Greener Journal of Educational Research

Vol. 9(1), pp. 73-82, 2019

ISSN: 2276-7789          

Copyright ©2019, the copyright of this article is retained by the author(s)

DOI Link: http://doi.org/10.15580/GJER.2019.1.052019092

http://gjournals.org/GJER

 

 

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Mentoring, Job Satisfaction as a Correlate of Teachers’ Retention in Public Secondary Schools in Anambra and Imo States of Nigeria.

 

 

 ASUZU, Lois Adamma (Ph.D)

 

 

Ekpan Basic Secondary School, Nigercat, Effurun, Delta State.

 

 

 

ARTICLE INFO

ABSTRACT

 

Article No.: 052019092

Type: Research

DOI: 10.15580/GJER.2019.1.052019092

 

 

This study was undertaken to investigate mentoring, job satisfaction as a correlate of teachers’ retention in public secondary schools in Anambra and Imo states of Nigeria. The study employed ex- post facto design. The population was 19,887 principals and teachers in public secondary schools in Anambra and Imo States. The researcher sampled 2,080 principals and teachers in public secondary schools in Anambra and Imo States. The sample of Anambra State public secondary schools was 100 principals and 735 teachers while the sample for Imo States public secondary schools was 150 principals and 1095 teachers. The stratified random sampling method was employed to select 40 % of principals and 5 % of teachers in the two states as the sample. The research instrument that was used to collect data was an instrument titled “Mentoring, Job Satisfaction as a Correlate of Teachers’ Retention Questionnaire” (MJSCTRQ﴿. Out of 2,080 copies of the instruments administered, a total of 1806 copies were returned. Multiple Regression and Correlational Statistics was used to seek the answer to  the four research questions and test the four null hypotheses formulated in the study at 0.05 level of significance. Findings revealed that teachers’ mentoring, job satisfaction positively relate with teacher retention in public secondary schools in Anambra and Imo States. Years of experience and gender as a moderating variables relate with teachers’ retention in Anambra and Imo States. It was concluded in the study that teacher mentoring, job satisfaction positively relate with teacher retention in public secondary schools in Anambra and Imo States. Years of experience and gender as moderating variables positively relate with teachers’ retention in Anambra and Imo States. It was recommended that public secondary schools in Anambra and Imo states of Nigeria should attract and retain competent teachers to ensure competent job performance in public secondary schools in Anambra and Imo States.

 

 

Submitted: 20/05/2019

Accepted:  06/06/2019

Published: 11/06/2019

 

*Corresponding Author

Asuzu, Adamma

E-mail: revdasuzu@ yahoo.com

Phone: 07067065984

 

Keywords: Anambra and Imo States; Job Satisfaction; Mentoring; Nigeria Public Secondary Schools; Retention; Teachers.

 

 

 

 

 


INTRODUCTION

 

            Secondary education in Anambra and Imo states of Nigeria is charged with setting standards of awareness and ability to be accomplished by teachers and appraising the standards correctly. Governments of Anambra and Imo states of Nigeria deemed that to endure in the competitive world economy, education is seen as a major variable. Grounded in this confidence, educational transformation has taken places that are intended at enhancing the value of education. These transformations in Anambra and Imo states of Nigeria are demanding better performance and commitment from teachers’ and holding teachers’ accountable for students’ academic performance in the public secondary schools. Countries are now more concerned about the quality of education (Arubayi, 2011). The public secondary schools endeavour to accomplish their stated objectives through teachers’ effectiveness in teaching. Teachers’ job performance is the ability of teachers to systematise their job and professionalism in a way that permits them to perform satisfactorily in the classroom teaching, preservation of discipline and administration of students’ academic performance (Edet, Benson & Williams, 2017).

            The focal point of the road map for Anambra and Imo states of Nigeria education system among others is  to assess equity, standard and quality assurance (Osuya, 2018). Best practices should be utilised in managing instruction in the 21st century (Arubayi, 2016). One of the ways of ensuring that quality is maintained is retaining teachers from time to time to enhance their methodological approaches to instruction. Sousa – Posa (2013) in a study found that retaining quality teachers and having good relations with principals explained the largest proposition of variance in job satisfaction. Ikgbusi and Iheanacho (2016) noted that economic recession is among the factors militating against retention of teachers in Anambra State of Nigeria.  Investigations have uncovered that age, gender and experience have important influence on job satisfaction and retention in schools. Workplace situation had a encouraging association with teacher’s job satisfaction, retention and in spite of the teacher’s setting uniqueness (Friends & Haggard, 2015).

