EnglishFrenchGermanItalianPortugueseRussianSpanish

 

GREENER JOURNAL OF BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES

 

             ISSN: 2276-7762                     ICV: 5.99

 

 

Submitted: 18/11/2016                             Accepted: 25/11/2016                            Published: 30/11/2016

 

 

Subject Area of Article: Mosquito Ecology

 

 

 

Research Article (DOI: http://doi.org/10.15580/GJBS.2016.5.111816206)

 

Field Studies on Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in the Western Coast of Saudi Arabia:  Influence of Temperature, pH and Salinity of the Breeding Water on Larval Abundance

 

Mostafa Ibrahim Hassan1, Hamdy Al Hossiny Al Ashry2,

Mohammed Shobrak3, Mohamed Amin Kenawy*4

 

1Prof. of Medical Entomology, Zoology Department, Faculty of Science (boys), Al-Azhar University, Nasr City, Cairo, Egypt.

2Sector manager of pest control project, TRAP Pest Control and Garden Maintenance Co. Ltd., Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

3Prof. of Animal Ecology, Biology Department, Science College, Taif University, Taif 21974, Saudi Arabia

4Prof. of Medical Entomology, Department of Entomology, Faculty of Science, Ain Shams University, Abbassia, Cairo 11566, Egypt

 

1Email: mostafa012@gmail.com; Mob: +2-01223840969, 2Email: ashryhamdy@yahoo.com; Mob: +966-599230180, 3E mail: shobrak@saudibird.org; Mob: +966-505721001,

4Email: mohamedkenawy330@gmail.com, Mob: +2-01223540005

 

*Corresponding Author’s Email: mohamedkenawy330@ gmail.com; Tel: +202- 24821096, Ext. 711,

Fax: +202- 22642123, Mob: +2- 01223540005

 

ABSTRACT 

 

The knowledge of the characteristics of the breeding habitats and the environmental factors affecting mosquito abundance can help in designing optimal vector control strategies, for this, mosquito larvae were biweekly surveyed for two years in six localities representing the western coast of Saudi Arabia. Temperature, pH and salinity of the breeding water were measured to examine the effect of such factors on larval density. Cx. quinquefasciatus, Cx. theileri, Cx. pipiens  and Cs. longiareolata  had wider temperature ranges (15 to 33 oC) than Cx. tritaeniorynchusSt. aegypti, An. multicolor, Cx. perexiguus, Cx. sitiens and  An. d’thali (17 to 33) and Cx. torrentium (26 oC). St. aegypti, Cx. pipiens, Cx. quinquefasciatus and Cs. longiareolata breed in either acidic or alkaline water (pH: 4.2 to 9.5) while the rest of species breed entirely in alkaline water (pH: 7.0 to 9.6). St. aegypti, Cx. tritaeniorynchus, Cx. quinquefasciatus, Cx. theileri and Cs. longiareolata had wider salinity ranges (154 to 1990 ppm) than the other species (611 to 1972 ppm), i.e., all species breed in fresh / brackish water. Multiple Regression analysis indicated that densities (No larvae / 10 dips): (1) of the tested species: Cx. pipiens, Cx. quinquefasciatus (P˂0.05), Cx. tritaeniorynchus (P˂0.01), Cx. theileri, Cx. sitiens, An. multicolor, St. aegypti and Cs. longiareolata were directly related to temperature (b = 0.32 to 6.15), (2) of Cx. pipiens, Cx. theileri, Cx. sitiensAn. multicolor and St. aegypti were indirectly related to pH (b = -0.13 to -74.57), while those of the other species  were directly related  to pH (b = 2.44 to 23.60) and (3) of Cx. quinquefasciatus, Cx. theileri and  St. aegypti were indirectly related to salinity (b = -0.002 to -0.017), while those of the other species    were directly related  to salinity (b = 0.002 to 0.074).

 

Keywords: Mosquito larvae, Breeding water temperature, ph, salinity, Saudi Arabia. 

 

 

INTRODUCTION

 

The Western part of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia “16° and 33° N, 34° and 56° E” (Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/KSA)  includes the west coast, north of Asir. It contains  a  mountain  chain  ( with  peaks rising to 3,000 meters, running south to north and decreasing gradually in elevation as it moves northward) and the coastal plain bordering the Red Sea. It also includes the most cosmopolitan city of Jeddah which is the main port for thousands of pilgrims as the first step on their trip to Holy Cities of Mecca (to the east) and Al Madinah (to the north).

