Greener Journal of Educational Research

Vol. 9(1), pp. 54-64, 2019

ISSN: 2276-7789          

Copyright ©2019, the copyright of this article is retained by the author(s)

DOI Link: http://doi.org/10.15580/GJER.2019.1.052019093

http://gjournals.org/GJER

 

 

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Relationship between Job Satisfaction and Teachers’ Retention in Public Secondary Schools in Anambra and Imo States, Nigeria

 

 

 ASUZU, Lois Adamma (Ph.D)

 

 

Ekpan Basic Secondary School, Nigercat, Effurun, Delta State.

 

 

 

 

 

ARTICLE INFO

ABSTRACT

 

Article No.: 052019093

Type: Research

DOI: 10.15580/GJER.2019.1.052019093

 

 

This study was undertaken to investigate relationship between job satisfaction and teachers’ retention in public secondary schools in Anambra and Imo States, Nigeria. The study adopted ex-post facto design.  The population of the study was 19,887 principals and teachers in public secondary schools in Anambra and Imo States. The population was two hundred and fifty-four principals (254) and eight thousand and sixty eight teachers (8,068) in Anambra States and three hundred and nine (309) principals and eleven thousand two hundred and fifty six (11,256) teachers in public secondary schools in Imo State as at 2017. The researcher sampled 2,080 principals and teachers in public secondary schools in Anambra and Imo States. Multiple Regression and Correlational Statistics was used to answer the four research questions and test the four null hypotheses formulated in the study at 0.05 level of significance. Findings showed that job satisfaction relate linearly with teachers’ retention in public secondary schools in Anambra and Imo States. Years of experience, gender and location as moderating variables relate with teachers’ retention in public secondary schools in Anambra and Imo States. It was concluded that job satisfaction has a positive linear relationship with teachers’ retention in public secondary schools in Anambra and Imo States. Years of experience, gender and location as moderating variables positively relate with teachers’ retention in Public Secondary Schools in Anambra and Imo States.  It was recommended among others that there is need to retain existing teachers in the public secondary schools Anambra and Imo States by improving their working condition to improve their job satisfaction.

 

Submitted: 20/05/2019

Accepted:  29/05/2019

Published: 31/05/2019

 

*Corresponding Author

Asuzu, Adamma

E-mail: revdasuzu@ yahoo.com

Phone: 07067065984

 

Keywords: Job Satisfaction, Public Secondary Schools, Relationship, Teachers’ Retention

 

 

 

 

 


INTRODUCTION

 

            The most important objective for increased job satisfaction is providing factors that make teachers happy in their job performance to ensure their retention (Levy-Garboua & Montmarquette, 2002).The level of teacher’s job satisfaction could be determined by the degree of fulfillment in their job performance. The degree could be high, low or moderate. The need could be self-actualisation, or esteem, social or safety need hygiene factor which influences their retention. Job satisfaction is the level to which teachers’ wants, resources and mental, inherent and extrinsic are achieved  while performing their job. Sempane (2002) opined that job uniqueness add significantly to teachers’ job satisfaction and retention. Job satisfaction is linked to enhanced teachers’ job performance and good pointer of retention. What comprises teachers’ job satisfaction are used to offer sustenance for new and experienced teachers to improve their performance and retention in teaching (Wood & Weasmer,(2004).

            Over the years, one challenge that continued to stare the Post Primary Education Board in Akwa and Owerri in the South – East Geo of Nigeria in the face is over staffing in the urban secondary schools    and acute manpower shortage in the corresponding rural and riverine schools. Though some of the issues accountable for this intolerable dichotomy are both real and serious, the need for a balance through mindful efforts to optimally staff the rural and riverine schools need not be exaggerated. Empowerment of teachers in urban and rural location enhances their job performance and boosts their initiative and retention in the schools (Cote & Morgan, 2002).

 

Statement of the Problem

 

 Most developing states in Nigeria are concerned with how to foster development more rapidly so as to bridge the gap between them and the developed states. Thus education has become an instrument per excellence in the rapid fostering of objectives. However, the operation of the educational enterprise in Anambra and Imo States seems to leave much room for concern. The caliber of the teaching force to a large extent determines the accomplishment or malfunction of teaching in the schools. The educational system is not attracting and retaining the right type of people to carry out teaching in ways that will lead to the achievement of educational objectives. The recruitment and retention of competent teachers into secondary schools is a perennial problem the entire world, but the case of Anambra and Imo States, Nigeria is particularly serious and disturbing.