 

Statement of the Problem

 

            Challenges concerning teachers’ job performance and retention in public secondary schools in Anambra and Imo states of Nigeria are a concern for all stakeholders in education. Secondary education in Anambra and Imo states of Nigeria is overwhelmed by challenges such as poor quality teaching, job insecurity, inadequate preservation of classroom discipline, inadequate classroom management, inadequate communication between teachers, students and parents, inadequate continuous assessment of students’ performance et cetera. Anambra and Imo states of Nigeria are not improving the take home pay of teachers and professional development such as mentoring of teachers.          There are problems of delayed payment of salaries and pensions, lengthy hours of work devoid of over time payment, insecurity, poor conditions of service and inadequate support. There are as well poor mentoring of teachers and inability to harmonise problems towards achievement of the stated objectives. 

            The effort to maintain standards in public secondary schools by governments through quality assurance mechanism has been a challenge. Standards in education in Anambra and Imo states are not maintained as there is inadequate supply and utilisation and continuous professional development and retention of  teachers. The right professional attitudes have not been inculcated in some teachers making them to perform incompetently. There is lack of competent teachers that will ensure the successful transformation in secondary education.

 

 

Research Questions.

 

The following research questions were raised to guide the study:

 

1         What is the relationship among teachers’ mentoring, job satisfaction and teachers’ retention in public secondary schools in Anambra and Imo States?

2         What is the relationship between teachers’ mentoring and teachers’ retention in public secondary schools in Anambra and Imo States?

3         What is the relationship between years of experience as a moderating variable, teachers’ mentoring and teachers’ retention in public secondary schools in Anambra and Imo States?

4         What is the relationship between gender as a moderating variable, teachers mentoring and teachers’ retention in public secondary schools in Anambra and Imo States?

 

Hypotheses:   

 

The following null hypotheses were formulated to guide the study:

1         There is no significant relationship among teachers’ mentoring, job satisfaction and teachers’ retention in public secondary schools in Anambra and Imo States.

2         There is no significant relationship between teachers’ mentoring and teachers’ retention in public secondary schools in Anambra and Imo States.

3         There is no significant relationship between years of experience as a moderating variable, teachers mentoring and teachers’ retention in public secondary schools in Anambra and Imo States.

4         There is no significant relationship between gender as a moderating variable, teachers’ mentoring and teachers’ retention in public secondary schools in Anambra and Imo States.

 

Purpose of the study.

 

The main purpose of the study was to investigate mentoring, job satisfaction as a correlate of teachers’ retention in public secondary schools in Anambra and Imo states of Nigeria Specifically, the study intended to find out:

 

1       The relationship among teachers’ mentoring, job satisfaction and teachers’ retention in public secondary schools in Anambra and Imo States.

2       The relationship between teachers’ mentoring and teacher’s retention in public secondary schools in Anambra and Imo States.

3       The relationship between years of experience as a moderating variable, teacher’s mentoring and teachers’ retention in public secondary schools in Anambra and Imo States.

4       The relationship between gender as a moderating variable, teachers mentoring and teachers’ retention in public secondary schools in Anambra and Imo States.

 

 

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

 

Relationship among Teachers’ Mentoring, Job Satisfaction and Teachers’ Retention in Public Secondary Schools in Anambra and Imo States.

 

            White and Mason (2001) carried out a study on mentoring induction principle and guidelines.  Findings of the study revealed that teachers’ mentoring programmes supported by induction processes significantly relate with higher retention rate for teachers than induction programmes with mentoring.  Rockoff (2008) carried out a study on whether the mentoring reduces the turnover and improves the skills of new employees with specific reference to teachers in New York City. Findings of the study revealed that teachers who get more hours of mentoring had higher retention than those who had fewer hours of mentoring. Lynn (2002) in her study, found that teachers’ individual and specialized uniqueness are intimately associated and that they add to incentive, dedication, job satisfaction and retention. Van - Seist (2013) established that teachers who are popular with fellow teachers are more satisfied in their job than those who are less adjusted. They have satisfaction in job performance and prefer being retained in teaching. Darling-Hammond (2003) in his study found that administrative support, working conditions, teaching assignments, student discipline, school climate, culture, professional learning, salaries and incentives relate with teachers’ retention.

            Horrison-Collier (2013), conducted a study on retention of unique instruction teachers. Findings of the study showed that salary, support, mentoring, responsive induction programmes, intentional job design, positive work circumstances, and specialized growth positively influence retention.  The study further revealed that reasons of the teachers’ shortage are multifaceted though, the retention of unique instruction by teachers has a significant influence on this shortage. Up to 9.3 % of special education teachers departed from teaching at the end of their first year of teaching and 7.4 % shifted to the general education yearly.