            In the mountains above Mecca and Jeddah is the town of Taif. Its elevation gives it a climate far cooler and pleasanter than either Jeddah or Mecca and without the uncomfortable humidity of the former cities. The coastal area of the Western Region is notorious for its humidity, with summer temperatures rising to above 40oC. Three regions representing this part: (1) The Mecca Region (Makkah) “21°25′N 39°49′E”  is the most populous region in Saudi Arabia, (2) The Al Madinah Region “25°0′N 39°30” is located along the Red Sea coast. and (3) Tabouk (Tabuk) Region “28°0′N 37°0′E” is located along the north-west coast of the country, facing Egypt across the Red Sea.

Fifty three mosquito species belonging to 11 genera: Anopheles, Culex, Lutzia, Ochlerotatus, Stegomyia, Aedes , Aedimorphus, Fredwardsius, CulisetaUranotaenia and Orthopodomyia are indigenous in the Kingdom, of which 35 species: 14 Anopheles, 14 Culex, 2 Ochlerotatus and 1 species each of Lutzia, Stegomyia, Aedimorphus, Culiseta and  Uranotaenia are present in the western part of the Kingdom (AI Ali et al., 2008; Al Ghamdi et al., 2008; Alahmed et al., 2009; Kheir et al., 2010;  Al Ahmad et al., 2011; Khater et al., 2013; Alikhan et al., 2014; Mahyoub  et al.,  2015; Hassan et al., in prep).

Several mosquito species of the western part are implicated as vectors of diseases either in this part or in the other parts of the Kingdom:  Cx. pipiens may act as a potential vector of bancroftian filariasis (Omar, 1996) and a vector of West Nile Virus (Al-Ali et al., 2008). Cx. tritaeniorhynchus and Am. v. arabiensis are the main proven vectors of Rift Valley Fever virus (Jupp et al., 2002; Miller et al., 2002). Sindbis virus was isolated from Cx. univittatus (Cx. perexiguus) in the Eastern Region (Wills et al., 1985). Ae. aegypti (St. aegypti) is the primary vector of Dengue fever (El-Badry and Al-Ali, 2010). An. arabiensis, An. stephensi, An. sergentii and An. fluviatilis act as the malaria vectors (Daggy, 1959; Al- Seghayer et al., 1999; Abdoon and Alshahrani, 2003).

To control mosquitoes, a good knowledge and understanding of the relevant biology and ecology of the target species is of paramount importance (Seghal and Pillai, 1970; Gimnig et al., 2001). The knowledge of the ecological characteristics of the breeding habitats and the environmental factors affecting mosquito abundance can help in designing optimal vector control strategies (Overgaard et al., 2001). Moreover, understanding climatic factors (temperature, relative humidity and rainfall) influencing adults and larvae is the first step to control over mosquito vector distribution and abundance (Jemal and Al-Thukair, 2016).

Generally, mosquitoes breed in a wide range of habitats with different types of waters. The physical and chemical nature of the water probably determines the selection of the breeding sites (Seghal and Pillai, 1970). It was reported (Piyaratnea et al., 2005) that breeding water quality is an important determinant of whether female mosquitoes will lay their eggs, and whether the resulting immature stages will successfully complete their development to the adult stage.

There are no available studies on physical and chemical factors mainly temperature, pH and salinity relative to mosquito breeding in Saudi Arabia except that of  Al-Ahmed et al. (2010) who suggested that the salt content and pH have no significant effects on the larval distribution of different species in Najran and of Jemal and Al-Thukair (2016) who examined the relationship between larval / adult mosquito abundance and climatic factors (temperature, relative humidity and rainfall) in the Eastern Province. So that, this study was undertaken to examine  the ranges of temperature, pH and salinity of mosquito larval habitats and relation of such factors with the occurrence and abundance of a particular mosquito species in six localities representing the western coast of Saudi Arabia.