The basic task of schools is teaching and public secondary schools in Anambra and Imo States  are experiencing a high rate of attrition of teachers due to poor funding, poor working conditions, inadequate facilities,   lack of incentives for teachers , non-payment of teachers’ salaries etc. The total educational environment frustrates dedicated teachers who are forced to operate in a chronic state of discontent. Turnover is a very serious problem in the schools as performance is eliminated and corrective actions will no more be taken. Standards of acceptable performance and behaviour are not set governments of Anambra and Imo States, Nigeria. Job satisfaction is described in terms of teacher’s general stance and response in relation to their positive approval of situation surrounding their job. For teachers to be satisfied with their job, they have to be satisfied with the various aspects of job situation, such as the pay, promotion, among others that encourages teachers’ retention. The degree of teachers job satisfaction could be determined by the level of job fulfillment they needed. The degree could be high, low or moderate. The need could be self-actualisation, or esteem, social or safety need hygiene factor which influences their retention.

 

 

Research Questions

 

The following research questions were raised to guide the study:

 

1             What is the relationship between job satisfaction and teachers’ retention in public secondary schools in Anambra and Imo States?

2             What is the relationship between years of experience as a moderating variable, job satisfaction and teachers’ retention in public secondary schools in Anambra and Imo States?

3             What is the relationship between gender as a moderating variable, job satisfaction and teachers’ retention in public secondary schools in Anambra and Imo States?

4             What is the relationship between location and teachers’ retention in public secondary schools in Anambra and Imo States?

 

Hypotheses: The following null hypotheses were devised and tested at 0.05 level of significance to guide the study:

 

1.           There is no significant relationship between job satisfaction and teachers’ retention in Public Secondary Schools in Anambra and Imo States.

2.           There is no significant relationship between years of experience as a moderating variable, job satisfaction and teachers’ retention in public secondary schools in Anambra and Imo States.

3.           There is no significant relationship between gender as a moderating variable, job satisfaction and teachers’ retention in public secondary schools in Anambra and Imo States.

4.           There is no relationship between location and teachers’ retention in public secondary schools in Anambra and Imo States.

 

Purpose of the study

 

The main purpose of the study was to investigate relationship between job satisfaction and teachers’ retention in public secondary schools in Anambra and Imo States. Specifically, the study intended to:

 

1             The relationship between job satisfaction and teachers’ retention in public secondary schools in Anambra and Imo States.

2             The relationship between years of experience as a moderating variable, job satisfaction and teachers’ retention in public secondary schools in Anambra and Imo States.

3             The relationship between gender as a moderating variable, job satisfaction and teachers’ retention in public secondary schools in Anambra and Imo States.

4             There is no relationship between location and teachers’ retention in public secondary schools in Anambra and Imo States.

 

 

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

 

Job Satisfaction and Teachers’ Retention in Public Secondary Schools in Anambra and Imo States

 

            Boe, Cook, and Sunderland (2008) in their study, established that some proposals have endeavor to improve teacher job satisfaction in order to develop teacher retention. Alastaire (2011) in a study on relationship between personality factors, occupational adjustment and productivity, established that there was significant relationship between mental ability, retention, inclination to panic and job satisfaction. It was further established that there was significant relationship between job security, job satisfaction and retention.  Commey, Pfiffner and Beem (2013) in a study on factors influencing organisational effectiveness established that staff in the better rated offices had more democratic supervision, less disagreement, job satisfaction and retention. Judge, Thoresan ,  Bono and Patton (2001) in their study o established that there was a stronger relationship between  mentoring , job satisfaction , performance and retention . Harter, Schmidt and Hayes (2012) in their study on business unit level relationship between employee’s satisfaction, employee’s engagement and outcome, established that when satisfaction is described and measured by teachers’ engagement, there was a significant relationship with performance outcomes, satisfaction, and retention. Basich (2018) established that the teachers’ leadership does not stand alone in enhancing teachers’ job satisfaction and retention.

            Bogler (2001) in a study on influence of two different types of leadership styles and their influence on teacher job satisfaction. He further examined the decision-making procedure of principals and its influence on teacher job satisfaction and personal beliefs about their profession. He studied two management approaches and their influence on teacher satisfaction. The first was transformational leadership, which is typified by sustenance of teachers, originality and idea in their job performance. Principals who are transformational leaders are supposed to be charismatic, take personal thought in accepting their group, and have the scholarly aptitude to arouse group. The other type of leadership as transactional leadership, are typified by constancy and situational administration of schools matters. Every method of leadership utters a climate and reply from teachers.