 

Teachers’ Mentoring and Teacher’s Retention in Public Secondary Schools in Anambra and Imo States

 

Cheng and Brown (1992) carried out a study on an evaluation of the Toronto teachers’ peer support program: A pilot mentoring programme conducted by the Toronto school district for two years. Findings of the study revealed that there was a positive influence in the mentoring programme in the year one group.  Mentees more often perceived their general experience more positive than did the non-mentored (88% to 53%). The non-mentored group also perceived their experience as negative as was the experimental group (24% to 6%). For the year two group, the gap between the groups lessened. Of the mentored teachers, 86% perceived that the experience as positive in contrast to 76% of the non-mentored. The findings revealed that respondents agreed that it was the exact choice for them to become a teacher. In the first group, 100% of the mentored and 73% of the non-mentored perceived it was the correct choice (of the non-mentored, 7% perceived it was the incorrect choice and 20% were insecure). Again in the second group, the responses rather met 90% of mentored teachers and 88% of non-mentored considered it was the correct choice, while 10% and 12% in that order were uncertain. There were none in both groups that perceived it was the incorrect choice. The outcome for the question about if  respondents would once more prefer teaching as a profession were almost the same to those about if  it was the correct choice to go into teaching.

Waterman and He (2011) conducted a study on influence of mentoring programmes on new teacher’s retention in the United States of America. Findings revealed that there was a constructive relationship between mentoring and fresh teachers’ retention in schools in the United States of America. Jill (2007) conducted a study on the influence of system wide mentoring programme on beginning teacher retention rates in Wilmington state in United States. Findings revealed that system wide mentors proved to be more effective and helpful to the beginning teachers which enhanced their retention in teaching. Brankin and Bailey (1992) in their study found that mentors need experience or knowledge of schools in which the mentoring relationship takes place. Ingersoll (1997, 2000 and 2001) conducted a series of statistical analyses of the prevalence of school mentoring programmes: The extent of effective assistance provided to new teachers and the effects on job satisfaction and teacher turnover. Findings revealed that formal programs to assist new teachers were common in schools, but effective assistance was not provided to new teachers.  Many (60%) of the principals informed that their schools offered some forms of official mentoring programme to assist new teachers. Findings revealed that having an official mentoring program  had little to do if teachers accounted that their schools had offered effective assistance. 

Whitaker (2001) in his study examined first year special education teachers and reported job satisfaction as the major motive for leaving or thinking about leaving. Findings revealed that strong teacher mentoring programs sustained by other teacher mentoring procedures relate significantly with teachers’ retention. Pardini (2002) in his study found that mentoring programmes influence teachers’ belief, confidence and expectation in  new teachers and enhance their retention .Brown ( 2003) in his study found that  new teachers who are involved in induction programs like mentoring are almost two times as probable to continue in teaching  profession. Mentoring can have a direct influence on teachers’ loyalty to the profession and an indirect influence on the teacher’s job satisfaction and intention to leave. Ingersoll & Kralik (2004) carried a study on the influence of mentoring on teacher’s retention in California in United States. Findings revealed that some mentoring programmes are decreasing the retention of new teachers in schools and  there continue a number of urgent questions about mentoring and initiation that need additional control  and methodical investigation  that presently transpire  in order to be responded with confidence. Margolis (2008) in his study found that teachers’  with the working experience of 4 to 6 years considered that taking on a mentoring position may decrease a number of the unconstructive stressors that may guide to teachers’ attrition. Findings revealed that teachers’ leadership job that revolved around mentoring reignited excitement that was present at the beginning of their teaching profession; improved satisfaction levels in job performance while mentoring. Findings showed structuring of specialized relations, sharing of the resources enhances teachers’ retention.

Hahs-Vaughn and Scherff (2008) in their study found that mentoring and induction programs did not improve English language teachers leaving the teaching profession. Menegat (2010) carried out a study on mentor/protégé interaction and the job of mentoring within a novice teacher mentoring program. Findings showed the advantages of preparation of mentors, worth of official mentoring programmes, increased levels of self-assurance, and the significance of positive mentor/protégé associations.