 

 

MATERIALS AND METHODS

 

The Study Area

 

The study was carried out in four sea ports (Jeddah: 21°32′36″N  39°10′22″E, Yanbu: 24°05′N 38°00′E, Duba: 27°20′57.3″N 35°41′46.2″E  and Haql: 29°17′N 34°56′E) and 2 cities (Taif: 21°26′N 40°21′E  and Mecca: 21°30′N 41°0′E) representing the 3 regions of the western part of the Kingdom namely Mecca, Al Madinah and Tabouk (Fig 1). In each locality, certain sites were selected for sampling mosquitoes. Each site was biweekly surveyed during the period from January 2013 to December 2014.

 

Fig. 1:  surveyed localities

 

 

Mosquito Sampling

 

The larvae were sampled in the water bodies by dipping using a plastic dipper, 125 mm in diameter with a 90 cm aluminum telescoping handle. Three samples of 10 dips (a survey unit, SU) per breeding site were taken. Collected larvae were placed in labeled plastic bags (Nasco whirl pack 4002 filline U.S.A) and transported to the laboratory in a picnic ice box containing cold water to prevent overheating. At the laboratory, 3rd and 4th larval instars were killed with hot water and preserved in labeled specimen tubes containing 70% ethyl alcohol to be ready for identification. Collected larvae were identified according to keys of Mattingly and Knight (1956) and Al Ahmad et al. (2011). Along with larval collection, the water temperature, pH and salinity (ppm) were measured in situ using pH/EC/TDS/Temperature meters (Model Hi 98130, Hanna instruments Co. USA).

 

Data Analysis

 

The compiled ranges of water temperature, pH and salinity of the different breeding habitats were calculated for each larval species in all studied localities. Multiple Regression analysis was used to examine the relation of larval density (No / SU) with the temperature, pH and salinity of the breeding water. The regression equations were in the form of Larval density= a + b1 temperature + b2 pH + b3 salinity where a = constant (intercept), b1-b3 are the slopes (regression coefficients). The slopes were tested for deviation from 0 by t-test. The PAST (PAleontological Statistics Version 2.08, Hammer et al., 2001) computerized software was used for statistical analysis.

 

              

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

 

Ranges of the Breeding Water Temperature, pH and Salinity

 

Mosquitoes breed in a wide range of habitats with different types of waters that are known to be specific for certain species. The prevailing physicochemical parameters in these habitats are important factors for survival and development of mosquitoes (Oyewole et al., 2009 )  and  probably  determine  the  selection  of  the  breeding  sites (Seghal and Pillai, 1970). Moreover, It was reported that the breeding water quality is an important determinant of whether female mosquito will lay their eggs, and whether the resulting immatures will successfully complete their development to the adult stage (Piyaratnea et al., 2005). Mosquito immatures are poikilothermic and therefore, their activity depends to a large extent on the temperature of the water they inhabit. Besides nutrition, temperature is the main factor that affects the development and growth of mosquito larvae (White, 1974). In general, an increase in water temperature will result in faster development of aquatic stages, but will decrease the size of the emerging adults (Bayoh and Lindsay, 2003), decrease larval  survival   and at higher temperatures fewer adults are produced due to increased mortality (Bayoh and Lindsay, 2004).

In the present study (Figure 2), Cx. quinquefasciatus (15 to 33 oC), Cx. theileri (15 to 31 oC), Cx .pipiens (15 to 29 oC) and Cs. longiareolata (15 to 29 oC) had wider temperature ranges than those for Cx tritaeniorynchus (17 to 31 oC),  St. aegypti (17 to 33 oC), An. multicolor (18 to 28 oC), Cx. perexiguus (20 to 26 oC), Cx. sitiens (22 to 33 oC) and    An. d’thali (28 to 33 oC). Cx. torrentium collected only from water had temperature of 26oC.  In general, a compiled temperature range of 15 to 33 oC (mean  24.0 oC) was observed for the eleven reported species altogether. More or less similar range of 16.4 to 27.7 oC was found suitable for production and survival of larvae (Culex, Aedes and Anopheles genera) in the Eastern Province, Saudi Arabia and in the summer season, the average temperature in this area became greater than 35 oC  which is unsuitable for larval growth (Jemal and Al-Thukair, 2016). Different temperature ranges were reported in several Egyptian Governorates such as 21 to 29 oC (Kenawy et al., 1998), 18 to 30 oC (Abdel-Hamid et al., 2009), 23 to 28 oC (Abdel-Hamid et al., 2011a), 22 to 28 oC (Abdel-Hamid et al., 2011c) and 17 to 30oC (Kenawy et al., 2013). Moreover, WHO (1975) stated that the average optimum temperature for development of most mosquito species is around 25-27°C.

