GREENER JOURNAL OF EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH
ISSN: 2276-7789 ICV: 6.05
Submitted: 05/09/2017 Accepted: 12/09/2017 Published: 04/10/2017
Research Article (DOI: http://doi.org/10.15580/GJER.2017.6.090517120)
An Assessment of the Effect of Teachers’ In-Service Training on the Effective Implementation of Life Skills Education in Secondary Schools in Kenya
*1Magutah Abysolom Kuria and 2Dr. Emily Nyabisi
1 Master of Education Graduate, Department of Educational Management and Curriculum studies – Mount Kenya University.
2 Lecturer, Department of Educational Management and Curriculum studies – Mount Kenya University.
E-mail: enyabisi@ mku.ac. ke, Phone: +254722637107
*Corresponding Author’s E-mail: kuriabysolom@ yahoo. com; Phone: +254720563664
The Ministry of Education in Kenya introduced the teaching of life skills education in all schools in 2008 so as to equip students with the adaptive abilities necessary for effectively dealing with the challenges of everyday life. However, issues meant to be addressed through life skills education; such as drug and substance abuse, pregnancy, suicidal attempts, truancy and strikes are still on the rise among secondary school learners. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of teachers’ in-service training on the effective implementation of life skills education in public secondary schools in Naivasha sub-county, Kenya. The research was guided by the following research objectives: to establish how often teachers attended in-service training on the implementation of life skills education in public secondary schools and to assess the effect of teachers’ in –service training in the implementation of life skills education in public secondary schools in Naivasha Sub-county, Kenya. The study was based on the social cognitive theory by Albert Bandura. The study adopted a concurrent triangulation research design and targeted 180 teachers and 29 principals from public secondary schools in Naivasha Sub-County, Kenya. The sample size of 123 teachers was determined using simple random while that of 16 principals was done using purposive sampling. The data was collected by use of questionnaires and interview schedules. The quantitative data collected was presented using statistical frequency tables, whereas the qualitative data was organized into themes and then presented in narrative form. The findings of the study showed that the majority of teachers had not undergone in-service training on life skills education and that the teachers’ felt that the few in-service trainings attended were inadequate to aid in the implementation of life skills education. The study recommends that The MOE should organize in-service training for teachers on life skills education to make them more effective in teaching the same. This is because the study findings reported that most teachers had never attended in-service trainings on life skills education. The Teacher Training Institutions should also enhance more life skills training to the teacher trainees in their institutions. This would make them more effective once they go into the field.
Key Words: Life Skills Education; In-service training; Implementation.
Currently, all over the world, life skills education is being viewed as an approach that can be used to address a wide range of issues affecting the child and youth development issues in all dimensions. Most countries are reforming their educational systems to incorporate life skills education so as to help their populations handle emerging issues as well as challenges and these countries have adopted a variety of programs ranging from prevention of drug abuse, adolescent pregnancy, HIV and Aids to conflict management (WHO, 1999). Life skills education can slow the students’ initiation into drug or substance abuse, help in curbing risky sexual behaviors and aid an individual to adjust accordingly to the social and health challenges within the society (Ndirangu, Wamue & Wango, 2013). This helps equip the individuals with other life adjustment abilities to keep off risky behavior tendencies that are counter-productive to the society and individual wellbeing. Equipped with the right life skills, individuals are able to make informed and responsible decisions as they tackle the challenges they face in life (MOE, 2008). However, if this fails, the learners become maladjusted and the resulting behaviors are drug abuse, irresponsible sexual behavior and STIs, school dropout, teenage pregnancy, increased crime rates, violence, low academic achievements and general indiscipline.
Life Skills Education has a long history of supporting child development and health promotion in many parts of the world (Ndirangu et al, 2013). Life skills education aims at enriching learners with varied skills with the aim of promoting acceptable attitudes and behaviors among the youth (Mulamba, 2015). In the traditional African communities, education emerged from the immediate surroundings of the child, real or imaginary. It was a harsh environment to say the least, and the children had to learn how to adapt to it. Life was a real fight against these challenging aspects of the surrounding, particularly emotional attitudes, skills and sentiments that were developed around the children. The children, therefore, had to acquire the important aspects of the physical environment and the attitudes the society had towards them. The results were the need for the development of human surrounding/environment in which these children lived in (Ndirangu, 2013). Over and above this knowledge, they had to be equipped with understanding of the possibilities and problems of their surrounding by acquiring skills on how to overcome or exploit them. The children were trained how to do farming, hunting, fishing or preparing food, building a house and even how to run homes.