Bogler wanted to investigate a particular method of leadership that  would guide to higher levels of job satisfaction for teachers and to determine if the technique principals’ employed in  circumstances where decisions had to be made have influence on the levels of teachers’ job  satisfaction. Findings of the study showed that there was a high rate of teachers’ job satisfaction and retention in teaching profession. Further finding revealed that there are variables that enhance teacher's job satisfaction to a higher extent; and there are variables, to some extent that cannot be controlled that influence teacher’s level of job satisfaction. Certo and Fox (2002) in a study on retaining quality teachers. This study was based on teacher attrition and retention in seven Virginia school districts, with focal point at teachers who continue in teaching and those who left the profession within these districts. Findings showed that school background obviously leads to levels of teacher job satisfaction and retention.  Edey and Huston (2004) in a study on the high rates of attrition and retention problems in the San Diego schools. Findings showed that there was a negative influence between   teachers’ years of experience, extent  of satisfaction and retention. Further findings showed that new teachers were more likely to leave within the first three years in the profession.

Okorodudu (2005) in a study on motivational indices as predictors of work attitude of teachers in public secondary schools in Delta state. Findings showed that there was significant inter correlation between motivational indices and its components of economic and non economic indices including interdependent r 33, f (N-2, 682) =. l9, P<.05) and r =.73, df (N-2,682)=.19, P<. O5) respectively Furthermore a significant relationship was established between non economic motivational indices and teachers work attitude and retention indicating significant degree of association r .34, (N—2, 682) =.19, <.05). George (2005) studied  determinants of job satisfaction among beginning academic staff established that job satisfaction as academic staff emotional response to their  job environment which as influence on their retention.

            Parmer and East (2007) in their study, established that job satisfaction significantly relates with retention of teachers. Job satisfaction is an essential factor that influences teacher's’ plan and eagerness.  Perrachione, Rosser, and Peterson (2008) in a study on the internal and external needs of teachers.  Findings showed that three intrinsic issues such as individual teaching effectiveness, functioning with students, and job satisfaction positively influence teachers’ satisfaction and retention. Furthermore, two extrinsic motivators such as poor salary and job overload, negatively influence teachers job fulfillment and retention

            Alfonso and Sousa-Poza (2011) in their study established that teachers’ job satisfaction is determined by decision and equilibrium between job inputs and outputs.  Findings showed that having a motivating job and “having high-quality relationships with principals”, determines the proportion of variance in teachers’ job fulfillment and retention. Petty, Fitchett, and O'Connor (2012) in their study, established that teachers were motivated to prolong teaching in a high want school since they were concerned about their students, had strong managerial maintenance, and a constructive school background. Sims (2017) in a study on working conditions, teacher job satisfaction and retention. Findings showed that more cooperation between teachers and more effective specialised improvement is connected with increased teacher job satisfaction and retention.

            Selzer (2000) in a study on 553 teachers who were in their first year of teaching. Findings showed that they deemed assistance from experienced teachers and job security as the main support they could have to persist through their first year of teaching. They deemed inadequate administrative assistance, inadequate direction to guidelines and working conditions as the most determinant of job satisfaction and retention. Bogler (2001) in a study on influence of two different types of leadership styles and their influence on teacher job satisfaction. He further examined the decision-making procedure of principals and its influence on teacher job satisfaction and personal beliefs about their profession. He studied two management approaches and their influence on teacher satisfaction. Findings showed that the more teachers considered teaching profession, the more they supposed that principals should be transformational leaders. Judge, Thoresan,  Bono and Patton (2001) in their study on the job satisfaction and job performance : A qualitative and quantitative review . Findings showed that there was a stronger relationship between mentoring, job satisfaction, performance and teachers’ retention.

 

Years of Experience as a Moderating Variable, Job Satisfaction and Teachers’ Retention in Public Secondary Schools in Anambra and Imo States

 

            Bedeian, Ferris and Kacmar (1992) in their study established that years of experience of male and female teachers is a steadier predictor of job satisfaction and retention than their age. Further findings revealed that there was a encouraging relationship between years of experience, teacher’s job satisfaction and retention. The National Center for Education Statistics (1997)conducted a  study based on  the assessment  of the working conditions of teachers and additional information based on the work of Choy et al. (1993) who studied the factors associated to teacher dissatisfaction and teacher turnover. Findings of this study  showed many issues had a positive influence on teachers’ job satisfaction and retention. They are administrative support; students discipline, positive school climate, and teachers’ independence have relationship with higher levels of teacher satisfaction and retention. Additional findings showed that salary was indistinctly related with teacher’s job satisfaction and retention. National Center for Education Statistics (1997) as well examined the descriptors of teachers’ current levels of satisfaction; they separated the sample into one of three groups (low, medium, or high satisfaction). Findings showed that 34% of teachers interviewed agreed that they were not certain if they would remain in teaching if they had the opportunity. Thirty-two % agreed they would surely become a teacher once more if they had to do it all over again, and the remaining 35% surveyed agreed that they were moderately satisfied with teaching profession.

