Greener Journal of Educational Research

Vol. 9(1), pp. 65-72, 2019

ISSN: 2276-7789          

Copyright ©2019, the copyright of this article is retained by the author(s)

DOI Link: http://doi.org/10.15580/GJER.2019.1.052119094  

http://gjournals.org/GJER

 

 

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Influence of Distribution of Teachers on Job Performance in Public Secondary Schools, Delta State of Nigeria

 

 

Oroye, Okpoudhu Rachael  Zino (PhD)

 

 

Adeje Secondary School Adeje, Okpe Local Government Area , Delta State , Nigeria

 

 

 

ARTICLE INFO

ABSTRACT

 

Article No.:052119094

Type: Research

DOI: 10.15580/GJER.2019.1.052119094

 

 

This study investigated influence of distribution of teachers on job performance in public secondary schools in Delta State, Nigeria.   The population of the study was 550 administrative staff in the Post Primary Education Board in Delta State, Nigeria. The population consists of 12 Permanent Secretaries, 21 Directors of Education, 29 Assistant Directors and 25 Chief Inspectors of Education and 463 principals. The researcher sampled 184 respondents which comprised of all the Permanent Secretaries, Directors of Education, Assistant Directors and Chief Inspectors of Education as well as 97 principals. The stratified random sampling technique was used to select the principals. The instrument utilized for collection of data was a questionnaire titled “Influence of Distribution of Teachers and Job Performance Questionnaire (IDTJPQ)”.  The questionnaire was validated and dependable at 0.85.The three research questions were answered with mean rating and standard Deviation while One Way Analysis of Variance Statistical Technique (ANOVA) was utilised to test the three null hypotheses at 0.05 level of significance. Findings showed that influence of distribution of teachers based on areas of specialization, location and work load was high as the ratings were high.  Furthermore , that there was no significant difference between the influence of distribution of teachers’ based on areas of specialization, location work load and job performance in public secondary schools in Delta State. It was recommended among others that distribution of teachers should be based on areas of specialization, location and work load to enhance their job performance in public secondary schools in Delta State, Nigeria.

 

Submitted: 21/05/2019

Accepted:  04/06/2019

Published: 11/06/2019

 

*Corresponding Author

Oroye, Okpoudhu Rachael Zino

E-mail: Zinooroye@ gmail.com

Phone: 07014058990

 

Keywords: Influence, Distribution of Teachers, Teachers’ Job Performance, Public Secondary Schools.

 

 

 

 

 


INTRODUCTION

 

            The Federal Government of Nigeria (2014) in section 11 (95) (5) of Nigerian Education Policy, gave the Post Primary Education Boards the responsibility of administering  schools in each state in Nigeria which includes distribution of teachers among others. The policy further stated that for quality to be attained in the schools, it is essential to have high-quality teachers and principals. The quality of educational system is measured by how well the system performs the function of achieving the goals of education of the state. The major jobs of educational administrators in the Post Primary Education Boards is to guarantee quality administration in their day to day activities (Osuya, 2008). Certo and Fox (2002) carried out a study on retaining quality teachers: Looking at teachers’ attrition and retention in seven Virginia school districts. Findings revealed that, teachers’ distribution relate with their job performance.

            Nkweke and Dollah (2011) noted that the key to quality secondary education is the availability of well trained and competent teachers in all the subject areas. Federal Ministry of Education (2000) used data from the 1997 national study of teachers demand and supply by the Nigerian Educational Research Development Council to establish the quality of teachers available in Nigeria secondary schools. Findings revealed that except in a few cases, all categories of teachers as well as those with educational qualification below the Ordinary  National Diploma were employed in the Nigerian secondary schools and where teaching different subjects that was not in their areas of specialization. Spillane, Halverson, and Diamond (2001) carried out a study on creating a framework for distributed leadership with the intent of showing how changes in classroom management practices can change instruction and training in schools. Findings revealed that there was a significant relationship between teachers’ distribution and job performance. Henry, Bastian and Fortner (2011) in study found that equitable distribution of teachers influence their job performance. Elfers and Plecki (2016) in their findings revealed that teachers valued the emphasis on subject distribution based on areas of specialization and feeling that their contribution was valued in  the schools. 85% of the 47 teachers studied clarified that they believed the distribution of teachers based on their areas of specialization encourages them in their job performance.

