Greener Journal of Agricultural Sciences

Vol. 9(2), pp. 215-221, 2019

ISSN: 2276-7770

Copyright ©2019, the copyright of this article is retained by the author(s)

DOI Link: http://doi.org/10.15580/GJAS.2019.2.042819081  

http://gjournals.org/GJAS

 

Description: C:\Users\user\Pictures\Journal Logos\GJAS Logo.jpg

 

 

 

Effect of Mycorrhiza, Fertilizer and Watering Regime on the Growth and Development of Mansonia altissima A CHEV. Seedlings

                                                  

 

Kareem A.A.; Adio A.F.

 

 

 

Forestry Research Institute of Nigeria, Jericho, Ibadan, P M B 5054 Ibadan, Oyo state Nigeria.

 

 

ARTICLE INFO

ABSTRACT

 

Article No.:042819081

Type: Research

DOI: 10.15580/GJAS.2019.2.042819081

 

 

A greenhouse investigation was conducted to determine the effect of Arbuscular mycorrhiza, N. P. K fertilizer and moisture supply on Mansonia altissima seedlings. The experiment was 3x3x3 factorial experiment in completely randomized design with each of factor has 3 levels and was replicated 5 times. Application of arbscular mycorriza does not have significant effect on growth parameters assessed, while  N. P. K fertilizer and moisture supply had significant differences at (p<0.05) on seedling height, collar diameter and leaf production. Seedlings treated to 1g of fertilizer had the highest seedlings height mean value of 17.34cm, collar diameter of 3.63mm and leaf count of 8 while control had the least value of seedlings height, collar diameter and leaf production with 14.80cm, 3.02mm and 7 leaves respectively. Seedlings watered at pot capacity on daily basis had the highest seedling height and collar diameter of 16.99cm and 3.52mm respectively. Response observed in the present investigation revealed that more research work can be carried out to ascertain the appropriate arbuscular mycorrhiza to be used on the species based on compatibility.

 

Submitted: 28/04/2019

Accepted:  01/05/2019

Published: 16/05/2019

 

*Corresponding Author

Kareem A.A.

E-mail: kareemakeem2014@ gmail.com

Phone: +2348108918469

 

Keywords: mycorrhiza, greenhouse, fertilizer, compatibility and Mansonia altissima

 

 

 

 


 

INTRODUCTION

 

Forest and forest products play a very important role in the development of any nation. The utilization of forest resources range from the provision of raw materials for the ever increasing industry to yielding poles and firewood for domestic consumption, regulation of water regime and climate, protection from desertification and satisfaction of recreational needs. Increase in population and attendant increase in demand for forest and forest products have made plantation forestry attractive to tropical foresters.

The significant contribution of Mycorrhiza to plant is the symbiosis, which are characterized by bi-directional movement of nutrients where carbon flows to the fungus and in-organic nutrients move to the plant, thereby providing a critical linkage between the plant root and soil (Garbaye, 1994). In infertile soils, nutrients taken up by the mycorrhiza fungi can lead to improved plant growth and reproduction, as a result mycorrhiza plants are often more competitive and better able to tolerate environmental stresses than non- mycorrhiza plants.

Arbuscular mycorrhiza fungi belong to the order Glomales and form highly branched structures called arbuscules, within root cortical cells of many herbaceous and woody plant species. Arbuscular mycorrhiza fungi (AMF) can be found in almost all habitat and climates (Bareaet al., 1997) and at different depth of soil (Michelsen and Rosendahl, 1990).Although the occurrence and efficiency of AMF have been widely examined in most valuable undomesticated fruit trees (Mathur and Vyas, 2000), little is known of the mycorrhizal status and responsiveness of inherently slow growing indigenous timber tree species such as Mansonia altissima

However, in tropical agriculture systems where most soils are fragile with low fertility, a major beneficial effect of AMF is their role in maintenance and improvement of soil structure by their external hyphae and the production of a special protein called the glomalin (Diedhiouet al 2003). The mechanisms involved are as follows, the growth of external hyphae into the soil to create a skeletal structure that holds soil particles together and the formation of a ‘sticky’ string bag of hyphae by the glomalin, which contributes to soil aggregate stabilization (Elsenet al 2003).

It is therefore necessary to carry out studies on the effect of drought stress and inoculation of arbuscular mycorrhiza and nutrient application on the seedling performance of Mansonia altissima in order to know its growth behaviour and ascertain the best way to establish them in plantations, extensively both as mixed and single species stands.  This will restore its pride of place in both local and international markets.

