Greener Journal of Agricultural Sciences

Vol. 9(1), pp. 1-6, 2019

ISSN: 2276-7770

Copyright ©2019, the copyright of this article is retained by the author(s)

DOI Link: http://doi.org/10.15580/GJAS.2019.1.122718184

http://gjournals.org/GJAS

 

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Performance and Yield Advantages of Experimental Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) Varieties over the Standard Checks in North-Western Ethiopia

 

 

Kedir Wulchafo Hussen1*, Bedada Girma2 and Gudeta Nepir3

 

1Ethiopian Institute of Agricultural Research, Assosa Agric. Research Center, Assosa, Ethiopia

2Ethiopian Institute of Agricultural Research, Kulumsa Agric. Research Center, Kulumsa, Ethiopia

3Ambo University, e-mail: gudetangt@ gmail.c om, P.O. Box 552; Ambo, Ethiopia

 

 

 

 

 

ARTICLE INFO

ABSTRACT

 

Article No.: 122718184

Type: Research

DOI: 10.15580/GJAS.2019.1.122718184

 

 

Twelve advanced upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) experimental lines and two check varieties were evaluated for ten phonological and agronomic traits at Kamashi, Benishangul-Gumuz Regional State during the 2017/18 main cropping season. The objective of the study was to assess performance of the experimental cotton varieties for seed cotton and lint yield. The varieties differed significantly for most of the traits with wide ranging mean values for most of the characters thus indicating the existence of variations among the tested lines and for possibility of immediate commercial utilization and for improvements in future cotton breeding programs.

 

Submitted: 27/12/2018

Accepted:  11/01/2019

Published: 31/01/2019

 

*Corresponding Author

Kebir Wulchafo

E-mail: kedir.wulchafo@ gmail.com

Phone: +251910716747

 

Keywords: Variability, traits, heritability, upland cotton, Gossypium

 

 

 

 

 

                       

 


INTRODUCTION

 

Cotton (Gossypium spp.), known as white gold and king of fiber crops, is one of the most important commercial cash and industrial crops in the world. Cotton is among the first crops in which the rediscovered Mendelian principles were applied (Balls, 1907). Cotton has a predominant status among all the commercial crops providing cotton fiber for the textile industry. It is also valued for the protein and oil portion of the seed.  The protein portion of the seed is mainly utilized for cattle feed while the oil portion is utilized as a vegetable oil for the food industry and industrial usage like lubricants. Despite severe competition from the synthetic fiber industry in recent years, cotton is still holding its commercial value as an important natural fiber crop in the textile industry (Alkuddsi et al., 2013). Cotton is primarily used in textile industries providing employment opportunity during production, processing, spinning, weaving and marketing throughout the world (Alkuddsi et al., 2013).

Cotton mainly possesses four species of the genus Gossypium (Malvaceae), namely G. hirsutum L., G. barbadense L., G. arboretum L., and G. herbaceum L. These were domesticated independently as source of textile fiber (Brubaker et al., 1999). Nowadays, G. hirsutum and G. barbadense are the major cultivated cotton species, with G. hirsutum accounting for 90% of world production (Jenkins, 2003). G. barbadense represents approximately 5% of world fiber production and is cultivated primarily in Egypt, Peru, Sudan, USA and parts of the former Soviet Union (Wu et al., 2005). G. arboreum is mainly grown in India whereas G. herbaceum is grown in the drier regions of Africa and Asia (Jenkins, 2003). 