Ingersoll and Strong (2011) conducted an investigation on the influence of mentoring programmes for preliminary teachers. Findings revealed that preliminary teachers who partake in a number of initiations had elevated job satisfaction, commitment and retention. They equally found that preliminary teachers who participated in some kind of induction programme , perform more  at diverse features of teaching such as keeping students on task, developing workable lesson plan, with  efficient students’  inquiring performance , altering  classroom actions to attain  students’ attention, upholding  constructive classroom environment and demonstrating flourishing classroom administration. Larson (2012) conducted a study on mentoring and technology integration among teacher education faculty of MeNeese State University, Lake Charles, Los Angellis in United States. Findings revealed that most helpful aspect of mentoring was one-on-one instruction. It likewise found that mentees seem to prefer mentors who can measure the level of their mentee’s technology knowledge and then offer individualised learning experiences with the suitable degree of challenge and guidance. Furthermore, findings revealed that mentees found that having a personal relationship with their mentors was a valuable component of the mentoring.

Ingersoll et al. (2014) in their study found that the teachers’ preparation, experiences of new teachers are moderately different. Osuya (2015) in a study found that 75 % of teachers live in rented apartments while post service accommodation uncertainties for teachers should be addressed. 85% believed that this will make teachers less prone to corruption, absenteeism and will help in the retention of the committed teachers.  As long as the education sector continues to experience poor motivation of teachers and poor teachers’ morale, the standard of instruction will not witness any improvement. Eberhard, Reinhardt-Mondragon and Stottlemeyer (2000) carried out a study on strategy for new teachers’ retention in South Texas in United States. Findings revealed that there was a relationship between mentoring new teachers and retention in teaching.

 

Years of Experience, Teachers’ Mentoring and Retention in Public Secondary Schools in Anambra and Imo States.

 

Gurino, Santibanez & Daley (2006) in their study found that beginning (less experienced) teachers who experienced induction and mentoring support in their first year of teaching are less probable to leave teaching or change schools. Oluwuo & Afangideh (2010) carried out a study on mentoring beginning principals for quality personnel administration in public secondary schools in Akwa Ibom State. Findings revealed that most principals were conscious of the benefits and aspects of mentoring apart from the strategies for mentoring. Nolan and Palazzolo (2011) in their study found that less experienced teachers  were not constantly obtaining leadership opportunities.

Ingersoll (2001) examined the relationship between the measure of effective assistance and actual teacher turnover.  Findings revealed that there was a strong association between the level of efficient assistance for new teachers and retention. The findings further revealed that those who departed instruction profession were both new and experienced teachers.  Findings as well revealed that the chances of a teacher leaving teaching profession were 92%.Afangideh and Ekeh (2014) carried out a study on teachers’ in-service training and mentoring services for quality secondary education delivery in Rivers State. Findings revealed that teachers who were mentored can handle innovations in education and that mentoring services provide self-development opportunities for teachers.

 

Gender as a Moderating Variable, Teachers Mentoring and Teachers’ Retention in Public Secondary Schools in Anambra and Imo States  

 

Oshagbemi (2000) in his study revealed that there was significant difference between job satisfaction levels of female teachers and their male counterparts. He further found that in certain positions, there was no significant difference between gender, job satisfaction and retention among teachers. Pook (2003) in his study revealed that there was gender bias concerning teachers’ job satisfaction and retention. Sousa-Posa (2003) in their study revealed that there were decreasing levels of gender gap among male and female teachers and retention in recent years.

Sumner and Niederman (2003), in their study, found positive relationship between gender differences when measuring general job satisfaction and retention among teachers. He further found that female teachers are liable to be more satisfied than male teachers in financial rewards. Sousa-Posa (2003) in their study based on data from the British households, found that female teachers tend to be more satisfied than male teachers as their jobs had been much bad in the past and they had lesser prospect than male teachers. Garcia-Bernal, Gargallo-Castel, Marzo-Navarro and Rivera-Torres (2005) in their study revealed that there was no significant difference in the perceptions of male and female teachers on job satisfaction and retention.

Bender (2005) in his study found that female teachers experienced higher levels of job satisfaction and retention than their male counterparts. Aguilar (2008) in his study revealed that there was no significant difference among male and female teachers in their job satisfaction and retention. Carroll and Foster (2010) in their study found that in addition to internal breeding ability at the beginning of the profession, we are still losing talented teachers. Tourani (2012) in their study revealed that there was no significant difference between male and female teachers’ job satisfaction and retention.

 

 

METHODS  

 

The study employed ex- post facto design. The population of the study was 19,887 principals and teachers in public secondary schools in Anambra and Imo States. The population was two hundred and fifty-ten principals (254) and eight thousand and sixty eight teachers (8,068) in Anambra States and three hundred and nine (309) principals and eleven thousand two hundred and fifty six (11,256) teachers in public secondary schools in Imo State as at 2017.The researcher sampled 2,080 principals and teachers in public secondary schools in Anambra and Imo States. The sample of Anambra State public secondary schools was 100 principals and 735 teachers while the sample for Imo States public secondary schools was 150 principals and 1095 teachers. The stratified random sampling technique was employed to select 40 percent of principals and 5 % of teachers in the two states that were used. The research instrument that was used to collect data was an instrument titled “Mentoring, Job Satisfaction as a Correlate of Teachers’ Retention Questionnaire” (MJSCTRQ﴿.