 

 

MATERIALS AND METHOD

 

Seeds of Mansonia altissima were sown directly into poly pots filled with top soil collected from Forestry Research Institute of Nigeria arboretum. The mycorrhiza used was supplied by Agronomy Department, University of Ibadan. The inoculations were carried out according to the method of Carling et al., 1978, Fagbola et al., 2005and Kareem et al., 2012. Also N:P:K fertilizer were added. Three (3) seeds each were sown directly into the poly pot and were arranged in screen house of Forestry Research Institute of Nigeria. After germination, thinning was carried out to reduce the number of seedlings to one plant per poly pot. A 3 X 3 X 3factorial experiment was used for the study. The treatments were replicated five times. The factors were mycorrhiza, N:P:K fertilizer and water supply. While N:P:K fertilizer and water supply had three levels(N:P:K 0g, 1g, and 2g and the water supply was once in a week, twice in a week and every day(1/7, 4/7 and 7/7 respectively), mycorrhiza also had three levels (myco 0g,10g and 20g (Glomus deserticola). The seedlings were watered regularly for six weeks to allow proper establishment before the drought stress treatment commenced.

            Data were collected at two weeks intervals and the whole experiment terminated after 24 weeks. During the growth period, measurements of plant height and collar diameter were taken while leaf number was counted.

 

 

RESULT AND DISCUSSION

 

Effect of mycorrhiza on seedlings growth of M.altissima

 

            The mean seedlings height for mycorrhiza ranged between 15.51cm and 17.22cm.Seedlings without mycorrhiza (M1) had the highest and seedlings inoculated with 20g of mycorrhiza (M3) had the least value (Table 1). There were no significant differences in seedlings height between M2 and M3 with 15.86cmand 15.51cm respectively (Table 1).

 

The mean seedling diameter ranged from 3.26mm to 3.63mmwith the highest mean observed for seedlings under 0g mycorrhiza (M1) while the least collar diameter was observed from M2 which is 10g (Table 1)

            The leaf production increased with increase in age of the seedlings, mean leaf production in seedlings inoculated with mycorrhiza was 8 which indicates that there were no significant differences among the three levels of mycorrhiza used (p>0.05) (Table 1 ).


 

Table 1: Effect of Mycorrhiza on the growth of M. altissima Seedlings

Mycorrhiza

Height

Collar Diameter

Leaf Production

M1

17.22 ±2.62a

3.63 ±0.63a

8 ± 1.42a

M2

15.86 ±3.05b

3.26 ±0.54b

8 ±1.04a

M3

15.51 ±3.16b

3.25 ±0.44b

8 ±1.16a

Sig.

0.00

0.00

0.14

 

 

 

 

*significant at (p≤0.05)ns- not significant (p>0.05)

 


 

Effect of Fertilizers on the growth of M. altissima  Seedlings

 

 Table 2 shows that seedlings treated to 1g of NPK(F2) had the highest mean value of 17.34cm and seedlings without fertilizer(F1) had the least value of 14.80cm.

Result shows that seedlings treated to 1g of NPK (F2) had the highest mean value of 3.63mm while those without fertilizer application (F1) had the least value of 3.02mm (Table 2). It also reveals that value of collar diameter were significantly different among the three levels of fertilizer used (p< 0.05)

            The leaf number increased with increase in age of the seedlings. Leaf production ranged between 7 and 8 with seedlings treated to 1g and 2g of NPK respectively. It also revealed that F2 and F3 are not significantly different from each other both having 8 leaves (Table 2). However, ANOVA for leaf production reveals that there were significant differences (P<0.05) in all the factors and interactions except for the interaction between mycorrhiza and watering regimes. (Appendix 1 ).


 

Table 2:  Effect of Fertilizers on the growth of M. altissima Seedlings

Fertilizers

Height(cm)

Collar Diameter(mm)

NumberofLeaves

F1

14.80 ±2.47c

3.02 ±0.42c

7 ±0.79b

F2

17.34 ±2.86a

3.63 ±0.62a

8 ±1.34a

F3

16.46 ±3.05b

3.50± 0.45b

8 ±1.23a

Sig.

