Greener Journal of Agricultural Sciences

Excellence and Timeliness

  
  

Change Language

Tibebu et al

Greener Journal of Agricultural Sciences

Vol. 8(10), pp. 286-293, 2018

ISSN: 2276-7770

Copyright ©2018, the copyright of this article is retained by the author(s)

DOI Link: http://doi.org/10.15580/GJAS.2018.10.101518048

http://gjournals.org/GJAS

 

 

 

Evaluation of Sensory Silage Quality, Chemical Composition and in vitro Digestibility of Tef (Eragrostis tef) Straw Inoculated with Effective Microorganisms (EM) at different Application Rates and Ensiled for different Durations

                                 

Tibebu, Manaye1*; Ashenafi, Mengistu2; Adugna, Tolera3; Geert, Geesink4

 

1Haramaya University, P.O Box 138, Dire Dawa, Ethiopia. E-mail: tibemanaye @gmail. com phone: +251 934835334 2Addis Ababa University, College of Veterinary Medicine, P.O Box 34, Bishoftu, Ethiopia.

E-mail: mengistuashenafi@ gmail. com; Mobile phone: +251 916821367

3Hawasa University, School of Animal and Range Sciences, College of Agriculture, P. O. Box 222, Hawassa, Ethiopia. E-mail: atolera @yahoo. com

411 Stewart Crescent , Armidale, NSW 2350, Australia. E-mail: ghgeesink @gmail. com; phone: +614 3942 3873

 

 

 

ARTICLE INFO

ABSTRACT

 

Article No.:101518048

Type: Research

DOI: 10.15580/GJAS.2018.10.101518048

 

Background: Ethiopian livestock production is suffering from feed scarcity and low quality. Enhancing the nutritive value of the available poor quality feed resources like tef straw (TS) is believed to improve feed quality and supply. However, there were no studies done on improvement of TS with the use of effective microorganisms (EM). Hence, the study was conducted with the objective of assessing the effect of application rate (AR) and duration of ensiling period (EP) of fermentation of tef straw (TS) with EM on silage sensory quality, dry matter (DM) and nutrient composition and in-vitro digestibility.

Methods: The experimental design was completely randomized design with three replications and two 3 x 3 factor (three (EM) application rates and three ensiling periods). The EM stock solution was used for one month after activation and dilution. The silage was made from TS soaked in water overnight, inoculated with EM and packed in plastic bags. At the end of ensiling period the bags were withdrawn and the silages were subjected to physical appraisals, pH measurement, chemical and in-vitro digestibility analysis.

Results: The physical appraisal of all the silages were nearly similar and of good quality types. However, the pH was statistically not affected by ensiling period and not sufficiently low. But, this was not reflected in the nutrient composition of the silage as the fermented TS ensiled for 21 days contained higher crude protein and organic matter. The same was true for in-vitro organic matter digestibility. EM application rate did not affect digestibility and nutrient composition except the ash and organic matter content.

Conclusion: cold water socked TS ensiled for 21 days inoculated with EM at a rate of 500mL/kg was found to have better nutritional quality than those ensiled for 14 and 28 days at rates of 250 and 750mL/kg application rates.

 

Submitted: 15/10/2018

Accepted:  10/11/2018

Published: 15/11/2018

 

*Corresponding Author

Tibebu Manaye

E-mail: tibemanaye@ gmail. com, yamlid@ yahoo. com

Phone: +251 934835334,

+251 911547911

 

Keywords: Effective micro organisms, In-vitro Digestibility, Fermented tef straw, Silage color, Silage odor Nutrient composition

 

 

 

Post-Publication Peer-review Rundown

View/get involved, click [Peer-review]


REFERENCES

 

Abdel-Aziz NA, Salem AZM, El-Adawy MM, Camacho LM, Kholif AE, Elghandour MMY and Borhami BE(2015). Biological treatments as a mean to improve feed utilization in agriculture animals-An overview. J. Integr. Agric, 14(3): 534–543.

 

Adugna T, Getnet A, Diriba G, Lemma G and Alemayehu M (2012). Major Feed Resources. In:Livestock feed resources in Ethiopia challenges, opportunities and the need for transformation.Abebe K. (copy Edr). Ethiopian Animal Feeds Industry Association. PP 5-36. Retrieved October 2018 from http://publication.eiar.gov.et:8080/xmlui/handle/123456789/433.

 

Alemayehu M, Gezahagn K, Fekede F and Getnet A (2017). Review on major feed resources in Ethiopia: conditions, challenges and opportunities. ARJASR,5(3):176-185. DOI: 10.14662/ARJASR2017.013. Retrieved August, 2018 fromhttps://www.researchgate.net/publication/321170371.

 

AOAC (1990). Official methods of analysis, fifth edition. AOAC (Association of Official Analytical Chemists) INC., Arlington, Virginia, U.S.A. p 1298.