The instrument was validated by experts. The reliability of the items in the questionnaire was established with Cronbach’s alpha Method. The overall coefficient of the whole test value of Cronbach alpha for mentoring, job satisfaction and teachers’ retention in public secondary schools was 0.95. The direct delivery and retrieval method was applied to administer the instrument to the respondents. The researcher employed the services of research assistant who were well educated on how to administer the research questionnaire. Items on the questionnaire were scored with the four point scoring scale of strongly agree (4 points), agree (3 points), disagree (2 points) and strongly disagree (1 point). Out of 2,080 copies of the   instruments administered, a total of 1806 copies were returned. Multiple regression and correlational statistics was employed to respond to the four research questions and test the four null hypotheses formulated in the study at 0.05 level of significance.

 

 

PRESENTATION OF RESULTS

 

Research Question 1: What is the relationship among teachers mentoring, Job Satisfaction and teachers’ retention in public secondary schools in Anambra and Imo States?

 

Table 1a: Multiple Correlation Analysis of Teachers Mentoring, Job Satisfaction, and Teachers’ retention in Anambra and Imo States

Variables

N

Mean

SD

R

Teachers Mentoring

1806

34.13

11.69

0.69

Teachers’ Job Satisfaction

1806

57.14

9.35

 

Teachers’ Retention

1806

42.30

9.21

 

Independent Variables: Teachers Mentoring, Job Satisfaction. Dependent Variable: Teachers’ Retention

 

        Table 1a, shows that the computed multiple correlation statistics produced an output R =0.69. It revealed that there is a positive linear relationship among teachers’ mentoring, job satisfaction, and teachers’ retention in public secondary schools in Anambra and Imo States.  The findings revealed that there was a positive linear correlation among teachers mentoring, teachers’ job satisfaction and teachers’ retention.

 

Hypothesis 1: There is no significant relationship among teachers mentoring, job satisfaction and teachers’ retention in Anambra and Imo States.


 

Table 1b: Multiple Regression Analysis of the Relationship among Teachers Mentoring, Job Satisfaction and Teachers’ Retention in Public Secondary Schools in Anambra and Imo States.

 

SS

Df

MS

F

R2

R2 adj.

S.E

P

Regression

Residual

Total

74486.55

78527.98

153014.5

2

1803

1805

37243.28

43.554

855.104

0.49

0.49

.03

.000

P ≤ 0.05 level of significance; N = 1806

 


In Table 1b, the calculated F = 855.104, df (2, 1804), P ≤ .05 level of significance. The null hypothesis is rejected and the alternative holds true. Therefore, the finding was that teachers’ mentoring and job satisfaction has significant relationship with their job retention in public secondary schools involved in the study. The conclusion was drawn that teachers’ mentoring, job satisfaction has a significant relationship with teachers’ retention. The R2 adjusted value of .49 shows that 49% amount of variance in teachers’ retention was accounted for by the joint influence of teachers’ mentoring and job satisfaction in public secondary schools in Anambra and Imo states.

 

Research Question 2: What is the relationship between teachers’ mentoring and teachers’ retention in public secondary schools in Anambra and Imo States?

 

Table 2a: Simple Correlation Analysis of Mentoring and Teachers’ Retention in Public Secondary Schools in Anambra and Imo States.

Variables

N

Mean

SD

R

Teachers Mentoring

1806

34.13

11.69

0.69

Teachers’  retention

1806

42.30

9.21

 

Independent Variable: Teachers Mentoring. Dependent Variable: Teachers’ retention.

 

Table 2a, shows that there exists a positive linear relationship between Teachers’ Mentoring and teachers’ retentionin public secondary schools in Anambra and Imo States..  The computed Simple Correlation using Pearson Product Moment Correlation output include (r =.69). This provides an answer to research question 2. It revealed that there is a positive linear relationship between teachers’ mentoring and teachers’ retention in Anambra and Imo States.

 

Hypothesis 2: There is no significant relationship between teachers mentoring and teachers’ retention in public secondary schools in Anambra and Imo States.


 

 

Table 2b: Simple Regression Analysis of the Relationship between Teachers’ Mentoring and Teachers’ Retention in Public Secondary Schools in Anambra and Imo States.