0.00

0.00

0.00

*significant at (p≤0.05)ns- not significant (p>0.05)

 


 

Effect of watering regimes on the growth of M. altissima Seedlings

 

Seedlings watered daily to pot capacity (W3) had the highest mean value of 16.99cm and seedlings watered every other day to pot capacity(W2) had the least value of 15.08cm among the watering regimes (Table 3).

Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) reveals that there were significant differences (P<0.05) in the seedling height in watering regime and also among the interaction between mycorrhiza and fertilizer, fertilizer and watering regime and between the three factors. (Appendix 1).

 Seedlings watered daily to pot capacity(W3) had the highest mean value of 3.52mm while those watered three times a week(W2) had the least value of 3.24mm (Table 3).

However, ANOVA for collar diameter revealed that there were significant differences at (P<0.05) among the mycorrhiza, fertilizer, watering regime and the interaction between fertilizer and watering regime, and with all the three factors. (Appendix 1)

Mean separation result for leaves production showed that it was the same number of leaf production for seedlings watered once a week (W1) and those watered daily ( W3) had 8 number of leaves while seedlings watered three times a week(W2) had 7 leaves (Table 3).


 

Table 3:  Effect of Watering Regimes on the growth of M. altissima Seedlings

Watering Regimes

Height(cm)

Collar Diameter

Leaf Production

W1

16.52± 3.03a

3.39± 0.40b

8.21± 1.04a

W2

15.08± 3.66b

3.24± 0.64c

7.57± 1.38b

W3

16.99±  3.35a

3.52± 0.61a

8.12± 1.22a

LSD Value

8.33

0.19

0.94

Sig.

0.00

0.03

0.00

*significant at (p≤0.05)ns- not significant (p>0.05)

 

 


Interaction effect of Mycorrhiza, Fertilizers and Watering Regimes on the Growth of M. altissima Seedlings

 

On interaction between the three factors, it was revealed that seedlings without mycorrhiza treated with 1g of NPK and trice watering in a week at pot capacity(M1F2W2) had the highest mean height value of 20.95cm and the least value was observed under seedling without mycorrhiza, fertilizer and trice watering in a week at pot capacity(M1F1W2) with 12.09cm  (Table 4).

Interaction of mycorrhiza, fertilizer and watering regimes revealed that the highest mean collar diameter of 4.39mm was observed for seedlings without mycorrhiza treated to 1g of NPK and trice a week watering at pot capacity (M1F2W2) while the least value of 2.82mm was recorded in seedlings without mycorrhiza, without fertilizer and trice watering a week at pot capacity M1F1W2 (Table 4).


 

 

Table 4: Mean Separation for the Interaction effect of Mycorrhiza, Fertilizers and Watering Regimes on the Growth of M. altissima Seedlings.