In Ethiopia, Upland cotton is the only species grown by small and large scale producers. Cotton is a unique and important industrial crop and no other crop in Ethiopia can compete with cotton’s potential for forward linkages with the industrial and service sectors (MOI, 2015). Ethiopia possesses three million hectares of land suitable for growing cotton on an area that equals the cotton land in Pakistan, the world’s 4th largest producer. Although Ethiopia has a great potential for cotton production, it only uses 111, 886 hectares, which is 3% of the total land available for cotton and produces about 80,000 metric tons annually (MOI, 2015). The national average seed cotton yield in Ethiopia is low ranging from 2.0-3.0 ton/ha and 0.7-1.4 ton/ha for irrigated and rain fed conditions, respectively (Arkebe et al., 2014). The cause for low productivity and production of cotton in Ethiopia include insects pests especially white fly, aphids and the bollworm complex; lack of suitable varieties, poor management practices and poor marketing system.

Demand is rising because the annual spinning capacity of the industry increased from 25,000 to 111,000 tons of lint (ICAC, 2014). Currently, Ethiopia has about 14 textile factories and 50 medium-to-large garment manufacturers. There is a relatively better flow in the textile and garment sector; especially many Turkish textile firms are relocating to Ethiopia. Therefore, developing improved varieties is one of the measures to alleviate these constraints. In this regard, studying per se performance for the characters of interest is the primary precondition that breeders look into for the development of new varieties (Scossiroli et al., 1963).

So far no studies on per se performance of different cotton traits contributing to yield parameters have been carried out in the Beneshangul-Gumuz Regional State in Ethiopia.  Therefore, presence of adequate information on per se performance enables identification and release of promising cotton varieties. Thus, main objective of this study was to assess per se performances of experimental cotton varieties for seed cotton yield.

 

 

MATERIALS AND METHODS

 

Description of the Study Area

 

The experiment was conducted at Assosa Agricultural Research Center’s (AsARC) sub-testing site in Kamashi woreda (district) in Benishangul Gumuz Regional State in the western part of Ethiopia during the main cropping season of 2017/18. Kamashi woreda is one of main cotton cultivating areas in Benishangul-Gumuze. The Kamashi sub-center of AsARC is located 250 km east of Assosa town and 560 km west of Addis Ababa with an altitude of 1247 meter above sea level and found at 0931.172' N latitude, and at 0350 35.488' E longitude. Kamashi woreda has a unimodal rainfall pattern, which starts at the end of April and extends to mid-November. The major soil type of Kamashi is Nitosol with a dark reddish brown color (AsARC Report, 2011). And also, its optimum temperature range is 28 to 32C.

 

Experimental Materials and Design

 

In this study, a total of 14 genotypes including 12 elite genotypes and two check varieties were evaluated at Kamashi (Table 1). These genotypes were obtained from Werer Agricultural Research Center (WARC) which is a center of excellence for cotton research in the irrigated areas. The genotypes were organized in a randomized complete block design with three replications.  Five rows of 5 m length were used for each plot. Inter-row and intra-row spacing of 90 cm and 20 cm, respectively, were used to make up plot sizes of  22.5 m2 (5 rows x 5 m x 0.9 m) each. This translates to a population of about 55,000 plants on a per hectare basis.


Table 1. Twelve experimental cotton lines and 2 standard checks used in the study.

Entry number

Codes

Pedigree/Designation

Selection number

 1

WARC-1

HTO#052 x Deltapine 90

21-7

 2

WARC-2

Cucurova1518 x LG-450

35-4

 3

WARC-3

Deltapine 90 x Cucurova1518

37-7

 4

WARC-4

Deltapine 90 x Stam-59A

38-8

 5

WARC-5

Del Cero x GL-7

8-2

 6

WARC-6

ISA 205H  x Stam-59A

11-4

7

WARC-7

ISA 205H  x Beyazealtin/5

16-2

8

WARC-8

HS-46 x Stoneville 453

19-2

9

WARC-9

HS-46 x Stoneville 453

19-8

10

WARC-10

Stam-59 A x Cucurova 1518

30-2

11

WARC-11

Stam-59 A x Cucurova 1518

30-6

12

WARC-12

Stam-59A x Europa-5

-

13

(Check-1)

Deltapine 90 (na+)

-

14

 (Check-2)