The indigenous society demanded a close-knit society under a strong form of government to enhance proper socialization skills. The children’s economic role also featured a lot in their training from their earliest years. The elderly members of the family or clan trained the younger members of the society apprenticeship and other survival skills which included religious attitudes (Baylies, 2000). The traditional education had a lot to do with the moral and ethical principles that guided the conduct of an individual towards others.
The idea of teaching life skills in modern times can be traced back to North America (Baylies, 2000). In 1986, the Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion recognized life skills in terms of making informed health choices in education and the general wellbeing of the child (learner). The 1989 Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) connected life skills training to education by stating that education should focus on the development of the child’s whole potential including the development of the important life skills for a more adaptive life in the school’s life and the future career advancements.
The 1990 Jomtien Declaration on Education for All (EFA) further emphasized the teaching of life skills education and included it among essential learning lessons for survival, capacity development and quality of life among learners in both basic and secondary levels of education (UNICEF, 2012). The 2000 Dakar World Education Conference took a position that all young people and adults have the human right to benefit from “an education that includes learning to know, to do, to live together and to be”, and included life skills in two out of the six Education for All (EFA) Goals adopted in the same conference by the international delegates. Around the world, life skills education is being adopted as a way of empowering the youth so that they can be able to handle the ever arising challenges. `UNICEF (2012) notes that there has been a commendable success in the implementation of life skills education in East Asia, Indonesia, Jordan and Southern Asia where this curriculum was basically introduced to deal with Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (HIV/Aids), environmental issues, genital mutilation, conflict and drugs (Kilonzo, 2013). United Nations Children’s Fund has been very instrumental in the development of teaching and learning resources, formulation of supportive policies, and teacher training in East Caribbean, Myanmar, Burundi, Mozambique and Malawi. South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC), a consortium of some South Asian nations based on regional economic, socio-cultural cooperation is working on reducing the difference that exists between the desired curricula and the one being implemented (Munsi and Guha, 2014). This is being done by ensuring that life skills education is incorporated in the secondary teacher curriculum.
Orstein and Hunkins (2009) noted that the implementation of the curriculum, including that of life skills education, involves the presentation of new ideas and putting into practice these ideas. Curriculum implementation, including that of life skills education, is an organized process of ensuring that the curriculum reaches the intended targets; learners and teachers, parents and society with no delay or deviation.
The implementation of life skills education at a school level requires the input of the school itself, teachers training and designing of the appropriate teaching and learning resources (WHO, 1997). While implementing life skills education, teachers need in-service training to equip them with the appropriate skills. Orstein and Hunkins (2009) noted that there is a need to train teachers for a longer time to give them adequate knowledge and deepen their grasp on the content of life skills curriculum. Teachers in Armenia are trained in methods that are meant to make classrooms more democratic and interactive (UNICEF, 2012). Lesotho has a working life skills education program. In Kenya, majority of secondary school learners are between the age of 13 and 19 years. These learners are faced with varied challenges which need to be addressed. The challenges include among others negative peer pressure, gender bias, violence, early marriages, teenage pregnancies, indiscipline, career choices, early sexual onset, drug and substance abuse, rape, incest, and HIV and AIDS pandemic (MOE, 2008). These challenges are attributable to a variety of factors such as lack of positive role models, complex developmental challenges during adolescence, negative influence by mass media, and unreliable information on human sexuality (MOE, 2008). The Ministry of Education in Kenya has a policy requiring that life skills education be implemented in all primary and secondary schools which note that life skills is necessary in Kenya for it assists the learner to be able to use their health knowledge to practice healthy habits and avoid unhealthy ones (Kilonzo, 2013).
However, despite LSE being introduced and taught in schools, cases of indiscipline and other negative behaviors are still being reported. It can therefore be concluded that LSE has not realized its desired impact of promoting behaviour changes among students. This is an indication that there may be factors affecting the implementation of LSE in schools. For this reason, this study sought to assess the effect of teachers’ in-service training on the implementation of life skills education in public secondary schools in Naivasha Sub-County, Kenya.