 

 

Fig. 2: Ranges of the breeding water temperature for reported larval species in all study areas

 

 

MacGregor (1927) recorded acidophile and alkalinophile mosquito larval species. For the reported species, the observed pH ranges (Figure 3) indicate that St. aegypti (4.2 to 9.3),  Cx. pipiens (4.5 to 9.1), Cx. quinquefasciatus (5.0 to 9.5) and Cs. longiareolata (5.0 to 8.8) breed in either acidic or alkaline water (overall range: 4.2 to 9.5 ). The observed acidic to alkaline range is similar to 6.4-9.0 observed by Gad and Salit (1972) in the Red Sea, Egypt and 5.0-8.7 for Cx. pipiens, Cx. perexiguus and Oc. caspius in Cairo (Kenwy et al., 2013). While  Cx. sitiens (7.0 to 9.5), Cx. tritaeniorynchus (7.3 to 9.1), An. multicolor (7.5 to 9.6), An. d’thali (7.5 to 8.6),  Cx. theileri  (8.0 to 9.6) and Cx. perexiguus (8.1 to 8.8) breed entirely in alkaline water (overall range: 7.0 to 9.6). Cx. torrentium collected only from water had pH of 8.5. Although some breeding was observed in acidic water however, most of larval breeding was in alkaline water in agreement with the observations of Kirkpatrick (1925), kenawy and El Said (1990), Kenawy et al. (1998) and Abdel-Hamid et al. (2013) who indicated that mosquito breeding water in several Egyptian Governorates was mostly alkaline (>7). 

 

Fig. 3: Ranges of the breeding water pH for reported larval species

in all study areas

 

 

For the breeding water salinity, no available data for Saudi Arabian mosquitoes as do for other countries. Based on water salinity, Kirkpatrick (1925) classified mosquito fauna of Egypt to purely fresh water breeders, purely salt water and more or less indifferent. In the present study, the eleven larval species generally have a salinity range of 154 to 1990 ppm (ca. 0.02 to 0.20%) indicating that these species breed in fresh / brackish water in agreement with the observation of Abdel-Hamid et al. (2011b) for Cx. pipiens and Cx. perexiguus in El-Ismailia and Kenawy et al. (2013) for five species (Cx. pipiens, Cx. perexiguus, Cx. pusillus, Oc. caspius, and Cs. longiareolata) in Cairo, Egypt. The observed salinity ranges for the reported species (Figure 4) indicate that:  St. aegypti (154 to 1690 ppm), Cx. tritaeniorynchus (210-1866 ppm),  Cx. quinquefasciatus (340 to 1752 ppm), Cx. theileri (340 to 1990 ppm) and Cs. longiareolata (360 to 1620 ppm) had wider ranges than Cx. pipiens (611 to  1972 ppm), Cx. perexiguus (676 to 1227 ppm),  Cx. sitiens (700 to 1500 ppm), An. d’thali (710 to 840 ppm), and An. multicolor (962 to 1830 ppm). Cx. torrentium collected only from water had salinity of 907 ppm.

 

 

Fig. 4: Ranges of the breeding water salinity for reported larval species in all study areas

 

 

Influence of the Breeding Water Temperature, pH and Salinity on Larval Density

 

Multiple Regression analysis was used to examine the relation of larval density (No / SU) with the temperature, pH and salinity of the breeding water. Results (Table 1) indicate that:

 

 

 

(1) Densities of all species were directly related to temperature i.e., increase as temperature increases. With the exception of Cx. quinquefasciatus (b = 2.64, P˂0.05) and Cx. tritaeniorynchus (b = 4.24, P˂0.01), the b values (0.32 to 6.15) of the other species (Cx. pipiens, Cx. theileri, Cx. sitiens, An. multicolor, St. aegypti and Cs. longiareolata) were insignificantly different (P>0.05). However, in the Eastern Province, Jemal and Al-Thukair (2016) observed that mosquito larval abundance has a negative correlation with temperature (mean correlation coefficient = -0.773 for the whole Province: -0.075 to -0.941 for the 8 study sites). The authors indicated that regression model of the 3 climatic factors (temperature, relative humidity and rainfall) accounted for 64.3%  (R= 0.643) of the variance in larval abundance and the remaining 35.7% attributed to other factors such as the presence of vegetation, waste materials and water reservoirs such as ditches.