 

SS

Df

MS

F

Β

r2

r2adj

S.E

P

Regression

Residual

Total

74214.73

78799.81

153014.5

1

1804

1805

74214.73

43.681

1699.032

0.69

0.48

0.48

.01

.000

P ≤ 0.05 level of significance; N = 1805

 

 


In testing hypothesis 2b, the correlation model in table 2b shows that teachers mentoring have significant relationship with teachers’ retention in public secondary schools in Anambra and Imo States. The calculated F = 1699.032, df (1, 1804) at 0.05 level of significance. The null hypothesis is therefore rejected and the alternative holds true. Findings revealed that there was significant linear relationship between teachers mentoring and teachers’ retention in public secondary schools involved in the study.  It was concluded that teachers mentoring has a significant relationship with teachers’ retention. The r2 adjusted value of .48 constitutes 48% amount of variance accounted for by teachers’ mentoring and teachers’ retention. This revealed that there was a change of the amount of variance accounted for by teachers mentoring in teachers’ retention in public secondary schools in Anambra and Imo States.

 

Research Question 3: What is the relationship between years of experience as a moderating variable, teachers mentoring and teachers’ retention in public secondary schools in Anambra and Imo States?


 

Table 3a: Multiple Correlation Analysis of Relationship between Years of Experience as a Moderating Variable, Teachers Mentoring and Teachers’ Retention in Public Secondary Schools in Anambra and Imo States

Variables

N

Mean

SD

R

Teachers Mentoring

1806

34.13

11.69

0.74

Years of experience

1806

1.42

0.49

 

Teachers’ Retention

1806

42.30

9.21

 

Independent Variables: Teachers Mentoring; Moderating Variable: Years of Experience.

 


Dependent Variable: Teachers’ retention

 

Table 3a, shows that there existed a positive linear correlation among independent variable, moderator variable, and teacher retention. The computed multiple regression correlational statistics   output included r =0.74. This provides an answer to research question 3. It revealed that  variable of years of experience has a positive moderating relationship with teachers mentoring and teachers’ retention in public secondary schools in Anambra and Imo States.

 

Hypothesis 3: There is no significant relationship among moderating influence of years of experience mentoring and teachers’ retention.


 

Table 3b: Multiple Regression Output of the Relationship between Years of Experience as a Moderating Variable, Teachers Mentoring and Teachers’ Retention in Public Secondary Schools in Anambra and Imo States

 

SS

Df

MS

F

β

r2

r2adj

S.E

P

Regression

Residual

Total

83719.96

69294.57

153014.5

2

1803

1805

41859.98

38.433

1089.170

0.258

0.55

0.55

0.31

0.000

P ≤ 0.05 level of significance; N = 1805

      


In testing hypothesis 3b, the output in table 12b shows that there is a positive relationship between moderator variable of years of experience, mentoring and teachers’ retention in public secondary schools in Anambra and Imo States. The calculated F = 61089.170, df (2, 1803) at 0.05 level of significance. The null hypothesis is therefore rejected and the alternative holds. Therefore, the finding was that years of experience significantly moderate the relationship between mentoring and teachers’ retention in Anambra and Imo States. The r2 adjusted value of 0.55 shows that 55% amount of variance in teachers’ retention was accounted for by the relationship between moderating influence of years of experience in public secondary schools in Anambra and Imo States combined.

 

Research Question 4: What is the relationship between gender as a moderating variable, teachers mentoring and teachers’ retention in public secondary schools in Anambra and Imo States?


 

Table 4a: Multiple Correlation Analysis of the Relationship between Gender as a Moderating Variable, Teachers Mentoring and Teachers’ Retention in Public Secondary Schools in Anambra and Imo States.

Variables

N

Mean

SD

R

Teachers Mentoring

1806

34.13

11.69

     0 .69

Gender

1806

1.51

0.50

 

Teachers’ Retention

1806

42.30

9.21

 

Independent Variables: Teachers Mentoring,

Moderating  Variable: Gender.

 


Dependent Variable: Teachers’ Retention

        Table 4a, shows that there exists a positive linear correlation among independent variable, moderator variable, and teacher retention. The computed multiple regression correlational statistics   output include (R =.69). This provides an answer to research question 4. It revealed that variable of gender has a positive moderating relationship between teachers mentoring and teachers’ retention in public secondary schools in Anambra and Imo States.

 

Hypothesis 4: There is no significant relationship between gender as a moderating variable, teachers mentoring and teachers’ retention in public secondary schools in Anambra and Imo States.