Statement of the Problem
The implementation of life skills education in Kenya was launched in 2009. The focus of this implementation was to address the gap between the knowledge acquired by the students and the way they behave while schooling and after their schooling period (Kilonzo, 2013; MOE, 2008). However, public secondary schools continue experiencing high rates of dropouts, rampant riots, drug and substance abuse, pregnancy among girls and general cases of student indiscipline; which were supposed to have been addressed through life skills education. Although studies have been conducted to explain the above mentioned challenges facing students in secondary schools in Kenya, not much has been done to assess the factors affecting implementation of life skills education especially in Naivasha sub-county. Reports from Naivasha Sub-county Education office (NSCEO, 2015) show that most schools in the sub-county continue to experience student unrests, conflict among students, drop out from school before completing the four year course due to drug and substance related issues, early pregnancies and marriages among others. There was, therefore, the need to assess the effect of teachers’ in-service training as a possible factor affecting the implementation of life skills education in public secondary schools in Naivasha sub-county, Kenya.
The research was guided by the following research objectives:
1. To establish how often teachers attended in-service trainings on the implementation of life skills education in public secondary schools in Naivasha Sub-county
2. To assess the effect of teachers’ in-service training on the implementation of life skills education in public secondary schools in Naivasha Sub-county.
Scope of the Study
The study dealt with an assessment of the effect of teachers’ in-service training on the effective implementation of life skills education in secondary schools in Kenya. The study took place between the months of November 2015 and February 2016. The respondents for the study were secondary school teachers and the principals in Naivasha sub-county, Kenya. The study employed the concurrent triangulation design; and questionnaires and interview schedules were used in the collection of data.
Significance of the Study
The findings of this study could provide useful information that can be used by the school principals to improve on the effective implementation of Life skills education in public secondary schools. The findings could also be useful to the Ministry of Education in its advisory role on the effect of teachers’ in-service training in the teaching of life skills education.
Theoretical Literature Review
Bandura (1986) in Social Cognitive Theory analyzed human learning and self-regulation in terms of triadic reciprocal causations involving a complex interplay between personal (cognitive-affective), behavioral, and environmental determinants.
The basic premise of this theory is that people learn not only from their own experiences, but also by observing the actions of others and the results of those actions. This therefore means that the learners who are exposed to life skills education and acquire the desired results may highly influence those that he or she interacts with. Bandura (1986) further argues that what people think, believe, and feel affects how they behave. The natural and extrinsic effects of people’s actions, in turn, partly determine their thought patterns and affective reactions. SCT is applicable in this study because the way in which the teacher views Life Skills Education would determine the angle of implementing the program.
In a school set-up, for example, teachers have the challenges of upgrading the academic performance and confidence of the students under their watch. Using Social Cognitive Theory, teachers can work to enhance student’s emotional status, rectify students’ shortcomings in their behaviors (personal factors), improve their academic performances and change the physical environment which may work to affect the success of students.
Social Cognitive Theory is anchored in a view of human agency in which individuals are agents proactively involved in their own development and can make things happen by their own deeds. Key to this view is the fact that, among other personal factors, individuals possess self-beliefs that enable them to have self-discipline over their thoughts, feelings and actions than what people think, believe and feel which affects how they behave.
Life skills may be defined as abilities for adaptive and positive behaviour that enables individuals to deal effectively with the demands and challenges of everyday life (World Health Organization, 1997). Every school should enable children and adolescents at all levels to learn critical health and life skills and such education includes comprehensive, integrated life skills education that can enable young people to make healthy choices and adopt healthy behaviour throughout their lives (World Health Organization, 1997). The Kenya Institute of Curriculum Development (KICD) states that, life skills is an interactive educational methodology that not only focuses on transmitting knowledge but also helps the youth to explore their attitudes, feelings, opinions, and values thereby developing psychosocial competencies to face life’s challenge effectively (MOE, 2008).
According to the WHO and UNICEF report (2012), where life skills education is well developed and practiced, it enhances the well-being of the society and promotes positive outlook and healthy behavior. Particularly, it enables the individual to translate knowledge, attitude, skills and values into action. The individual is expected to behave responsibly to lead a healthy life. Life skills education further fosters the individual’s self-esteem and worth, communication and negotiation skills, mental well-being and risk-free behavioral life (UNICEF, 2012).
Life skills refer to a large group of psychosocial and interpersonal skills which help people to make informed decisions, communicate effectively and develop coping and self-management skills that may help them live a better and productive life in the society. Life skills education, according to Kenya Institute of Curriculum Development (MOE, 2008), is the ability which enables an individual develops adaptive and positive behavior so as to effectively deal with challenges and demands of everyday life. In this study, life skills means the psychosocial and practical abilities of individuals in and out of formal schooling to enable them fit into the society and maximize their potential.