Stam-59A (na+)

-

na+= Pedigree not available

 


Management Practices

 

All recommended agronomic practices which included land preparation to harvesting were followed as per the recommendations from research. Planting was carried out in early June with the onset of rains. Di-ammonium phosphate (DAP) and urea fertilizers were applied at the recommended rate, each at 100 kg per hectare. Whole DAP was applied at sowing while urea was applied in splits, 2/3 at sowing and 1/3 at initial flowering stage. To control grass and broad leaf weeds, two hand weeding were performed at critical stages of crop development. The first hand weeding was carried out 35 days after seedling emergence whereas the second weeding was performed 65 days after emergence or 30 days after the first weeding.

 

Performance measurement and statistical analyses:

 

Data were measured and recorded on days to 50% flowering, days to 65% boll opening, plant height, monopodia branches per plant, sympodial branches per plant, boll number per plant, boll weight, seed cotton yield, lint yield and lint percentage. All the data were subjected to analysis of variance (Fisher, 1958). Means for each trait were further separated and compared by using Duncan’s multiple range (DMRT) test at 5% level of probability.

 

 

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

 

The analysis of variance results for the ten traits studied are given in Tables 2. Highly significant (P<0.01) differences among genotypes were observed at Kamashi testing site for days to 50% flowering, days to 65% boll opening, plant height, number of monopodial branches per plant, number of sympodial or fruiting branches per plant, number of bolls per plant, for average boll weight, seed cotton yield, lint yield, and lint percentage or ginning outturn (GOT).


 

 

Table 2. Analysis of variance (mean square) for 10 traits of 14 experimental cotton varieties.

Traits

Replication

Genotypes

Error

CV

Days to 50% flowering

1.50ns

18.35**

1.60

1.42

Days to 65% boll opening

141.07*

111.53**

37.56

3.72

Plant height

2483.62**

1545.68**

291.53

12.79

Number of monopodial branches/plant

0.74ns

3.91**

0.45

7.66

Number of sympodial branches/plant

0.57ns

2.65**

0.32

6.60

Number of bolls per plant

1.87ns

6.48**

0.81

4.05

Boll weight in grams

0.21ns

0.22**

0.08

7.82

Seed cotton yield in kg per ha

235570.91ns

332418.31**

96973.04

14.11

Lint yield in kg per ha

45356.15ns

56175.97**

17464.58

14.45

Lint percentage or Ginning out turn

6.60**

7.93**

0.89

2.27

*, ** Indicate significance at the 0.05 and 0.01 levels, respectively; ns=non-significant;

 


Mean Performances of Experimental Cotton varieties

 

Range and mean values for 10 characters of 14 cotton genotypes evaluated at Kamashi testing site in 2017-18 cropping season are presented in Tables 3. Regarding phenological characters, days to 50% flowering ranged from 82.67 to 93.00 days while days to 65% boll opening ranged from 145 to 167 days. Shorter number of days to flower setting and boll opening indicated earliness of certain tested lines. The early flowering entry was the check Deltapinee-90 with 82.7 days from emergence followed by WARC-4 with 88.3 days. The late flowering lines were WARC-5 and WARC-1 with 93.0 and 92.7 days, respectively. The remaining entries were intermediate and ranged from 90.0 to 91.3 days. Deltapine-90 was also the early boll opener at 145 days and WARC-12 was the latest at 165.7 days after emergence (Table4). Ali and Khan (2003) have also reported that the number of days taken to flowering is considered as an important determinant of earliness. Iqbal and Jabbar, (2011) also found positive linkage between first flower formation and earliness. Hence, delay in flowering is a sign of late maturity which may be okay in non-moisture stress areas. Plant height ranged from 99.60 cm to 186.53 cm with the mean value of 133.48 and indicated a wide range of variability. Variations of genotypes for other traits are demonstrated in Table 3 and Table 4.