            Petty, Fitchett, and O'Connor (2012) in a study, found that the teachers were motivated to continue teaching in rural area secondary school because they cared about their students, had strong administrative support, and a positive school environment. Louis, Mayrowetz, Murphy, and Smylie (2013) in their study, found that schools are successful when they employ teachers and distribute them equitably base on their areas of specialization in rural and urban areas to enhance their job performance. The Nigerian Educational Research Development Council (1996) in their study further found that there was high percentage of incompetent teachers in urban and rural secondary schools area. These were mostly in the sciences, technical and vocational subjects in nearly every state in the country.

            Vincent (2010) stated that the minimum of 18 and maximum of 24 workload periods per week is recommended by the guiding principle for the implementation of the secondary education. Teachers’ workload is the entirety of academic teaching job and committee workload allocated to them in the schools. Richards, Choudhoury, Sofroniou Owen, D (2017) in their study found that over three quarters of teachers are displeased with the hours they regularly work. Okotoni and Okotoni (2003) in their study found that in many secondary schools, there is incessant interruption of educational programmes, unexpected teachers transfer, unfriendliness, doubt and departure from lively participation in decision making in school activities by teachers.

 

Statement of the problem

 

Over the years, one challenge that continued to stare the Delta state Post Primary Education Board Asabain the face is over staffing in urban public secondary schools with its attendant acute manpower scarcity in the corresponding rural and riverine schools. Despite effort of Delta state government to improve the fair sharing of well trained and experienced teachers to all public secondary school, there remains an imbalance.   Most public secondary schools in the rural area secondary schools do not have enough teachers, much more professionally qualified and committee ones. Teachers in rural area are made to teach subjects without adequate knowledge of them and most of the time too much work load. Though a number of problems accountable for this dichotomy’ are beyond doubt and serious. This is evidence by indices such as students' poor performance in examinations, high rate of examination malpractices, inadequate infrastructure and equipment and high dropout rate among others.

 

Research Questions

           

The subsequent research questions were raised to direct the study:

 

1.         What is the influence of distribution of teachers based on areas of specialization and job performance in public secondary schools in Delta State, Nigeria?

2.         What is the influence of distribution of teachers’ based on location and job performance in public secondary schools in Delta State, Nigeria?

3          What is the influence of distribution of teachers’ based on work load and job performance in public secondary schools in Delta State, Nigeria?

 

Hypotheses

 

            The following null hypotheses were formulated to guide the study:

 

1.         There is no significant difference on the influence of distribution of teachers based on areas of specialization and job performance in public secondary schools in Delta State, Nigeria.

2.         There is no significant difference on the influence of distribution of teachers’ based on location and job performance in public secondary schools in Delta State, Nigeria..

3          There is no significant difference on the influence of distribution of teachers’ based on work load and job performance in public secondary schools in Delta State, Nigeria.

 

Purpose of the Study

 

            This study investigated influence of distribution of teachers on job performance in public secondary schools in Delta State, Nigeria.  Specifically the study will investigate:

 

1.         The influence of distribution of teachers based on areas of specialization and job performance in public secondary schools in Delta State, Nigeria ..

2.         The influence of distribution of teachers’ based on location and job performance in public secondary schools in Delta State, Nigeria.

3          The influence of distribution of teachers’ based on work load and job performance in public secondary schools in Delta State, Nigeria.

 

 

METHODOLOGY

 

The study employed e­­­x­­-post facto design. An ex-post facto type of research is the most suitable systematic empirical inquiry where the investigator does not have direct control of independent variables because their manifestation have already occurred or because they are inherent and cannot be manipulated. The population of the study was 550 administrative staff in the Post Primary Education Board Asaba  Delta State of  Nigeria .The population was 12 Permanent Secretaries, 21 Directors of Education, 29 Assistant Directors and 25 Chief Inspectors of Education and 463 principals. The researcher sampled 184 respondents which were made up of all the Permanent Secretaries, Directors of Education, Assistant Directors and Chief Inspectors of Education because of their fewness. The researcher sampled 97 principals (20%) The stratified random sampling method was used to select the principals used in the study. The instrument utilised for collection of data was a questionnaire titled “Influence of Distribution of Teachers and Job Performance Questionnaire (IDTJPQ). The questionnaire was validated and dependable at 0.85.Out of a total of 184 copies of the instrument administrated, a total of one hundred and seventy three (173) copies representing 83.6 % of the instrument administered were returned. The four points rating scale of strongly agree (4 points), agree (3 points), disagree (2 point) strongly disagree (1 point). The 4 point scale has a mean of 2.5 (4 + 3 + 2 + 1 ¸ 4). This gave the 2.50 used as criterion level of acceptance for the study.  Mean score and Standard Deviation were employed to respond on the three research questions while the three null hypotheses formulated to direct the investigation were tested for significance difference with the One Way Analysis of Variance Statistics (ANOVA) at 0.05 confidence level.