The life skills education approach lends itself well to implementation across cultures and has been integrated into curriculum in various countries (International Center for Alcohol Policies (ICAP) 2000). For example, South Africa’s Curriculum 2005 includes “life orientation” and skills for decision-making, critical and creative thinking, and effective communication.
Life skills education in Kenya was formally introduced into Kenya’s education system after 2007/2008 Post-Election Violence (PEV), after the massive loss of lives and property which showed Kenya’s level of preparation and ability to handle conflicts without being dis- agreeable. This introduction was after an evaluation of the entire school curriculum and its role on holistic development of character, skills and attitudes in the individual and the entire society (MOE, 2008). It should be noted however that the teaching of life skills had been going on in many schools especially those established by the missionaries long before formal introduction by the government through the ministry of education in Kenya (Wasamu, 2011).
The curriculum was reviewed and life skills education was included in the syllabus in the primary and the secondary curricular (MOE, 2008). Among the topics which are covered in the life skills education are: assertiveness, effective decision making, conflict resolution, and friendship formation, the core living values, self-awareness and self-esteem, empathy, and negotiation skills.
Life skills are intended to equip young people with essential values and guiding principles to help them cope with everyday challenges. Through life skills activities, they acquire knowledge, skills, norms values and attitudes required for one to be a useful member of the society. In Kenya, according to MOE (2008), majority of secondary school learners are between the age of 13 and 19 years. These learners are faced with varied challenges which should be addressed. The challenges include among others negative peer influence, gender discrimination, violence, pre-mature marriages, teenage pregnancies, indiscipline, career choices, early sexual activities, drug and substance abuse, rape, incest, and HIV and AIDS pandemic.
These challenges can be attributed to factors such as complex developmental challenges in their adolescence, lack of upright role models, negative media influence, and unreliable sources of information on sexuality. The formal education system puts a lot of emphasis and prioritization on imparting academic knowledge, greatly ignoring the developing of psychosocial skills which are adequate in preparation of young people in the handling of complex challenges that exist in the world today (Kilonzo, 2013).
Life Skills Education has also long term benefits to the society. These include educational, social, health, cultural and economic benefits (Chirwa, 2009). In education, it promotes teacher-pupil relationship, leads to positive behavior change, enhances discipline in schools, lowers the learner’s problems such as truancy, absenteeism, drug and substance abuse, and teenage pregnancies, and also improves learners’ performance in all areas of learning (UNICEF, 2012). The social benefits of life skills education include improved inter-personal relationship learners, enhances learners’ ability to choose good and reliable friends, improve time management especially how to handle their leisure time, assists learners to identify and abstain from risky behavior, brings about meaningful interaction among learners, teachers and the school community and character shaping (WHO, 1997).
The health benefits of life skills education lead to prevention and control of diseases such as STIs, HIV and AIDS, it contributes to a person’s general well-being (physical, mental, emotional and social), leads to less strain on health facilities and makes people to be responsible for their own and other people’s health from their actions in life. Culturally, life skills education enables people to adopt and maintain meaningful cultural practices and avoid practices that may put self and others at risk, promotes harmonious interaction between people of different cultures and helps in the clarification of moral values in the society. The economic impacts of life skills are many. It leads to high productivity due to a motivated, strong and energetic labour force, savings are increased as money used in areas like management and control of HIV and AIDS, rehabilitation of drug and substance abusers as well as repair of damaged property can be invested elsewhere, say, to buy teaching learning resources. Resources such as time and money are also saved as learners acquire skills to manage themselves and their environment (WHO, 1997).
There are various types of life skills which have been identified by agencies such as World Health Organization, UNICEF and national education curriculum developers according to the needs of the respective societies (Kilonzo, 2013). There are ten core life skills, which have been identified by the World Health Organization (MOE, 2008). These are: decision-making, critical thinking, problem solving, effective communication, negotiation/refusal skill, empathy, interpersonal skill, stress management, coping with emotions and self-evaluation/self-awareness.