 

Yield and Yield Components of Experimental Cotton Varieties

 

Seed cotton yield (SCY) ranged from 1601.20 to 2724.70 kg/ha with a mean value of 2207.20 kg/ha. The top yielders, as shown in Table 4, included WARC-4, WARC-8, WARC-3, WARC-9, WARC-11 and the check Deltapine-90 with 2724.9, 2583.7, 2564.9, 2433.1, 2353.1 and 2413.3 kg/ha, respectively. These entries with the exception of WARC-3 have satisfactory levels of lint percentages and could serve as good source for cotton variety improvement. Lint is a major and most important component of cotton production, and a vital raw material for the textile industry.

Boll number per plant (BNP) and boll weight (BWt) are important yield components that contributed to increased seed cotton (Table 4). Entries with higher boll number than the trial mean (3.62 g) included WARC-2, WARC-5, WARC-6, WARC-10 and the two checks Deltapine-90 and Stam-59A. These test entries also had ball weights larger than the mean with the exception of WARC-6 and Stam-59A (Table4). Larger number of bolls indicated the capacity of certain entries to retain more productive bolls under stress or otherwise.


 

 

 

Table 3. Minimum and maximum values, mean and standard error of mean (SE) for the 10 traits of 14 experimental cotton varieties evaluated at Kamashi testing site.

 

Traits

Min.

Value

Genotypes with

Min. value

Max. value

Genotype with

Max. value

Mean

SE

CV (%)

Days to 50% flowering

82.70

Deltapine-90

93.00

WARC-5

90.29

0.73

1.42

Days to 65% boll opening

145.00

Deltapine-90

167.33

Stam-59A

159.29

3.51

3.72

Plant height

99.60

Deltapine-90

186.53

Stam-59A

133.50

9.86

12.79

Number of monopodial branches per plant

6.21

WARC-2

10.22

WARC-3

8.76

0.39

7.66

Number of sympodial branches per plant

7.46

WARC-11

10.98

WARC-6

8.89

0.33

6.33

Number of bolls per plant

20.00

WARC-7

24.69

Deltapine-90

22.17

0.52

4.05

Boll weight, grams

2.95

Stam-59A

3.95

WARC-10

3.62

0.16

7.82

Seed cotton yield, kg/ha

1601.00

WARC-1

2725.00

WARC-4

2207.20

180

14.11

Lint yield, kg per ha

645.00

WARC-1

1140.00

WARC-4

914.45

76.3

14.45

Lint percentage or GOT

37.60

WARC-3

43.62

WARC-10

41.46

0.54

2.27

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Table 4. Performance of 14 experimental cotton varieties tested at Kamashi in 2017.