 

(2) Larval densities of Cx. pipiens, Cx. theileri, Cx. sitiensAn. multicolor and St. aegypti were indirectly related to pH (b = -0.13 to -74.57), while those of Cx. quinquefasciatus, Cx. tritaeniorynchus and Cs. longiareolata  were directly related  to pH (b = 2.44 to 23.60) and (3) Larval densities of Cx. quinquefasciatus, Cx. theileri and  St. aegypti were indirectly related to salinity (b = -0.002 to -0.017), while those of Cx. pipiensCx. tritaeniorynchus, Cx. sitiensAn. multicolor and Cs. longiareolata  were directly related  to salinity (b = 0.002 to 0.074). No comparable study for Saudi mosquitoes except that of Al-Ahmed et al. (2010) which suggested that the salt content and pH have no significant effects on the larval distribution of the different species in Najran. However, several studies in Egypt and other countries support the present findings. Kenawy et al. (1996) in El Sharkia Governorate, Egypt reported that densities of Cx. antennatus and Cx. perexiguus significantly (P<0.05) increased as a linear function of pH and temperature of the breeding water. Kenawy et al. (1998) in El Sharkia rice fields, Egypt observed that the relation of larval densities of Cx. antennatus and Cx. perexiguus were positive with pH and negative with temperature. Sunish and Reuben (2002) investigated the relationship of 13 abiotic variables with the abundance of Cx. vishnui immatures in rice fields in south India and indicated a positive relation with water temperature. Abdel-Hamid et al. (2011a) in El Menoufia Governorate, Egypt found that the total larval density of Cx. pipiens, Cx. antennatus and Cx. perexiguus decreased as both temp and pH increased (P>0.05). Abdel-Hamid et al. (2009, 2011b, 2013) in 3 Egyptian Governorates indicated that the overall larval density of Cx. pipiens, Cx. antennatus and Cx perexiguus increases as temperature increase (P<0.05) while it decreases (P>0.05) as pH increase. Kenawy et al. (2013) indicated that densities of both Cx. pipiens and Cx. perexiguus in Cairo had positive relation with temperature and pH (P>0.05) and negative relation with salinity (P<0.05).  Kadhem et al. (2014) showed that Aedes caspius had insignificant positive correlation with pH and temperature, Culex pipiens had insignificant negative correlation with pH and temperatureand Culiseta longiareolata had significant negative correlation with pH (P<0.05) and temperature (P<0.01).

 

 

CONCLUSION

 

The obtained different ranges of temperature, pH and salinity and relations of such factors with the abundance of the reported larval species may be of  help  in  designing  and  implementing  control  program  based  on  environmental manipulation or modifying habitat characteristics that will be effective in controlling targeted mosquito species specially disease vectors.

 

 

COMPETING INTERESTS: The authors declare that there is no conflict of interests.

 

 

AUTHORS' CONTRIBUTIONS:

 

MIH: Participated in preparation of draft article and approved final Ms.

HAA: Carried out field studies.

MS: Participated in preparation of draft article and approved final Ms

MAK: Partly participated in field studies, carried out statistical analysis and prepared the draft and final Ms.

 

 

REFERENCES

 

Abdel-Hamid YM, Soliman MI and Allam KM (2009). Spatial distribution and abundance of culicine mosquitoes in relation to the risk of filariasis transmission in El- Sharqiya Governorate, Egypt. Egypt. Acad. J. Biol. Sci., 1: 39-48.

Abdel-Hamid YM, Soliman MI and Kenawy MA (2011a). Geographical distribution and relative abundance of culicine mosquitoes in relation to transmission of lymphatic filariasis in El Menoufia Governorate, Egypt. J. Egypt. Soc. Parasitol., 41: 109-118.

Abdel-Hamid YM, Soliman MI and Kenawy MA (2011b). Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in relation to the risk of disease transmission in El Ismailia Governorate, Egypt. J. Egypt. Soc. Parasitol., 41: 347-356.

Abdel-Hamid YM, Soliman MI and Kenawy MA (2013). Population ecology of mosquitoes and the status of bancroftian filariasis in El Dakahlia Governorate, the Nile Delta, Egypt. J. Egypt. Soc. Parasitol., 43: 103-113.