 

Daniel T, Mengistu U, Gebeyehu G and Zemelak G (2016). Evaluation of chemical composition and in vitro dry matter digestibility of sorghum stover ensiled with urea and effective microorganisms (EM) in west Hararghe Zone, eastern Ethiopia. American-Eurasian J. Agric. & Environ. Sci., 16 (8): 1473-1483, DOI: 10.5829/idosi.aejaes.2016.16.8.105102.Retrieved May, 2018 https://www.idosi.org/aejaes/jaes16(8)16/10.pdf.

 

FAO (1999). Silage Making in the Tropics with Particular Emphasis on Smallholders. Proceedings of the FAO Electronic Conference on Tropical Silage September 1-15 December 1999, Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations, Rome, Italy.

 

Fekadu A (2007). Evaluation of ethanol production from intermediate cane molasses by yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). A thesis submitted to the school of graduate studies of Addis Ababa University, Ethiopiain partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Food Engineering. Retrieved October 2018 from http://etd.aau.edu.et/handle/123456789/8661?show=full.

 

Getu K, Tadessa D, Aemiro K, Getnet A. Mesfin D and Dereje F (2013). Evaluation of effective microbes (EM) as non-conventional feed supplement to lactating crossbred cows and barn malodor control under Ethiopian condition. JRA, 1(8):141-146. DOI: 10.12966/jra.11.02.2013. Retrieved May, 2018 from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/309858357

 

Higa T and Wididana GN (1991). The concept and theories of effective microorganisms. In: Proceedings of the first international conference on Kyusei Nature farming. 118-124. Retrieved March, 2018 fromhttp://infrc.or.jp/english/KNF_Data_Base_Web/PDF%20KNF%20Conf%20Data/C1-5-015.pdf.

 

Kaiser AG and Piltz JW (2003). Feed testing: assessing silage quality. In:TopFodder Successful Silage. Kaiser AG, Piltz JW, Burns HM and Grifths NW (Eds.), Dairy Research and Development Corporation and NSW Agriculture (Pubr.), Australia, ISBN 0 7347 1583 5. pp.318-319. Retrieved October, 2018 fromhttps://www.dpi.nsw.gov.au/agriculture/pastures-and.../silage/silage/successful-silage.

 

Kim JG, Ham JS, Li YW, Park HS, Huh CS and Park BC (2017). Development of a new lactic acid bacterial inoculant for fresh rice straw silage. Asian-Australas J Anim Sci 30 (7):950-956. Retrieved October 2018 from https://doi.org/10.5713/ajas.17.0287.

 

Kung LJR (2013). The effect of length of storage on the nutritive value and aerobic stability of silages. In: Luiz JPD, Castiliho and Gustavo LN (edrs). In: Proceedings of the III international symposium on forage quality and conservation. Held in Pracicaba, SP, Brazil, 2013. Retrieved April, 2018 fromhttp://www.isfqcbrazil.com.br/proceedings/2013/proceedings-of-the-iii-international-symposium-of-fprage-quality-and-conservation-51.pdf.

 

Lemma G and Endalew W (2017). Evaluation of milk production performance of lactating Fogera cows fed with urea and effective micro-organisms treated rice straw as basal diet. IJSRP,7 (1):1-6. DOI: 10.5958/2277-940X.2017.00001.8. Retrieved June, 2018 from https://ndpublisher.in/admin/issues/JARV7N1a.pdf.

 

Li J., Shen Y.and Cai Y(2010). Improvement of Fermentation Quality of Rice Straw Silage by Application of a Bacterial Inoculant and Glucose. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 23 (7): 901 – 906. Retrieved October 2018 from www.ajas.info/upload/pdf/23-117.pdf.

 

Mahesh MS and Mohini M (2013).Biological treatment of crop residues for ruminant feeding: A review. AJB, 12(27):4221-423. DOI: 10.5897/AJB2012.2940. Retrieved March, 2018 fromhttp://www.academicjournals.org/article/article1380733375.pdf.

 

Malede B and Takele A(2014).Livestock feed resources assessment, constraints and improvement strategies in Ethiopia. Middle East J Sci Res, 21(4): 616-622.Retrieved October 2018 fromhttps://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/9a05/f1272cd22074cb825db9a5cd256da7639d8a.pdf

 

McDonald P, Edwards A, Greenhalgh JFD, Morgan CA, Sinclair LA and Wilkinson RG (2010). Animal Nutrition (7th edn.). Pearson publishing press Ltd (Pubr.), p 299. Retrieved May, 2016 from http://gohardanehco.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/02/Animal-Nutrition.pdf.

 

Mekuanint G and Girma D (2017). Livestock feed resources, nutritional value and their implication on animal productivity in mixed farming system in Gasera and Ginnir Districts, Bale Zone, Ethiopia. IJLP, 8(2):12-23. DOI: 10.5897/IJLP2016.0297. Retrieved August 2018 from http://www.academicjournals.org/journal/IJLP/article-full-text-pdf/D096B1E62571.