M * F * W

Height

Collar Diameter

Number of leaves

M1F1W1

16.42 ±2.14cd

3.52 ±0.33b

8 ±0.77c

M1F1W2

12.09 ±3.65a

2.82 ±0.35a

7 ±0.90b

M1F1W3

14.87 ±1.61bc

3.17 ±0.47ab

7 ±0.70b

M1F2W1

16.87 ±4.12d

3.61± 0.58b

8 ±1.44c

M1F2W2

20.95 ±2.38f

4.39 ±0.57c

10 ±1.39e

M1F2W3

20.21 ±4.43f

3.97 ±0.69b

9 ±1.31d

M1F3W1

18.93 ±2.73e

3.72 ±0.37b

9 ±0.98d

M1F3W2

15.90 ±2.71c

3.47 ±0.50ab

8 ±1.54c

M1F3W3

18.72 ±1.01e

4.01 ±0.22bc

9 ±0.82d

M2F1W1

14.83 ±1.74bc

3.04 ±0.31ab

7 ±0.62b

M2F1W2

13.93 ±2.20b

2.70± 0.48a

7 ±0.76b

M2F1W3

15.80 ±2.07c

3.00± 0.54a

7 ±0.91b

M2F2W1

16.99 ±3.41d

3.37 ±0.36ab

8 ±0.48c

M2F2W2

16.02 ±4.24cd

3.37 ±0.58ab

8 ±1.50c

M2F2W3

17.22 ±3.49d

3.65 ±0.66b

8 ±0.75c

M2F3W1

18.19 ±2.06de

3.53 ±0.31b

9 ±0.57d

M2F3W2

15.30± 1.99c

3.26 ±0.26ab

8 ±0.82c

M2F3W3

14.47 ±3.49b

3.46 ±0.64ab

8 ±1.53c

M3F1W1

14.28 ±1.69b

3.03 ±0.0.25ab

7 ±0.71b

M3F1W2

14.33 ±1.70b

2.89 ±0.18a

7 ±0.48b

M3F1W3

16.64 ±2.13d

3.00 ±0.30a

8 ±0.83c

M3F2W1

16.15 ±3.42c

3.44 ±0.28ab

9 ±1.01d

M3F2W2

12.86 ±3.42a

3.03 ±0.42ab

6 ±0.40a

M3F2W3

18.74 ±3.10e

3.84 ±0.40b

9 ±0.61d

M3F3W1

16.01 ±3.08c

3.22 ±0.17ab

8 ±0.91c

M3F3W2

14.31 ±2.56b

3.25 ±0.48ab

7 ±1.51b

M3F3W3

16.30 ±3.53cd

3.57 ±0.44b

7± 0.68b

Means with same superscript in each column are not significantly different from each other (p>0.05)

 

 


Arbuscular mycorrhiza are obligate biotrophs and the symbiosis formed between the host plant and fungal partner is normally mutualistic (Smith and Read, 2008). However, evidences suggest that the symbiosis can range from parasitic to mutualistic depending on the host plant and Arbuscular Mycorrhiza (A.M) fungal species involved (Kilronmos, 2003); soil physical, chemical and other associated characteristics as well as environmental conditions (Diop et al., 1994, Loth 1996, Weber and Claus 2000). Hence, an attempt to specifically understand the contribution of introduced AMF in a controlled environment before the prevailing conditions in the field is important. Mycorrhiza inoculation can have positive effect (Michelsen and Rosendahl 1990, Osonubi et al., 1991, Noydet al., 1995, Fagbola et al., 2005 and Kareem et al., 2012); negative effect (Hetricket al., 1990, Taylor and Harrier  ( 2000) or non-significant (Manjunath and Habte, 1988) effects on the growth of plants.

            In this study, inoculation of M. altissima with G. deserticola had no significant effect on the growth variables assessed, which is in line with findings of (Manjunath and Habte, 1990), this contradiction maybe due to lower physiological compatibility of G. deserticola with Mansonia altissima since variability in compatibility has been reported for various A.M symbiosis (Krishma et al., 1985, Rajapakse and Miller 1987, Raoet al., 1990 and Mercy et al.,1990).

            The application of N.P.K fertilizer significantly increased the plant height, collar diameter and number of leaves in seedlings of Mansonia altissima. This might be due to the fact that Nitrogen is a major nutritional element required for tissue differentiation and its role in increasing plant growth and development which are well documented by various researchers (Shedeed et al., 1986, Aziz, 2007). Like Nitrogen, Phosphorus is an essential constituent of the genetic material and augments cell division (Aziz, 2007). The study clearly demonstrates the nutritional importance of N.P.K supply to M. altissima seedlings for better growth and development and the results revealed application of N.P.K 1g/seedling to be beneficial and therefore enhanced seedlings performance under tropical agroclimatic condition. The optimum level of fertilizer requirement for a tree species like M. altissima is dynamic and changes with the age of plant. Therefore, the fertilizer requirement studies need further long term evaluation for different agro-ecological regions.

            Water is a significant factor in tree growth and development in the tropics (Awodola and Nwoboshi, 1993). Water is required by plants to manufacture carbohydrate and as a means for transportation of food and mineral elements. Various vital processes in plants such as cell division, cell elongation stem as well as leaf enlargement and chlorophyII formation depends on plant water availability (Price et al., 1986). The knowledge of the response of the seedling under conditions of restricted moisture may provide an indication of its response to increased water stress. Also, the evaluation of the morphological and physiological growth of plants at period of restricted moisture is useful for the isolation of plants with seedling characteristics acceptable for afforestation in drought prone environments.

            The finding from this study revealed that watering regimes applied to the seedlings of M. altissima had significant effect on the seedling height, collar diameter and leaf production.  The highest value for seedling height, collar diameter and leaf production were observed in seedlings watered everyday to pot capacity. This is in agreement with the previous studies (Akinyele, 2007 and Ogunwande, 2014).The interaction effect of fertilizer and watering regimes had significant effect on the growth parameters assessed.

