The least abundance value was recorded by Commelina benghalensis and Datura stramonium (1 plant m-2) and followed by Amaranthus spinosus, Abutilo hirtum(Lam.), Cucumis dipsaceus and Gynandropsis gynandra (2 plant m-2).

The highest frequency value at flowering stage was (74%) recorded by Digitaria abyssinica followed by Echinocloa colane (62%) and Zaleya pentandra (L.) (60%), whereas, the least frequency level is recorded by Prosopis juliflora (6 %). Weed abundance at flowering stage varied from 2 to 41 plants m-2. The highest weed abundance value was recorded by (41%) Digitaria abyssinica and followed by Corchorus trilocularis (38%) and Echinocloa colane (28%), whereas the least weed abundance was recorded by Ipomea ariocarp (2%) followed by Amaranthus spinosus, Convovulus arvensis and Sorghum arundianaceum (4%).

Therefore, this study showed that Echinocloa colane, Eriocloa fatmensis and Digitaria abyssinica weeds has higher frequency and dominance both at seedling and flowering cotton growing stage at Amibara district, whereas Digitaria abyssinica and Zaleya pentandra (L.) were the highest dominant weed at seedling and flowering cotton growing stage at Gewane district and these weeds are the major environmental and economic problems in the cotton field in the study area. Similar findings were done by (Roger N. et al 2015 and Gidesa A. et al 2016); they reported that if the specific plant species had higher frequency and dominance value, it indicates the economic importance of it.


 


 

Table 2. Amibara Weed Frequency, Abundance and Dominance at Seedling and flowering cotton growing stage in 2016

 

 

 

Frequency

Abundance

Dominance

No

Weed species

Family

At Seedling

At Flowering

At Seedling

At Flowering

At Seedling

At Flowering

1

Echinocloa colana

Poaceae

70

40

10

7

11

7

2

Digitaria abyssinica

Poaceae

78

62

9

16

9

15

3

Zaleya pentandra(l.)

Aizoaceae

56

60

4

11

5

10

4

Eriocloa fatmensis

Poaceae

72

50

7

8

9

7

5

Amaranthus spinosus

Amaranthaceae

62

12

5

3

5

1

6

Abutilo hirtum(Lam.)

Malvacea

24

0

2

0

2

0

7

Polypogon monspeliensis(L.)

Poaceae

8

0

2

0

1

0

8

Xanthium strumarium

Asteraceae

48

34

5

38

5

34

9

Convolvulus arvensis

Convolvulaceae

50

20

3

0

3

0

10

Prosopis juliflora

Fabaceae

30

0

2

0

3

0

11

Ipomea ariocarpa

Convolvulaceae

44

16

2

2

2

1

12

Cyperus esculentus

Cyperaceae

60

30

9

22

11

20

13

Launaea cornuta

Asteraceae

11

10

9

2

3

2

14

Cucumis dipsaceus

Cucurbitaceae

34

10

2

2

4

1

15

Sorghum arundianaceum

Poaceae

30

12

2

2

2

2

16

Corchorus trilocularis

Tiliaceae

74

34

7

4

7

4

17

Hibiscus trionum

Malvacea

40

15

4

2

9

1

18

Phyllanthus rotundifolius

Euphorbiaceae

56

0

4

0

4

0

19

Commelina benghalensis

Commeliaceae

26

0

1

0

2

0

20

Digera muricata

Amaranthaceae

38

0

3

0

2

0

21

Acalypha crenata

Euphorbiaceae

12

0

3

0

2

0

22

Datura stramonium

Solanaceae

24

26

1

1

1

1

 

 

Table 3. Gewane Weed Frequency, Abundance and Dominance at Seedling and flowering cotton growing stage in 2016

 

 

 

Frequency

Abundance

Dominance

No

Weed species

Family

At Seedling

At Flowering

At Seedling

At Flowering

At Seedling

At Flowering

1

Echinocloa colana

Poaceae

78

62

12

28

9

13

2

Digitaria abyssinica

Poaceae

74

74

10

41

7

24

3

Zaleya pentandra(l.)

Aizoaceae

80

60

17

24

13

9

4

Eriocloa fatmensis

Poaceae

78

32

13

7

10

5

5

Amaranthus spinosus

Amaranthaceae

22

26

1

4

2

2

6

Abutilo hirtum(Lam.)

Malvacea

4

0

1

0

1

0

7

Polypogon monspeliensis(L.)

Poaceae

48

0

3

0

2

0

8

Xanthium strumarium

Asteraceae

70

0

6

0

3

0

9

Convolvulus arvensis

Convolvulaceae

36

48

3

4

1

1

10

Prosopis juliflora(Sw.)