            Klecker and Loadman (1997) in their study established that the years of experience was a factor that was  influencing teachers’ satisfaction.  Findings showed that teachers’ job satisfaction and retention significantly relate with communication with students and working conditions do not significantly relate with job satisfaction and retention.  Findings as well showed that years of experience, do not relate with teacher’s’ job satisfaction and retention based on salary and fringe benefits, working conditions and interactions with their students. There was significant relationship between teachers’ job satisfaction following the initial five years of teaching.

            Ma and MacMillan’s (1999) in their study established that older and more experienced teachers expressed significantly less satisfaction with their professional role than their younger and less experienced male teachers and that elementary teachers were more satisfied than the secondary teachers. Henke et al (2002) in their study used the National Center for Education Statistics’ (1993) Baccalaureate and Beyond Survey (B&B) to study experiences of new teachers, as well as the relationship between fresh teachers’ involvement in mentoring  programmes and their attrition. Findings showed that there was 21% of new teacher attrition by spring 1997. That is about one-fifth of fresh college graduates who had entered teaching between 1993 and 1997 were no longer teaching by July 1997.Findings as well showed that participation in induction was significantly and negatively related to attrition from teaching profession. 15 % of those who had participated in mentoring had left teaching, in contrast with 26% of persons who had not participated in mentoring programme. Richards (2003) in a study on characteristics of satisfied teachers. Findings showed that teachers valued just, truthful, and reliable behaviour in their principals. The desire for support with parents in issues of discipline improved with years of experience.  Further findings showed that new teachers continue to leave teaching profession in the initial year of employment; government must recognise factors that will encourage teachers to remain in the profession and issues connected to attrition if the present teacher deficiency should be corrected.

            Bivona (2002) in a study on the influences of teachers’ attitudes toward their perceptions of teaching.  The sample was 20 teachers. Findings showed that teacher confidence positively relates with teachers’ satisfaction and retention. More than half of the teachers intended to remain in teaching. Loeb, Darling-Hammond and Luczak (2005) in a study on the factors affecting teacher satisfaction, but focused their attention on newly employed teachers.  Findings showed that there was a significant relationship between school conditions and teacher retention Furthermore, 22% of sampled teachers  expressed their serious anxiety  about teacher retention in schools. Henry, Bastian, and Fortner (2011) in their study on novice teachers in the public school setting, attempted to uncover particular areas that relate to retention. Findings showed that teachers’ efficiency for new teachers increased significantly between the first and second years of teaching.

 

Gender as a Moderating Variable, Teachers’ Job Satisfaction and Teachers’ Retention in Public Secondary Schools in Anambra and Imo States

 

Sempane (2002) opined that job uniqueness add considerably to teacher’s job satisfaction and retention. Working condition is a factor that influences teachers’ job satisfaction and retention (Griffen 2002). The environment in which people work has a great influence on their extent  of self-importance for themselves and their job performance and retention .Working conditions are only likely to have a significant influence on job satisfaction when conditions are either extremely good or extremely poor. Mertler (2002) in a study on the levels of teacher satisfaction among middle and high school teachers.  Findings showed that75% of the teachers, who were respondents, agreed that they were satisfied in teaching job .Further findings showed that gender significantly relate with job satisfaction and retention. Males teachers agreed a higher extent of satisfaction than female teachers and teachers previously in teaching profession showed a higher extent of job satisfaction and retention than teachers who were in the middle of teaching profession. Teachers in the age bracket of 26 to 30 years and 36 to 40 years agreed that they were more satisfied than teachers in other categories. Teachers with 1 to 5 years, 21 to 25 years and 31 to 35 experience as teachers  agreed that they were more satisfaction than teachers in other categories. Teachers who had 6 to10 years of teaching experience agreed that have the lowest levels of satisfaction. The respondents agreed that they were motivated in the schools. Klassen (2010) in a study established that female teachers are more probable to experience job pressure from student misbehavior and workload stress than their male counterparts.

            Papin (2005) in a study on the elements that promote teachers’ satisfaction in inner-city public school in Phoenix, Arisona. Findings showed that there was no link between teachers’ satisfaction and gender or ranking.  Again, there was a negative relationship between teacher satisfaction and retention based on age, salary, and years of experience. Al-Haydar & Bin Taleb (2005) in their study focused attention on the approach that teachers’ have towards their job to multifaceted notions employed to establish the factors of teachers’ job satisfaction and retention. Aspects of job uniqueness which have featured highly in text, comprise work itself, salary, supervision, promotion, interpersonal relation, and working conditions which has relationship with retention.

            O’Reilly (2014) in a study on teachers at work and the  factors influencing satisfaction, retention and the professional well-being of elementary and secondary teachers at work and also of  elementary and secondary educators. Findings showed that both inherent and extrinsic issues influence teachers’ job performance and retention.