Teachers should understand the goals and content of a curriculum document or syllabus well in order to implement it effectively. Teachers, who are charged with the responsibility of implementing a new curriculum, sometimes may not even identify its main features. One of the components of curriculum implementation is the pre-service and the in-service training of teachers. Cascading practice where education officers were trained and then they would train the principals under them, then the principals would train a set of teachers in their school was observed to be ineffective and one that may not adequately improve the knowledge of the teachers on the content of life skills education. This was mainly because the principals were the ones undertaking the program yet they were not subject specialists and their managerial and supervisory roles were to be compromised by this undertaking. In Malawi and Zimbabwe, the in-servicing of teachers on implementation of life skills education has not been effective because of the shortcomings of the cascading method and the duration of the in-service trainings (Kilonzo, 2013)
Abobo and Orodho (2014) argue that in-servicing of teachers is a very important factor for the successful implementation of life skills education and that the education teachers received at schools and colleges is not sufficient to enable teachers deliver as expected. Given the teachers vital role in curriculum implementation process, there is need for appropriately providing teachers with relevant training to enable them handle new programmes such as life skills education (Abobo and Orodho, 2014). Mahlangu (2001) (as cited by Chirwa, 2009) raises a concern about introducing a curriculum or a new aspect of life skills education to teachers and letting them to implement it without further guidance. The failure to give further guidance to teachers is likely to have serious effects on the success of the implementation of a curriculum. According to Mahlangu (2001), such implementation is likely to be a waste of time, money and effort because the intended goal(s) will not be realized. Mahlangu suggests a planned and systematic approach to implementation. Implementation decisions have to be made by people who are aware of the possible effects on individuals. Abobo (2013) found that 80% of teachers implementing the program had not undergone in-service training on life skills education and therefore their level of the knowledge on life skills curriculum was inadequate.
Guskey (2002) states that change in teacher practices is expected for improved student learning outcomes which can be achieved through well-organized in-service training programs for teachers. These vacation programs will boost the teachers’ ability to effectively handle the content and also enhance acquisition and use of the life skills (Guskey, 2002).
Loughran (2006) looks at teacher education from two perspectives: the pre-service and in-service teacher preparation. The aim of teacher preparation from any perspective is to develop knowledge and skills of teaching and to learn how to competently apply these in practice to promote immediate life skills to meet the demands of modern hi-tech society especially in the developing world. Muthoni Mugambi and Kathooko Muthui (2013) carried out research on the influence of structural context on the implementation of life skills education in Kajiado County , Kenya. The research found that teachers’ competence affects life skills education implementation and the effectiveness of the outcomes on the products of the schooling system. The in-service given to teachers should be more relevant and must focus on issues such as personality, identity, knowledge of the curriculum, professional development among other issues that will empower the teacher in the implementation of life skills education. Reports from Naivasha Sub-county Education office (NSCEO, 2015) show that most schools in the sub-county continue to experience student unrests, conflict among students, drop out from school before completing the four year course due to drug and substance related issues, early pregnancies and marriages among others. There was, therefore, need to assess the effect of teachers’ in-service training on the effective implementation of life skills education in secondary schools in Naivasha Sub-County Kenya.
MATERIALS AND METHODS OF STUDY
The study used both qualitative and quantitative research methodologies in a mixed method approach. The approach involved the collection and analysis of both thematic and numeric data to explore the variables under study; in a concurrent triangulation design. Creswell (2003) define mixed method approach as an integration of quantitative and qualitative data collection and analysis in a single study or a program of inquiry. The choice of mixed method approach for this study was necessitated by the fact that this approach provided a better understanding of the research problem. The use of this triangulation enabled the researcher to collect two types of data simultaneously; both quantitative and qualitative data, thus allowing for perspectives from each while off-setting the weaknesses of both; thereby enabling the presentation of a richer data in an attempt to address the research problem. The target population for this study was 209 respondents which constituted 180 teachers and 29 principals drawn from the 29 public secondary schools in Naivasha sub-county.
The main tools used in data collection were questionnaires for teacher respondents and interview schedule for the principals. The questionnaire that was administered consisted of both open-ended and closed-ended questions. For the close-ended questions, the teachers were provided with a list of alternative responses to choose from in order to facilitate consistent answers to questions; instructions were given on how to respond to the questions. The items on the interview schedule focused on how often teachers attended in-service trainings on the implementation of life skills education and the effect of teachers’ in-service training on the implementation of life skills education. The study used both qualitative and quantitative methods of data analysis, and the data was analyzed through descriptive statistics and thematic analyses. The results were presented in frequency tables, and in narrative form.