Fabaceae

0

6

0

2

0

1

11

Ipomea ariocarpa

Convolvulaceae

58

16

3

2

2

1

12

Cyperus esculentus

Cyperaceae

76

42

36

11

15

4

13

Cucumis dipsaceus

Cucurbitaceae

20

0

1

0

1

0

14

Sorghum arundianaceum

Poaceae

30

24

2

4

1

1

15

Corchorus trilocularis

Tiliaceae

30

56

2

38

2

37

16

Hibiscus trionum

Malvacea

66

0

4

0

1

0

17

Phyllanthus rotundifolius

Euphorbiaceae

68

0

7

0

5

0

18

Commelina benghalensis

Commeliaceae

38

0

2

0

1

0

19

Digera muricata

Amaranthaceae

52

0

5

0

3

0

20

Acalypha crenata

Euphorbiaceae

10

0

1

0

1

0

21

Datura stramonium

Solanaceae

40

58

2

11

2

9

22

Gynandropsis gynandra

Capparaceae

10

0

1

0

1

0

23

Tribulus terrestris

Zygophyllaceae

34

0

7

0

4

0

24

Amaranthus viridisHook.F

Amaranthaceae

42

0

6

0

4

0

25

Chenopodium ambrosiodes

Chenopodiaceae

48

0

3

0

2

0

26

Euphorbia microphylla H.

Euphorbiaceae

10

0

3

0

2

0

27

Argemone mexican

Papaveraceae

7

0

3

0

2

0


 


Weed Similarity Index

 

Similarity index is the similarity of plant species composition among different districts. The survey result showed that similarity index value of 71.42% and 68.75% among the districts of Amibara and Gewane at seedling and flowering cotton growing stage respectively (Table 7). This suggests that the weed species composition among the two districts was similar by 71.42% and 68.75%. This result is supported by Taye and Yohannes (1998), if the index of similarity is below 60%, it is said that the two locations have different weed communities. Since similarity indices for the different locations were greater than 60%, it can be concluded that the locations exhibited similar weed community and thus, require similar management options. The similarity index of weed species composition within Amibara districts varied from 78.26 90% and 72 85.7% at seedling and flowering stages respectively. Likely similarity index of weed species composition at Gewane district varied from 65-86.67% and 61.11-73.33% at seedling and flowering stages. In general the weed species composition in both Amibara and Gewane districts at both cotton growing stages was similar, but the density and frequency of weed species at seedling stage were higher than at flowering stage. The difference in crop stages, altitude, climate, soil types and irrigation type and amount and field management practices applied to the different districts could be the cause that affected the distribution, abundance and dominance of the weed species (Esayas et al 2012 and Takim FO and Amodu AA 2013).


 

 

Table 4. Similarity Index of Weed species composition of cotton at Seedling stage at Amibara in 2016

Badhamo

Wadullela

Ambash

Melke-Sedi

Billen

Badhamo

100

81.81

81.81

78.26

75

Wadullela

 

100

90

85.7

81.81

Ambash

 

 

100

85.7

85.7

Melke-sedi

 

 

 

100

78.26

Billen

 

 

 

100

 

Table 5. Similarity Index of Weeds of cotton at flowering stage at Amibara in 2016

Badhamo

Wadullela

Ambash

Melke-Sedi

Billen

Badhamo

100

75

78.26

81.81

85.7

Wadullela

 

100

72

81.81

78.26

Ambash

 

 

100

78.26

81.81

Melke-sedi

 

 

 

100

85.7

Billen

 

 

 

100

 

Table 6. Similarity Index of Weeds of cotton at flowering stage at Gewena in 2016

Amasabure

Deble

Eglay

Galeallo

Galeallo bora

Amasabure

100

86.67

81.25

86.67

76.47

Deble

 

100

72.22

76.47

68.42

Eglay

 

 

100

72.22

65

Galeallo

 

 

 

100

68.42

Galeallo bora

 

 

 

100

 

Table 7. Similarity Index of Weeds of cotton at flowering stage at Gewena in 2016

 

Amasabure

Deble

Eglay

Galeallo

Galeallo bora

Amasabure

100

73.33

64.7

73.33

64.7

Deble

 

100

68.75

73.33

64.7

Eglay

 

 

100

68.75

61.11

Galeallo

 

 

 

100

74.7

Galeallo bora

 

 

 

100

 

 

Table 8. Similarity Index of Weeds of cotton at Amibara and Gewena in 2016

Seedling Stage

Survey Sites

Amibara

Gewena

Amibara

100

71.42

Gewena

71.42

100

 

Flowering Stage

Amibara

100

68.75

Gewena

68.75

100

 

 

 


CONCLUSION

 

Based on the weed survey, a total of twenty seven different weed species from seventeen families were identified. The importance of each weed species was determined by calculating the frequency, abundance and dominance values. This experiment identified a large and diversified weed species that were found in the study area. The most dominant weed families according to the frequency and number of weed species were Poaceae, Amaranthaceae, Euphorbiaceous, Malvacea, Convolvulaceae and Asteraceae. Weed species composition were similar between districts and across districts. The study shows that the two districts have similar weed species composition and hence, it is possible to apply the same weed management practices for the study areas.

 

 

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Cite this Article: Workishet T; Silesh G; Zemedikun A; Nurhussien S; Sharew A (2019). Survey of Cotton Weeds in Middle Awash of Ethiopia. Greener Journal of Agricultural Sciences 9(2): 259-267, http://doi.org/10.15580/GJAS.2019.2.052719103.