 

Location and Teachers’ Retention in Public Secondary Schools in Anambra and Imo States

 

            Xiao & Li (2003) , in their study established that teachers in urban location in China are  liable to experience less satisfaction  with their salary, but more pleased with their job protection, job  background, and self-accomplishment . Steinhardt et al. (2011) established that that more experienced teachers in stress issues, as they seem to be able to manage related stress levels better than those with less experience. Adeyemi  and Ogboro (2017),  in a study on  the levels of deployment, utilisation and job performance of teachers in the public senior secondary schools in Edo state. Findings showed that there was low deployment, uneven distribution of graduate and retention of graduate teachers in rural and urban public secondary  schools. Hanushek and Rivkin (2012) in their study on the distribution of teacher’s quality and implications for policy. Findings showed that teachers tend to prefer schools with higher achieving students and appear to have heterogenoues preferences concerning school location and retention.  Location, hiring and retaining quality teachers will be of vital importance to the  public secondary schools in Anambra and Imo states in the 21st century.

 

 

METHODS

 

            The study adopted ex-post facto design. The population was 19,887 principals and teachers in public secondary schools in Anambra and Imo States. The population was  two hundred and fifty our principals (254) and eight thousand and sixty eight teachers (8,068) in Anambra States and three hundred and nine (309) principals and eleven thousand two hundred and fifty six (11,256) teachers in public secondary schools in Imo State as at 2017.The researcher sampled 2,080 principals and teachers in public secondary schools in Anambra and Imo States. The sample of Anambra State public secondary schools was 100 principals and 735 teachers while the sample for Imo States public secondary schools was 150 principals and 1095 teachers. The stratified random sampling method was utilised to select 40 % of principals and 5 % of teachers in Anambra and Imo States That were used in the study. The research instrument that was used to collect data was an instrument titled “Relationship Between Job Satisfaction and Teachers’ Retention Questionnaire” (RJSTRQ﴿. Specialist authenticated the questionnaire and it was found reliable at 0.93. The researcher employed the services of research helpers who were educated on how to administer the instrument. The research helpers were informed on the purpose of the study, on how the respondents were expected to fill the instrument and the facts required in every item of the questionnaire. Four research aides helped the researcher in Anambra and Imo states respectively. Items on the questionnaire were scored with the four points scoring scale of Strongly Agree (4 points), Agree (3 points), Disagree (2 points) and Strongly Disagree (1 point). Out of 2,080 copies of the   instruments administered, a total of 1806 copies were returned. Multiple regression and correlational information were employed to respond the four research questions and test the four null hypotheses formulated in the study at 0.05 rank of confidence.

 

 

PRESENTATION OF RESULTS

 

Research Question 1: What is the relationship between job satisfaction and teachers’ retention in public secondary schools in  Anambra and Imo States?

 


 

 

1a: Simple Correlation Analysis Output of the Relationship between Job Satisfaction and Teachers’ Retention in Public Secondary Schools in Anambra and Imo States.

 

Variables

N

Mean

SD

r

Job Satisfaction

1806

57.1384

9.34

0.621

Teachers’  retention

1806

42.30

9.20

 

Independent Variable: Job Satisfaction.   Dependent Variable: Teachers’  Retention.

                                                                   

                                                                   


        Table 1a, showed that there exists a positive linear correlation between job satisfaction and teachers’ retention. The computed Simple Correlation using Pearson Product Moment Correlation output include (r =.621). This provides an answer to research question 5. It revealed that there is a positive linear relationship between Job Satisfaction and teacher retention in Anambra and Imo States.    

 

Hypothesis 1: There is no significant relationship between job satisfaction and teachers’ retention in Public Secondary Schools in Anambra and Imo States.


 

 

Table 1b: Simple Regression Analysis of the Relationship between Job satisfaction and Teachers’ Retention in Public Secondary Schools in Anambra and Imo States.

 

SS

Df

MS

F

β

r2

r2adj

S.E

P

Regression

Residual

Total

58980.92

94033.62

153014.5

1

1804

1805

58980.92

52.125

1131.527

0.621

0.385

0.385

0.018

.000

P ≤ 0.05 level of significance; N = 1805

 

 


        In testing hypothesis 1, the correlation model in table 1b showed  that job satisfaction has significant relationship with teachers’ retention. The calculated F = 1131.527, df (1, 1804), level of significance. The null hypothesis is therefore rejected and the alternative holds. Therefore, the finding is that there is a significant linear relationship between Job Satisfaction and teachers’ retention in public secondary schools. The conclusion is drawn that job satisfaction has a significant relationship with teachers’ retention. The r2 adjusted value of 0.385 constitutes 38.5% amount of variance accounted for by Job Satisfaction in teachers’ retention. This indicates that there is a change of the amount of variance accounted for by job satisfaction in teachers’ retention in public secondary schools in Anambra and Imo States.