 

Table 4b: Multiple Regression Output of the Relationship between Gender as a Moderating Variable, Teachers’ Mentoring and Teachers’ Retention in Public Secondary Schools In Anambra And Imo States.

 

SS

Df

MS

F

β

r2

r2adj

S.E

P

Regression

Residual

Total

74284.09

78730.44

153014.5

2

1803

1805

37142.05

43.666

850.587

0.02

0.48

0.48

0.31

0.000

P ≤ 0.05 level of significance; N = 1805

      


 In testing hypothesis 4, the output in table 4b revealed that there was a optimistic association between moderator variable of gender, mentoring and teachers’ retention in public secondary schools in Anambra and Imo States. The calculated F = 850.587, df (2, 1803) at 0.05 level of significance. The null hypothesis is therefore rejected and the alternative holds. Therefore, the finding was that sex significantly moderates the relationship between mentoring and teachers’ retention in Anambra and Imo States. The r2 adjusted value of 0.48 shows that 48% amount of variance in teachers’ retention was accounted for by the relationship between moderating influence of gender in public secondary schools in Anambra and Imo States.

 

Discussion of Results

 

Relationship between Teachers Mentoring, Job Satisfaction and Teachers’ Retention in Public Secondary Schools in Anambra and ImoStates.

 

            Table 1a shows that the computed multiple correlation statistics produced an output R =.69. It revealed that there is a positive linear relationship among teachers’ mentoring, job satisfaction, and teachers’ retention in public secondary schools in Anambra and Imo States.  The findings revealed that there exists a positive linear correlation among teachers mentoring, teacher’s job satisfaction and teachers’ retention.      There is no significant relationship among teachers mentoring, job satisfaction and teachers’ retention in Anambra and Imo States. In Table 1b, the calculated F = 855.104, df (2, 1804), P ≤ .05 level of significance. The null hypothesis is rejected and the alternative holds true. Findings revealed that teachers’ mentoring and job satisfaction has significant relationship with their job retention in public secondary schools involved in the study. The conclusion is drawn that teachers’ mentoring, job satisfaction has a significant relationship with teachers’ retention. The R2 adjusted value of .49 revealed that 49% amount of variance in teachers’ retention was accounted for by the joint variable of teachers’ mentoring and job satisfaction in public secondary schools in Anambra and Imo states. This finding was in line with the finding of Harrison-Collier (2013) that there was a significant relationship between mentoring, job satisfaction and teachers’  retention.

 

Relationship between Teachers’ Mentoring and Teacher’s Retention in Public Secondary Schools in Anambra and Imo States.

 

            Table 11a, shows that a positive linear relationship exists between teachers’ mentoring and teachers’ retention.  The computed simple correlation using pearson product moment correlation output include (r =0.69). It revealed that there is a positive linear relationship between teachers’ mentoring and teachers’ retention in Anambra and Imo States.

            There is no significant relationship between teachers’ mentoring and teachers’ retention in public secondary schools in Anambra and Imo States.  In testing hypothesis 2, the correlation model in table 2 brevealed that teachers’ mentoring has significant relationship with teacher’s retention. The calculated F = 1699.032, df (1, 1804) at 0.05 level of significance. The null hypothesis is therefore rejected and the alternative holds true. Therefore, the finding was that there is a significant linear relationship between teachers’ mentoring and teachers’ retention in public secondary schools involved in the study. Findings revealed that teachers’ mentoring has a significant relationship with teachers’ retention. The r2 adjusted value of 0.48 constitutes 48% amount of variance accounted for by teachers’ mentoring and teachers’ retention. This indicates that there is a change of the amount of variance accounted for by teachers’ mentoring in teachers’ retention in public secondary schools in Anambra and Imo States.

             This finding conformed to the findings of Rockoff (2008) that teachers’ mentoring significantly relates with teachers’ retention in public secondary schools. The finding also is in consonance with the finding of Woods & Weasmer (2004), that is, teachers’ mentoring strategies increase job satisfaction which supports the overall retention of teachers. The findings were as well in line with the findings of Ingersoll and Kralik (2004) as per which mentoring helps teachers to stay in job. There was a relationship between mentoring and teachers’ retention. The finding was in union with the finding of Billingsley (2004) that teachers’ mentoring influences teachers job satisfaction and teachers’ retention in teaching profession.

 

The Relationship between Moderating Variable of Years of Experience and Teachers’ Mentoring and Teachers’ Retention in Public Secondary Schools in Anambra and Imo States

              

Table 12a shows that there exists a positive linear correlation among independent variable, moderating variable, and teacher retention. The computed multiple regression correlational statistics   output include R =.74. This provides an answer to research question 3. Findings revealed that variable of years of experience have a positive moderating relationship between teachers’ mentoring and teachers’ retention in public secondary schools in Anambra and Imo States.