Abdoon A-MMO and Alshahrani AM (2003). Prevalence and distribution of Anopheline mosquitoes in malaria endemic areas of Asir Region, Saudi Arabia. East Mediterr. Hlth. J., 9: 240-247.

Al Ahmad AM, Sallam MF, Khuriji MA, Kheir SM and Azari-Hamidian S (2011). Checklist and pictorial key to fourth-instar larvae of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) of Saudi Arabia. J. Med. Entomol., 48: 717-737.

Alahmed AM, Al Kuriji MA, Kheir SM, Al Ahmedi SA, Al Hatabbi MJ and Al Gashmari MA (2009). Mosquito fauna (Diptera: Culicidae) and seasonal activity in Makkah Al Mukarramah Region, Saudi Arabia. J. Egypt. Soc. Parasitol., 39: 991-1013.

Alahmed AM, Al Kuriji MA, Kheir SM, Al Sogoor DAD and Salama HAS (2010). Distribution and seasonal abundance of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in the Najran Region, Saudi Arabia. Studia dipterologica, 17:13-27.

AI-Ali KH, EI-Badry AA, Eassa AH, Al-Juhani AM, Al-Zubiany SF and El-Kheir DI (2008). A study on Culex species and Culex transmitted diseases in AI-Madinah AI-Munawarah, Saudi Arabia. PUJ, 1: 101-108.

Al Ghamdi K, Alikhan M, Mahayoub J and Afifi ZI (2008). Studies on identification and population dynamics of Anopheline mosquito from Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Biosci. Biotech. Res. Commun., 1: 19-24.

Alikhan M, Ghamdi KA and Mahyoub JA (2014). Aedes mosquito species in western Saudi Arabia. J. Insect Sci., 14: 69.

Al-Seghayer SM, Kenawy MA and Ali OTE (1999). Malaria in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia: Epidemiology and control. Sci. J. King Faisal University (Special issue), 1: 6-20.

Bayoh MN and Lindsay SW (2003). Effect of temperature on the development of the aquatic stages of Anopheles gambiae sensu stico (Diptera: Culicidae). Bull. Entomol. Res., 93: 375-381.

Bayoh MN and Lindsay SW (2004). Temperature-related duration of aquatic stages of the Afrotropical malaria vector mosquito Anopheles gambiae in the laboratory. Med. Vet. Entomol.18: 174-179.

Daggy RH (1959). Malaria in oases of eastern Saudi Arabia. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg., 8: 223-291.

El-Badry AA and Al-Ali KH (2010). Prevalence and seasonal distribution of dengue mosquito, Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) in Al Madinah Al-Munawwarah, Saudi Arabia. J. Entomol., 7: 80-88.

Gad AM and SALIT AM (1972). Mosquitoes of the Red Sea, Egypt. J. Med. Entomol., 9: 581-582.

Gimnig JE, Ombok M, Kamau L, Hawley WA (2001). Characteristics of larval anophelinae (Diptera: Culicidae) habitats in western Kenya. J. Med. Entomol., 38: 282-288.

Hammer Ø, Harper DAT and Ryan PD (2001). Past: Paleontological statistics software package for education and data analysis. Available from: http://www.nhm2.uio.no/norlex/past/Past.exe.

Jemal Yand Al-Thukair AA (2016). Combining GIS application and climatic factors for mosquito control in Eastern Province, Saudi Arabia. Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences, in Press, Available on line 13 April 2016, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sjbs.2016.04.001.

Jupp PG, Kemp A, Grobbelaar A, Leman P, Burt FJ, Alahmed AM, Al Mujalli D, Al Khamees M and Swanepoel R (2002). The 2000 epidemic of Rift Valley fever in Saudi Arabia: mosquito vector studies. Med. Vet. Entomol., 16: 245-252.

Kadhem ZA, Al-Sariy JS and Ali SM (2014). Seasonal distribution study of mosquito species  (Culicidae: Diptera) in Al- Naamania salt Basin north western Al Kut city / Iraq. Wasit Journal for Science & Medicine.,  7: 124-135.

Kenawy MA,  Ammar SE and  Abdel-Rahman HA (2013). Physico-chemical characteristics of the mosquito breeding water in two urban areas of Cairo Governorate, Egypt. JEAR, 45:e17.