 

Research Question 2: What is the relationship between years of experience as a moderating variable, job satisfaction and teachers’ retention in public secondary schools in Anambra and Imo States?

 


 

 

Table 2a: Mean, Standard Deviation, Multiple Correlation Analysis of the Relationship between Years of Experience as a Moderating Variable, Job Satisfaction and Teachers’ Retention in Public Secondary Schools in Anambra and Imo States

Variables

N

Mean

SD

R

Job Satisfaction

1806

57.14

9.35

.72

Years of experience

1806

1.42

.49

 

Teachers’ Retention

1806

42.30

9.21

 

Independent Variables: Teachers Job Satisfaction. Mediating Variable: Years of Experience.

Dependent Variable: Teachers’ retention

 

 


        Table 2a, showed that there exists a positive linear correlation among independent variable, moderator variable, and teacher retention. The computed multiple regression correlational Statistics   output include (R =.72). This provides an answer to research question 6. Findings showed that variable of years of experience has a positive moderating relationship between teachers’ job satisfaction and teachers’ retention in public secondary schools in Anambra and Imo States.

 

Hypothesis 2: There is no significant relationship between moderating influence of years of experience between job satisfaction and teachers’ retention.


 

 

Table 2b: Multiple Regression Output of the relationship between moderating influence of years of experience between job satisfaction and teachers’ retention in Public Secondary Schools in Anambra and Imo States.

 

SS

df

MS

F

β

R2

Radj

S.E

P

Regression

Residual

Total

79921.66

73092.88

153014.5

2

1803

1805

39960.83

40.540

985.724

0.371

0.52

0.52

0.304

.000

P ≤ 0.05 level of significance; N = 1805

 

       


The output in table 2b showed  that there is a positive relationship between moderator variable of years of experience, job satisfaction and teachers’ retention in public secondary schools in Anambra and Imo States. The calculated F = 985.724, df (2, 1803), level of significance. The null hypothesis is therefore rejected and the alternative holds. Therefore, the finding is that years of experience significantly moderate the relationship between job satisfaction and teachers’ retention in public secondary schools in Anambra and Imo States. The R2 adjusted value of .52 showed that 52% amount of variance in teachers’ retention was accounted for by the relationship between moderating variable of years of experience in public secondary schools in Anambra and Imo States.

 

Research Question 3: What is the relationship between gender as a moderating variable, job satisfaction and teachers’ retention in public secondary schools in Anambra and Imo States?


 

 

Table 3a: Mean, Standard Deviation, Multiple Correlation Analysis of the Relationship between Moderating Variable of Gender, Job Satisfaction and Teachers’ Retention in Public Secondary Schools in Anambra and Imo States.

Variables

N

Mean

SD

R

Job satisfaction

1806

57.14

9.35

.62

Gender

1806

1.51

.50

 

Teachers’ Retention

1806

42.30

9.21

 

Independent Variables: Job Satisfaction, Moderating  Variable: Gender.

Dependent Variable: Teachers’ Retention

 

 


Table 3a, shows that there exists a positive linear correlation among independent variable, moderator variable, and teacher retention. The computed Multiple Regression Correlational Statistics   output include (R =.62). This provides an answer to research question 7. Findings showed that variable of gender have a positive moderating relationship between teachers job satisfaction and teachers’ retention in public secondary schools in Anambra and Imo States.

 

Hypothesis 3: There is no significant relationship between gender as a moderating variable, job satisfaction and teachers’ retention in public secondary schools in Anambra and Imo States.


 

 

Table 3b : Multiple Regression Output of the relationship between Gender as a Moderating Variable, Job Satisfaction and Teachers’ Retention in Public Secondary Schools in Anambra and Imo States.

 

SS

df

MS

F

Β

r2

r2adj

S.E

P

Regression

Residual

Total

58980.92

94033.62

153014.5

2

1803

1805

58980.92

52.125

1131.527

0.628

0.39

0.39

0.02

0.000

P ≤ 0.05 level of significance; N = 1805

 

 


        In testing hypothesis 3, the output in table 16b showed that there was a positive relationship between moderator variable of gender, job satisfaction and teachers’ retention in public secondary schools in Anambra and Imo States. The calculated F = 1131.527, df (2, 1803), level of significance. The null hypothesis is therefore rejected and the alternative holds. Findings showed that gender significantly moderates the relationship between job satisfaction and teachers’ retention in Public Secondary Schools in Anambra and Imo States. The R2 adjusted value of .39 showed  that 39% amount of variance in teachers’ retention was accounted for by the relationship between moderating variable of gender in public secondary schools in Anambra and Imo States combined.