Cotton Genotypes

Mean morphological and agronomic values

D50F

D65BO

PHt

NMoB

NSyB

NBP

BWt

SCY

LY

L%

WARC-1

92.7ba

158.0bdac

103.6d

7.1ef

8.8ced

21.6dce

3.75dac

1601.2e

644.6d

40.26ed

WARC-2

90.7bc

161.3bdac

120.7cd

6.2fa

9.8b

24.2a

3.52dac

2202.2bc

917.4ba

41.66bdc

WARC-3

90.7bc

167.0a

142.3cb

10.2a

8.0fg

21.2dce

3.93ba

2564.9ba

965.4ba

37.64f

WARC-4

88.3d

156.7bdc

116.5cd

7.8ecd

9.0ebd

21.1dce

3.84bac

2724.9a

1139.5a

41.82bdc

WARC-5

93.0a

152.3de

119.1cd

7.7ed

8.8ebd

22.2bc

3.59dac

2017.5edc

856.9bcd

42.47bac

WARC-6

90.0dc

159.3bdac

144.3cb

9.6ba

11.0a

24.0a

3.33de

1668.1ed

686.0cd

41.13edc

WARC-7

91.0bac

160.7bdac

135.8cb

8.9bc

8.4egd

20.1e

3.61bdac

1958.5edc

844.4bcd

43.12ba

WARC-8

90.7b

154.7dec

134.5cb

8.6bcd

7.7g

20.7de

3.87bac

2583.7ba

1049.0ba

40.60ed

WARC-9

91.3bac

156.7bdc

155.0ba

9.5ba

8.9ebd

22.0dc

3.71dac

2433.1bac

1056.4ba

43.42a

WARC-10

90.0dc

162.3bdac

120.9ba

9.5ba

9.7cb

22.3bc

3.95a

2160.0bdc

942.2ba

43.62a

WARC-11

91.0bac

163.0bac

137.7cb

8.9bc

7.5g

20.4e

3.44dc

2353.1bac

1004.1ba

42.67bac

WARC-12

90.3dc

165.7dcdc

152.1b

9.5ba

8.2feg

22.0dc

3.74dac

2184.7bdc

869.5bc

39.80e

 Deltapine-90

82.7e

145.0e

99.6d

9.7ba

9.7cb

24.7a

3.47bdc

2413.3bac

976.2ba

40.45ed

 Stam-59A

91.7bac

167.3a

186.5a

9.4ba

9.3cbd

23.7ba

2.95e

2035.3edc

850.7bcd

41.80bdc

Trial mean

90.3

159.3

133.5

8.76

8.9

22.16

3.62

2207.20

914.44

41.46

CV (%)

1.42

3.85

12.79

7.66

6.33

4.05

7.82

14.11

14.45

2.27

LSD(0.05)

2.16

10.29

28.66

1.13

0.95

1.51

0.48

522.60

221.8

14.45

* Within columns, values having a letter in common are not significantly different at the 5% significance level.

D50F=Days to 50% flowering; D65BO=Days to 65% boll opening; PHt=Plant height; NMoB= Number of monopodial branches per plant; NSyB=Number of sympodial branches per plant; NBP=Number of bolls per plant; BWt=Boll weight in grams; SCY=Seed cotton yield in kg per ha; LY=Lint yield in kg per ha; L%=Lint percentage or GOT (Ginning out turn).

 

 


CONCLUSIONS

 

In this study, the analysis of variance showed significant differences among the tested experimental varieties for all phenological and agronomic traits. This indicated the existence of variability among the tested lines and for a chance to improve seed cotton yield and other desirable characters through adaptation testing and selection.

Ethiopia has great potential for cotton production both in the irrigated and rain-fed areas. But, demands for cotton lint by the textile industries have not been satisfied for a long time. Benshangul-Gumuz Regional State in western Ethiopia is one of the potential areas for cotton production. Testing of advanced cotton lines in this region has indicated the presence of climatic suitability and adaptability of potential cotton lines. Based on seed cotton yield performance at Kamashi Research Sub-Center of Assosa Agricultural Research Center, WARC-3, WARC-4, WARC-8, WARC-9 and WARC-11 can be further evaluated in more number of locations in the region and considered for release and production by farmers. Also, advanced lines with high lint percentages (≥ 43%) can be used in cotton breeding programs to enhance lint yields.

 

 

 

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

 

My special appreciation and deepest thanks go to Dr. Bedada Girma and to Dr. Gudeta Nepir for their encouragement, suggestions, guidance and overall assistance during my study period.

And I want to express my deepest gratitude and appreciation to EIAR for sponsoring my study through provision of research grant. My thanks also go to Werer Agricultural Research Center for providing me with seeds of cotton varieties for my research work. Finally there are no conflicts of competition of interest in this paper.

 

 

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Cite this Article: Kedir WH; Bedada G; Gudeta N (2019). Performance and Yield Advantages of Experimental Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) Varieties over the Standard Checks in North-Western Ethiopia. Greener Journal of Agricultural Sciences 9(1), 1-6, http://doi.org/10.15580/GJAS.2019.1.122718184