Sampling procedure and sample size
The schools where the sample population was drawn from were identified through stratified sampling procedure, to enhance representation of all types of schools in the study. The schools in the sub-county were stratified on the basis of mixed day, boys boarding and girls boarding. Schools were then selected from each stratum to make up the total number of 16 schools which were used in the study. To obtain the sample size of 123 teachers from the public secondary schools, the sample size determination table developed by Krejcie and Morgan, (1970) was used. Simple random sampling was used to sample the teacher population so as to ensure that each member of the target teacher population had an equal and independent chance of being included in the sample. The principals’ sample (16) was done through purposive sampling.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
The study sought to establish how regular teachers attended in-service training on life skills education. The respondents were asked to indicate their attendance of life skills education in-service trainings. They responded as in Table 3.
The above data shows how regular or often teachers attended in-service trainings in life skills education. 61.4% of the respondents cited that they have never attended in-service training on life skills education. In an interview with one of the principal respondents, the respondent noted;
I can’t remember the last time my teachers attended an in-service training on life skills education. At the beginning the trainings were there but of late they are not there. (Principals’ interview 9th November 2015)
The study therefore found that the teachers implementing life skills education have not been given in-service training to enable them implement life skills education. The findings agree with Abobo (2013) and Mugambi and Muthui (2013) who found that majority of teachers teaching life skills education have not undergone in-service training to implement the program and therefore their competences affect this implementation. The failure to give teachers further guidance upon introducing the implementation of life skills education poses a challenge to this process. Guskey (2002) states that changes in teacher practices is expected for improved student learning outcomes which can be achieved through well-organized in-service training programs for teachers. The teachers’ in-service training on life skills education is important to the effective implementation of the program. Mahlangu (2001) (as cited by Chirwa, 2009) notes that it is inappropriate to introduce a curriculum or a new aspect in it without giving teachers further guidance and that such an undertaking is likely to have serious effects on the success of the implementation.
Effect of in-service trainings in the implementation of LSE
The study sought to assess the effect of in-service trainings in the implementation of life skills education.
To achieve this, the respondents were required to indicate to what extent they agreed or disagreed with various statements on the effect of in-service training on the implementation of life skills. The responses are presented in Table 4.
Table 4 shows respondents’ agreeability on the content of in-service trainings on life skills education attended. Majority of the teacher respondents, 86.2%, agreed that the in-service trainings attended on life skills education did not cover content that are relevant on the implementation of life skills education. The teacher respondents were asked to rate the effect of in-service trainings attended on life skills education. 38.6% of the teacher respondent agreed that the in-service trainings attended on the implementation of life skills education enabled them to effectively implement life skills education, while 51.5% disagreed.
The teacher respondents were also asked to rate the effect of the in-service trainings attended on life skills education in terms of whether the trainings equipped the respondents with the relevant instructional methods to effectively teach life skills education. 54.5% disagreed, while 37.6% agreed.
The teacher respondents were also asked to indicate their level of agreeability on whether the time spent in the in-service trainings was adequate to expose them adequately to enable the respondents to effectively implement life skills education. 60.4% disagreed on the effectiveness of time spend in the in-service trainings, while 30.7% of the teacher respondents disagreed.
One of the principals interviewed commented that:
I don’t think the in-service trainings attended by teachers were adequate and therefore the trainings could not effectively enable them to implement life skills education as needed.
(Principals’ interview; 9th November 2015).
These findings agree with Kilonzo (2013) who argue that training is crucial for teachers as LSE is taught differently from other subjects in that it is particularly concerned with teaching of values and values are not learnt as other curriculum subjects. Loughran (2006) looks at teacher education as the pre-service and in-service teacher preparation when students of teaching seek to develop knowledge and skills of teaching and learn how to competently apply these in practice to promote life skills in all the key areas of their lives.
The data analysis and interpretation revealed that majority of teachers had never been trained in life skills education. Further, it was revealed that respondents felt that the in-service trainings they attended on life skills education were inadequate to prepare them to effectively practice on implementation of life skills education. Most teachers cited that they had never attended in-service training on life skills education. They are therefore incapacitated in the effective implementation of life skills education.
The MOE should organize in service training for teachers on life skills education to make them more effective. This is because the study findings reported that most teachers had never attended in-service trainings on life skills education. The Teacher Training Institutions should also enhance more life skills training to the teacher trainees in their institutions. This would make them more effective once they go into the field.
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Cite this Article: Kuria MA and Nyabisi E (2017). An Assessment of the Effect of Teachers’ In-Service Training on the Effective Implementation of Life Skills Education in Secondary Schools in Kenya. Greener Journal of Educational Research, 7(6): 078-086, http://doi.org/10.15580/GJER.2017.6.090517120