 

 

Research Question 4: What is the relationship between location and teachers’ retention in public secondary schools in Anambra and Imo States?

 


Table 4a: Simple Correlation Analysis of the Relationship between Location and Teachers’  Retention in Public Secondary Schools in Anambra and Imo States.

 Variables

N

Mean

SD

R

Location

1806

1.59

0.49

0.176

Teachers’  Retention

1806

42.30

9.21

 

Independent Variable: Location. Dependent Variable: Teachers’ Retention.

 

 


Table 4a, shows that there exists a positive linear relationship between location and teachers’ retention.  The computed simple correlation using pearson product moment correlation output include (r =.176). This provides an answer to research question 8. It reveals that there is a positive linear relationship between Location and Teachers’  retention in Anambra and Imo States. 

 

Hypothesis 8: There is no relationship between location and teachers’  retention in public secondary schools in Anambra and Imo States.


 

 

Table 4b: Simple Regression Analysis of the Relationship between Location and Teachers’  retention in Public Secondary Schools in Anambra and Imo States.

 

SS

Df

MS

F

Β

r2

r2adj

S.E

P

Regression

Residual

Total

4750.634

148263.9

153014.5

1

1804

1805

4750.634

82.186

57.803

-.176

0.031

0.031

0.434

0.000

P ≤ 0.05 Level of Significance; N = 1805


The correlation model in table 4b shows that location has significant relationship with teachers’ retention. The calculated F = 57.803, df (1, 1804), level of significance. The null hypothesis is therefore rejected and the alternative holds. Therefore, the findings reveal that  there is a significant linear relationship between location and teachers’ retention in public secondary schools involved in the study. The conclusion is drawn that location has a significant relationship with teachers’ retention. The r2 adjusted value of 0.031 constitutes 3.1% amount of variance accounted for by location in teachers’ retention. Findings showed that there is a change of the amount of variance accounted for by location   in teachers’ retention in public secondary schools in Anambra and Imo States.

 

Relationship between Job Satisfaction and Teachers’ Retention in Public Secondary Schools in Anambra and Imo States of Nigeria.

       

`Table 1a showed the relationship between job satisfaction and teachers’ retention. The computed Simple Correlation using Pearson Product Moment Correlation output include (r =.621). This provides an answer to research question 1. Findings showed that there is a positive linear relationship between job satisfaction and teacher retention in Anambra and Imo States.  

            There is no significant relationship between job satisfaction and teachers’ retention in Public Secondary Schools in Anambra and Imo States.  In testing hypothesis 1, the correlation model in table 14b showed that job satisfaction has significant relationship with teachers’ retention. The calculated F = 1131.527, df (1, 1804), level of significance. The null hypothesis is therefore rejected and the alternative holds. Findings showed that there is a significant linear relationship between job satisfaction and teachers’ retention in public secondary schools. The conclusion is drawn that job satisfaction has a significant relationship with teachers’ retention. The r2 adjusted value of .385 constitutes 38.5% amount of variance accounted for by Job Satisfaction in teachers’ retention. This indicates that there is a change of the amount of variance accounted for by job satisfaction in teachers’ retention in public secondary schools in Anambra and Imo States. This finding was in line with the findings of Ingersoll and May (2011) , that job satisfaction had the strongest direct positive influence on retention in public secondary schools. Furthermore, this finding is in compliance with the findings of  Horrison-Collier (2013) that factors such as salary, promotion, support, mentoring, work conditions, satisfaction  relate with teachers’ retention in public secondary schools.

 

The Relationship between Moderating Variable of Years of Experience in the Relationship between Job Satisfaction and Teachers’ Retention in public secondary schools in Anambra and Imo States

 

            Table 2a, shows that there exists a positive linear correlation among independent variable, moderator variable, and teacher retention. The computed Multiple Regression Correlational Statistics   output include (R =.72). This provides an answer to research question 2a. Findings showed that variable of years of experience have a positive moderating relationship  with teacher’s job satisfaction and teachers’ retention in public secondary schools in Anambra and Imo states.