 

 

CONCLUSION

 

Interaction between mycorrhiza, fertilizer and moisture supply resulted in enhancement of growth and development of Mansonia altissima seedlings indicating that arbuscular mycorrhiza was not parasitic, However fertilizer was found to exert more influence than mycorrhizain respect of morphological characteristics of M. altissima seedlings.

 

 

REFERENCES

 

Akinyele, A. O. 2007. Silvicultural requirements of seedlings of Buchholzia coriacea Engl. Ph.D thesis submitted to the Forest Resources Management, University of Ibadan. pp. 179.

Awodola, A. M., and Nwoboshi, L. C. 1993.Effect of source of potassium and frequency of moisture application on growth and macronutrient distribution in seedlings of Parkiabiglobosa (R. Br.ex.G.Don). Nigeria Journal of Forestry, 23 (2) 98- 108.

Aziz, N. G. A (2007), Stimulatory effect of NPK fertilizer and benzyladenine on growth and chemical constituents of Cordiaeum variegatum L. Plant.American. Evasion J. Agric and Environ Sci2 (6): 711-719.

Barea, J. M., Azcom–Aguilare, C. and Azcon, R. 1997.Physiological and nutritional response by Latuca sativa L.to nitrogen sources and Mycorrhiza fungi under drought condition. Boil fsertil soils 22:156: 161.

Carling D.E Riehle W.G, Broom M.F and Johnson D.R. 1998. Effect or a vesicular – arbuscular mycohhiza fungus on nitrogen reduyctase and nitrogen activities in modulating and non-modulating soybeans.phytopathol68:1590-1596.

Diedhiou P.M. Hallman J and Oerke E.C. 2003.Effects of arbuscular Mycorrhizal fungi and a non-pathogenic Fusarium oxysporumon Meloidogyne incognita infestation of tomato.Mycorrhiza13: 199-204. 172

Diop, T.A, Gueye M, Dreyfus BL, Plenchatte C, Strullu D.G. 1994. Indigenous arbuscular Mycorrhiza fungi associated with Acadaalbida. In different areas of Senegal.Appl Emiron microbial 60: 3433-3436.

Elsen, A. Beeterens, R., Swennen, R. and De Waele D. 2003. Effects of an arbuscular Mycorrhizal fungus and two plant-parasitic nematodes on Musa genotypes differing in root morphology. Biology and fertility of Soils 38:367-376.

Fagbola, O., Oyetunji, O.J, Osonubi, O and Mulongoy, K. 2005. Greenhouse evaluation of two woody hedgerows as affected by arbuscular mycorrhiza fungus (AMF), soil quality and moisture. Journal of Archives of Agronomy and soil science Vol 51 No3 pp 335-349.

Garbaye, J. 1994. Helper bacteria: A new dimension to the mycorrhiza symbiosis. New Phytol128:179 – 210.

Hetrick, B.A.D, Wilson, G.T, Todd, T.C. 1990. Differential responses of C3 and C4 grasses to mycorrhiza symbiosis, phosphorus fertilization and soil micro-organism Can J Bot 68:461-467.

Kareem, A.A., Akinyele, A.O., Adio, A.F., and Iroko, O.A., 2012. Preliminary Investigation of the effect of Arbuscular mycorrhiza and water stress on Afzelia africana (Smith) in different soil Media, Journal of Sustainable Environment Management Vol 4: 56 – 62.

Krishma, K.R. Shetty, K.G. Daft, P.J and Andres, D.J. 1985. Genotype dependent variation in mycorrhiza colonization and respond to inoculation of pearl millet. Plant Soil 86. 113-125

Loth, C. 1996. Abundance of arbuscular mycorrhiza fungi spores at different native sites in dependence of sludge applications Bodenkultur 4:89-96.

Manjunath, A. and Habte, M. 1988. Development of vesicular arbuscular mycorrhiza infection and the uptake of immobile nutrients in Leucaenaleucocephala. Plant Soil 106: 97-103. Manjunath, A., and Habte, M.1990 Establishment of soil solution phosphorus for studies involving vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhiza symbiosis. Commum. soil. sci. plant Anal.21: 556 – 557. 177.

Mathur, M. and Vyas, A. 2000. Influence of arbuscular mycorrhiza on biomass production, nutrient uptake and physiological changes in Ziziphus mauritiana Lam. under water stress. J. Arid Environs, 45,191-195

Mercy, M.A, Shivashankar, G. Bagyaraj, D.J. 1990.Mycorrhiza colonization in cowpea is host dependent and heritable. Plant Soil 121:292-294.