 

Mulugeta A (2015).Evaluation of effective microbes (EM) treatment on chemical composition of crop residues and performance of crossbred dairy cows. MSc Thesis, Haramaya University. Retrieved May, 2018 from http://catalog.ihsn.org/index.php/citations/60308.

 

Oladosu Y, Rafii MY, Abdullah N., Magaji U., Hussin G., Ramli A. and Miah G. (2016). Fermentation Quality and Additives: A Case of Rice Straw Silage- Review Article. BioMed. Res. Inter. Hindawi Publishing Corporation. Retrieved October 2018 from http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/7985167.

 

Playne MJ and McDonald P (1996). The buffering constituents of herbage and of silage. J. Sci. Fd Agric, 17: 264-268. Retrieved May, 2018 fromhttps://doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.2740170609.

 

Samsudin AA, Masori MF and Ibrahim A (2013). The Effects of Effective Microorganisms (EM) on the Nutritive Values of Fungal-Treated Rice Straw. MJAS, 16(1): 97-105. Retrieved June, 2018 fromhttp://mjas.my/mjas-v2/rf/pages/journal/v16i1-10-Samsudin%20MJAS%2016(1)%202013.pdf.

 

Talaat NB, Ghoniem AE, Abdelhamid MT and Shawky BT (2015). Effective microorganisms improve growth performance, alter nutrients acquisition and induce compatible solutes accumulation in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) plants subjected to salinity stress. Plant Growth Regul, 75:281–295. Retrieved May, 2018 from https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10725-014-9952-6.

 

Tilley JMA and Terry RA (1963). A two-stage technique for the in vitro digestion of forage crops. J. Br. Grassl. Soc. 18: 104-111.

 

SAS (2002). JMP™, the Statistical Discovery Software™ Version 5, SAS (Statistical Analysis System), Institute Inc., Cary, NC, USA. ISBN 1-59047-070-2.

 

Van Soest PJ and Robertson JB (1985). Analysis of forages and fibrous foods. A laboratory manual for animal science. Cornell University, Ithaca, NY.

 

Van Soest PJ, Robertson JB and Lewis BA (1991).  Methods of dietary fibre and non-starch polysaccharides in relation to animal nutrition.  J Dairy Sci., 74: 3582-3592. Retrieved October, 2016 from https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0022030291785512.

 

Widjaja T, Anwar H, Prajitno DH and Pujiastuti L (2016). Effect of EM (Effective Microorganism) addition on the quality of methane production from rice straw.Int J Chemtech Res, 9(12): 520-528. Retrieved August, 2016 from http://www.sphinxsai.com/2016/ch_vol9_no12/1/(520-528)V9N12CT.pdf.

 

Wondmeneh E,Adey S and Tadelle D (2011). Effect of Effective Microorganisms on Growth Parameters and Serum Cholesterol Levels in Broilers. Afr. J. Agric. Res. 6(16): 3841 - 3846. Retrieved October 2018 fromhttp://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/7985167.

 

Yonatan K, Solomon D, Taye T and Yehenew G (2013). Effect of effective microorganism (EM) on the nutritive quality of coffee husk silage. IJSTR, 3(7). Retrieved January, 2016http://www.ijstr.org/final-print/july2014/Effect-Of-Effective-Microorganism-em-On-The-Nutritive-Quality-Of-Coffee-Husk-Silage.pdf.

 

Zhang M, Lv H, Tan Z, Li Y, Wang Y, Pang H, Li Z, Jiao Z and Jin Q(2016). Improving the fermentation quality of wheat straw silage stored at low temperature by psychrotrophic lactic acid bacteria. Animal Sci. J., doi:10.1111/asj.12632, Japanese Society of Animal Science. Retrieved October 2018 from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27229440.

 

Cite this Article: Tibebu, M; Ashenafi, M; Adugna, T; Geert, G (2018). Evaluation of Sensory Silage Quality, Chemical Composition and in vitro Digestibility of Tef (Eragrostis tef) Straw Inoculated with Effective Microorganisms (EM) at different Application Rates and Ensiled for different Durations. Greener Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 8(10), 286-293, http://doi.org/10.15580/GJAS.2018.10.101518048 

 

Call for Articles/Books/Thesis

Call for Scholarly Articles


Authors from around the world are invited to send scholary articles that suits the scope of this journal. The journal is currently open to submissions and will process and publish articles daily, immediately they are ready.


The journal is centered on quality and goes about its processes in a very timely fashion. Seasoned editors/reviewers will be consulted to review each article(s), profer quality evaluations and polish the articles with expertise before publication.


Use our quick submit button to submit or simply send your article(s) as an e-mail attachment to gjas@acad.gjournals.org or manuscripts.igj@gmail.com.


Call for Books


You are also invited to submit your books for online or print publication. We publish books related to all academic subject areas.    Submit as an e-mail attachment to books@acad.gjournals.org.




Search

Login Form

Other Journals


Newsletters


Sponsored