            There is no significant relationship between moderating influence of years of experience and job satisfaction and teachers’ retention. The output in table 2b shows that there was a positive relationship between moderating  variable of years of experience, job satisfaction and teachers’  retention in public secondary schools in Anambra and Imo States. The calculated F = 985.724, df (2, 1803), level of significance. The null hypothesis is therefore rejected and the alternative holds. Findings showed that years of experience significantly moderate the relationship between job satisfaction and teachers’ retention in Public Secondary Schools in Anambra and Imo States. The R2 adjusted value of .52showed that52% amount of variance in teachers’ retention was accounted for by the relationship between moderating variable of years of experience in public secondary schools in Anambra and Imo States

            This finding is in agreement with the findings of Horrison – Collier (2013) job satisfaction, years of experience significantly and positively relate with teachers’ retention in public secondary schools. The findings do not  relate with the findings of Stempien and Loeb (2002) teachers’ job satisfaction and years of experience do not relate with teachers’  retention in schools.

 

Relationship between Gender, Teachers’ Job Satisfaction and Teachers’ Retention in Public Secondary Schools in Anambra and Imo States.

 

Table 3a showed that there exists a positive linear correlation among independent variable, moderator variable, and teacher retention. The computed Multiple Regression Correlational Statistics   output include (r =.62). This provides an answer to research question 2. Findings showed that variable of gender have a positive moderating relationship between teachers job satisfaction and teachers’ retention in public secondary schools in Anambra and Imo states.

            There is no significant relationship between gender as a moderating variable, job satisfaction and teachers’ retention in public secondary schools in Anambra and Imo States. In testing hypothesis 7, the output in table 3b showed that there was a positive relationship between moderator variable of gender, job satisfaction and teachers’ retention in public secondary schools in Anambra and Imo States. The calculated F = 1131.527, df (2, 1803), level of significance. The null hypothesis is therefore rejected and the alternative holds. Findings showed that gender significantly moderates the relationship between job satisfaction and teachers’ retention in Public Secondary Schools in Anambra and Imo States. The R2 adjusted value of 0.39showed that 39% amount of variance in teachers’ retention was accounted for by the relationship between moderating variable of gender in public secondary schools in Anambra and Imo States combined. These findings were in line with the findings of Papin (2005) that there was no link between teacher satisfaction and gender or ranking.  

 

Relationship between Location and Teachers’ Retention in Public Secondary Schools in Anambra and Imo States

 

        Table 4a showed that there exists a positive linear relationship between location and teachers’ retention.  The computed Simple Correlation using Pearson Product Moment Correlation output include (r =.176). This provides an answer to research question 4. It revealed that there is a positive linear relationship between location and teachers’ retention in Anambra and Imo States.     

            There is no relationship between location and teachers’ retention in public secondary schools in Anambra and Imo States. The correlation model in table 4b showed that location has significant relationship with teacher’s retention. The calculated F = 57.803, df (1, 1804), level of significance. The null hypothesis is therefore rejected and the alternative holds. Therefore, the finding is that there is a significant linear relationship between Location and teachers’ retention in public secondary schools involved in the study. The conclusion is drawn that location has a significant relationship with teachers’ retention. The r2 adjusted value of .031 constitutes 3.1% amount of variance accounted for by location in teachers’ retention. This indicates that there is a change of the amount of variance accounted for by location   in teachers’ retention in public secondary schools in Anambra and Imo States. This finding is in line with the findings Hanushek and Rivkin (2012) that teachers tend to prefer schools with higher achieving students and appear to have heterogeneous preferences concerning school location and retention. 

 

 

FINDINGS:

 

1.                Job Satisfaction relates linearly with teachers’ retention in public secondary schools  in Anambra and Imo States.

2.                Years of experience as a moderating variable, job satisfaction, relate with teachers’ retention in public secondary schools in Anambra and Imo States.

3.                Gender as a moderating variable, job satisfaction, relate with teachers’ retention in Public Secondary Schools in Anambra and Imo States.

4.                Location, relate with teachers’ retention in public secondary schools in Anambra State. 

 

 

CONCLUSION

 

1                 Job Satisfaction has a positive linear relationship with teachers’ retention in public secondary schools  in Anambra and Imo States.

2                 Years of experience as a moderating variable, job satisfaction, positively relate with teachers’ retention in public secondary schools in Anambra and Imo States.

3                 Gender as a moderating variable, job satisfaction, positively relates with teachers’ retention in Public Secondary Schools in Anambra and Imo States.

4                 Location, positively relate with teachers’ retention in public secondary schools in Anambra State. 

 

 

RECOMMENDATIONS.

 

1       There is need to preserve obtainable teachers in the public secondary schools Anambra and Imo States by improving their working condition to improve their job satisfaction.

2       Schools create job satisfaction through putting systems in place to make sure that teachers are challenged and then happy over their successful outcomes.

 

 

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Cite this Article: Asuzu, LA (2019). Relationship between Job Satisfaction and Teachers’ Retention in Public Secondary Schools in Anambra and Imo States, Nigeria. Greener Journal of Educational Research, 9(1): 54-64, http://doi.org/10.15580/GJER.2019.1.052019093.