Kenawy MA,  Rashed SS and Teleb SS (1996). Population ecology of mosquito larvae (Diptera: Culicidae) in Sharkiya Governorate, Egypt. J. Egypt. Ger. Soc. Zool., 21: 121-142.

Kenawy MA,  Rashed SS and Teleb SS (1998). Characterization of rice field mosquito habitats in Sharkia Governorate, Egypt. J. Egypt. Soc. Parasitol., 28: 449-459.

Khater EI, Sowilem MM, Sallam MF and Alahmed AM (2013). Ecology and habitat characterization of mosquitoes in Saudi Arabia. Trop. Biomed., 30: 409- 427.

Kheir SM, Al Ahmed AM, Al Kuriji MA and Al Zubyani SF (2010). Distribution and seasonal activity of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in Al Madinah Al Munwwarah Region, Saudi Arabia. J. Egypt. Soc. Parasitol., 40: 215-227.

Kirkpatrick TW (1925). The mosquitoes of Egypt. Egyptian Government, Antimalaria Commission, Government Press, Cairo, pp. 244.

Macgregor ME (1927). Mosquito surveys. Welcome Bureau of Scientific Research, London. pp. 282.

Mahyoub  JA, Al-Harbi OS, Al-Ghamdi KM, Mangoud AAH  and Al-Solami HM (2015). Population dynamics of different mosquito genera and species in Makkah city, Saudi Arabia. Biosci. Biotech. Res. Comm., 8: 116-125                       

Mattingly PF and Knight KL (1956). The mosquitoes of Arabia. Bull. Brit. Mus. (Nat. Hist.) Entomol., 4: 89-141.

Miller BR, Godsey MS, Crabtree MB, Savage HM, Al-Mazrao Y, Al-Jeffri MH, Abdoon AM, Al-Seghayer SM, Al-Shahrani AM and Ksiazek TG (2002). Isolation and genetic characterization of Rift Valley Fever virus from Aedes vexans arabiensis, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Emerg.  Infect. Dis., 8: 1492-1494.

Omar MS (1996). A survey of bancroftian filariasis among South-East Asian expatriate workers in Saudi Arabia. Trop. Med. Int. Hlth., 1: 155-160.

Overgaard HJ, Tsuda Y, Suwonkerd W and Takagi M (2001).  Characteristics of Anopheles minimus (Diptera: Culicidae) larval habitats in northern Thailand. Environ. Entomol., 10: 134-141.

Oyewole IO, Momoh OO, Anyasor GN, Ogunnowo AA, Ibidapo CA, Oduola OA, Obansa JB and Awolola TS (2009). Physico-chemical characteristics of Anopheles breeding sites: Impact on fecundity and progeny development. Afr. J. Environ. Sci. Technol., 3: 447-452

 Piyaratnea MK, Amerasinghea FP, Amerasinghea PH and Konradsena F (2005). Physico-chemical characteristics of Anopheles culicifacies and Anopheles varuna breeding water in a dry zone stream in Sri Lanka. J. Vect. Borne Dis., 42: 61-67.

Seghal S and Pillai MK (1970).  Preliminary studies on the chemical nature of mosquito breeding waters in Delhi. Bull. WHO., 42: 647-650.

Sunish IP and Reuben R (2002). Factors influencing the abundance of Japanese encephalitis vectors in rice fields in India - II. Biotic. J. Med. Entomol., 16: 1-9.

White GB (1974). Anopheles gambiae complex and disease transmission in Africa. Trans. Roy. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg.,  68: 278-301.

WHO “World Health Organization” (1975). Manual on practical entomology in malaria. Part (I) Vector bionomics and organization of anti-malaria activities. WHO Division of Malaria and other Parasitic Diseases, WHO, Geneva. pp. 160.

Wills WM, Jakob WL, Francy DB, Oertley RE, Anani E, Calisher CH and Monath TP (1985). Sindbis virus isolations from Saudi Arabian mosquitoes. Trans R. Soc.Trop. Med. Hyg., 79: 63-66.

 

 

Cite this Article: Mostafa IH, Hamdy Al H Al A, Mohammed S, Mohamed AK (2016). Field Studies on Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in the Western Coast of Saudi Arabia:  Influence of Temperature, pH and Salinity of the Breeding Water on Larval Abundance. Greener Journal of Biological Sciences, 6(5):095-102, http://doi.org/10.15580/GJBS.2016.5.111816206