Michelsen, A. Rosendahl, S. 1990. The effect of Vesicular arbuscular mycorrhiza fungi, phosphorus and drought stress on the growth of Acacia nilotica and Leucaena leucocephala seedlings. Plant Soil 124: 127-134

Ogunwande, O.A 2014. A PhD Thesis submitted to Department of Forest Resources Management, University of Ibadan, Nigeria. Pp178.

Osonubi, O. Mulongoy, K. Awotoye, O.O. Atayese, M.O. and Okali, D.U.U. 1991. Effects of ectomycorrhiza and vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhiza fungi on drought tolerance of four leguminous woody seedlings. Plant Soil 136:131-142.

Price, D.T., Black, T.A. and Kelliher, F.M (1986).Effects of salaunderstorey Removal on photosynthesis rate and stomata conductance of young Douglas-Fir Trees Canadian Journal of Forest Resources. 16: 90 – 97.

Rajapakse, S. and Miller J.C. 1987.Intraspecific variability for V.A mycorrhiza sysbiosis in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L Walp.). In: Gabelman W.H. Loughman B.C (eds) Genetic aspects of plant mineral nutrition. Nijhoff. Dordrechi. Pp 523-536.

Rao, P.S.K, Tilak, K.V.B.R. and Arunachalam, V. 1990. Genetic variation for V.A mycorrhiza formation and root development in Medicago.in Smith J.H. Russel RS (eds) The soil root interface Academic Press London. PP 211-219.

Shedeed M. R., Hashim M.E., Hagag A.A 1986. Effect of different fertilization treatment on the growth of Ficus elastic Var. decora plant.Annl Agric. Sci. zl: 717 – 725.

Smith, S. E and Read, D. J. 2008.MycorrhizaSysbiosis, 3rd edn.Academic Press, London, UK. pp156.

 

Taylor, J. and Harrier, L. 2000. A comparison of nine species of arbuscular Mycorrhiza fungi on the development and nutrition of micro propagated Rubusidaeus L pp 240.

Weber, G. and Claus, M. 2002. The influence of chemical soil factor on the development of V.A mycorrhiza of ash (Fraxinos excelsior) and sycamore (Acer pseudoplatamus) in pot experiment, J plt nutri soil science 163:609-616.


 

 

Appendix 1:ANOVA for the Effect of MFW on the growth of M. altissima Seedlings

Variable

SV

Df

SS

MS

F

Sig.

Height (cm)

M

2

145.76

72.88

8.75

0.00*

F

2

298.74

149.37

17.94

0.00*

W

2

179.52

89.76

10.78

0.00*

M * F

4

142.03

35.51

4.26

0.00*

M * W

4

71.50

17.87

2.15

0.08ns

F * W

4

90.74

22.69

2.72

0.03*

M* F * W

8

241.12

30.14

3.62

0.00*

Error

243

2023.37

8.33

Total

269

3192.78

Collar Diameter (mm)

M

2

8.40

4.20

21.98

0.00*

F

2

18.83

9.41

49.29

0.00*

W

2

3.40

1.70

8.90

0.00*

M * F

4

1.10

0.28

1.45

0.22ns

M * W

4

0.66

0.16

0.86

0.49ns

F * W

4

2.73

0.68

3.57

0.01*

M* F * W

8

5.91

0.74

3.87

0.00*

Error

243

46.41

0.19

Total

269

87.43

Leaf Production

M

2

21.80

10.90

11.65

0.00*

F

2

68.99

34.50

36.87

0.00*

W

2

21.28

10.64

11.37

0.00*

M * F

4

12.14

3.03

3.24

0.01*

M * W

4

5.70

1.43

1.52

0.20ns

F * W

4

12.15

3.04

3.25

0.01*

M* F * W

8

49.26

6.16

6.58

0.00*

Error

243

227.34

0.94

 

Total

269

418.65

 

 

 

*significant at (p≤0.05)ns- not significant (p>0.05)

 

 

 

Cite this Article: Kareem AA; Adio AF (2019). Effect of Mycorrhiza, Fertilizer and Watering Regime on the Growth and Development of Mansonia altissima A CHEV. Seedlings. Greener Journal of Agricultural Sciences 9(2): 215-221, http://doi.org/10.15580/GJAS.2019.2.042819081.