               There is no significant relationship between moderating influence of years of experience between mentoring and teachers’ retention. In testing hypothesis 3, the output in table 12brevealed that there was a positive relationship between moderator variable of years of experience, mentoring and teachers’ retention in public secondary schools in Anambra and Imo States. The calculated F = 61089.170, df (2, 1803) at 0.05 level of significance. The null hypothesis is therefore rejected a. Findings revealed that years of experience significantly moderate the relationship between mentoring and teachers’ retention in Anambra and Imo States. The R2 adjusted value of 0.55 revealed that55% amount of variance in teachers’ retention was accounted for by the relationship between moderating variable of years of experience in public secondary schools in Anambra and Imo States combined.

These findings have the same opinion with the finding of Waterman and He (2011) that mentoring had a significant predictive influence on experienced and less experienced teachers’ retention. This finding was in harmony with the finding of Jill (2007) that there was a significant relationship between mentoring, years of experience and teachers’ retention.

 

The Relationship between Moderating Variable of Gender and Teachers’ Mentoring and Teachers’ Retention in public secondary schools in Anambra and Imo States

 

Table 13a, revealed that there exists a positive linear correlation among independent variable, moderator variable, and teacher retention. The computed multiple regression correlational statistics   output include (R =0.69). This provides an answer to research question 4. Findings revealed that variable of gender has a positive moderating relationship between teachers’ mentoring and teachers’ retention in public secondary schools in Anambra and Imo    states

            There is no significant relationship between gender as a moderating variable, teachers ‘mentoring and teachers’ retention in public secondary schools in Anambra and Imo States. In testing hypothesis 4, the output in table 4b revealed that there was a positive relationship between moderator variable of gender, mentoring and teachers’ retention in public secondary schools in Anambra and Imo States. The calculated F = 850.587, df (2, 1803) at 0.05 level of significance. The null hypothesis is therefore rejected and the alternative holds. Findings revealed that gender significantly moderates the relationship between mentoring and teachers’ retention in Anambra and Imo States. The R2 adjusted value of 0 .48 revealed that48% amount of variance in teachers’ retention was accounted for by the relationship between moderating variable of gender in public secondary schools in Anambra and Imo States. These findings have the same opinion with the findings of   Fresko and Nasser-Alhija (2012) that there was a significant relationship between teachers’ mentoring and retention in schools but gender negatively relate with and teachers’  retention in schools. 

 

 

FINDINGS

 

1.                Teachers’ mentoring, job satisfaction positively relate with teachers’ retention in public secondary schools in Anambra and Imo States.

2.                Teachers’ mentoring relate with teachers’ retention in public secondary schools in Anambra and Imo States. 

3.                Years of experience as a moderating variable, teachers mentoring, relate with teachers’ retention in Anambra and Imo States.

4.                Gender as a moderating variable, teachers mentoring, relate with teachers’ retention in Anambra and Imo States.

 

 

CONCLUSION

 

1                 Teachers’ mentoring, job satisfaction positively relates with teachers’ retention in public secondary schools in Anambra and Imo States.

2                 Teachers’ mentoring positively relates with teachers’ retention in public secondary schools in Anambra and Imo States. 

3                 Years of experience as a moderating variable, teachers mentoring, positively relates with teachers’ retention in Anambra and Imo States.

4                 Gender as a moderating variable, teachers’ mentoring, positively relate with teachers’ retention in Anambra and Imo States.

 

 

RECOMMENDATIONS

 

The following recommendations were made:

 

1       Public secondary schools in Anambra and Imo states of Nigeria should attract and retain competent teachers to ensure competent job performance.

2       Adequate mentoring programme should be provided for teachers to enhance their retention in public secondary schools in Anambra and Imo States

3       Conditions that will enhance teachers’ job satisfaction should be put in place such as regular payment of salaries, promotions when due, bonuses, recognition and encouragement to enhance their retention in public secondary schools in Anambra and Imo States.

4       Years of experience of teachers should be put into consideration to boost their retention in public secondary schools in Anambra and Imo States.

5       Mentoring of teachers should not be based on their gender to improve their retention in public secondary schools in Anambra and Imo States

 

 

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Cite this Article: Asuzu, LA (2019). Mentoring, Job Satisfaction as a Correlate of Teachers’ Retention in Public Secondary Schools in Anambra and Imo States of Nigeria. Greener Journal of Educational Research, 9(1): 73-82, http://doi.org/ 10.15580/GJER.2019.1.052019092.