 

Research Question 1: What is the influence of distribution of teachers based on Areas of Specialization and job performance in public secondary schools in Delta State?


 

 

Table 1: Influence of Distribution of Teachers Based on Areas of Specialization and Job Performance in Public Secondary Schools in Delta State, Nigeria.

 

 S/N

Influence of distribution of teachers based on Areas of Specialization and Job Performance in Public Secondary Schools in Delta State, Nigeria.

Male Educational Administrators

Female Educational Administrators

 

N

 

X

 

SD

 

Decision

 

N

 

X

 

SD

 

Decision

1.

Teachers in different Areas of specialization are not evenly spread in secondary schools.

101

3.91

1.07

+

72

3.87

0.79

+

2.

There are inadequate teachers in most areas of specialization.

101

3.87

0.91

+

72

3.83

1.12

+

3.

The enforcement of minimum standard in teaching had become imperative.

101

3.85

1.05

+

72

3.81

0.89

+

4.

Standard should be maintained to ensure quality education in schools.

101

3.79

1.17

+

72

3.78

1.09

+

5.

Some teachers’ are asked to subjects different from their areas of specialization.

101

3.73

1.05

+

72

3.73

0.87

+

6

Some teachers’ were trained in areas that were not related to education.  

101

3.69

0.83

+

72

3.71

1.01

+

7

Distribution of teachers based on areas of specialization is not yet effective. 

101

3.63

0. 93

+

72

3.69

1.03

+

8

Distribution of teachers based on areas of specialization have been politicised

101

3.61

0.95

+

72

3.65

0.91

+

9

Some teachers’ suffers emotional stress when they are ask to teach subject outside their areas of specialization

101

3.55

0.77

+

72

3.59

0.81

+

10

Teaching is the way teachers treat the subject matter.

101

3.47

1.05

+

72

3.51

0.73

+

 

Grand Mean

 

3.71

0.28

 

 

3.72

0.93

 

+ = Agreed, - = Disagreed; Benchmark = 2.50

 

           

 


The data in table 1 shows that the Mean rating from items 1 to 10 on the influence of distribution of teachers based on areas of specialization and job performance in public secondary schools in Delta State, Nigeria. The respondents agreed on items 1 to 10 that teachers in different areas of specialization are not evenly spread in secondary schools, there are inadequate teachers in most areas of specialization, the enforcement of minimum standard in teaching had become imperative , standard should be maintained to ensure quality education in schools, Some teachers’ are ask to subjects different from their areas of specialization, Some teachers’ were trained in areas that were not related to education, distribution of teachers based on areas of specilisation is not yet effective, distribution of teachers based on areas of specilisation have been politicised, Some teachers’ suffers emotional stress when they are ask to teach subject outside their areas of specialization and teaching is the way teachers treat the subject matter.

            With the data in table 1 and the mean rating from items 1 to 10, the followings were observed. The mean rating for male administrators was 3.71 and standard deviation of 0.28 while the mean rating for female administrators was 3.72 and standard deviation of 0.93. Using the standard level of acceptance for the study as 2.50, the ratings school administrators based   on their gender were higher than the criterion level of acceptance. This implied that the influence of distribution of teachers based on areas of specialization was high as the ratings were high. 

 

Research Question 2: What is the influence of distribution of teachers’ based on location and job performance in public secondary schools in Delta State, Nigeria?


 

Table 2: Influence of Distribution of Teachers’ Based on Locationand Job Performance in public Secondary Schools in Delta State, Nigeria.

 

 

 S/N

Influence of Distribution of Teachers’ Based on Location and  Job Performance in Public Secondary Schools in Delta  State, Nigeria

Male Educational Administrators

Female Educational Administrators

 

N

 

X

 

SD

 

Decision

 

N

 

X

 

SD

 

Decision

1.

Most teachers’ transferred to rural schools, pays money to be reposted

101

3.87

1.07

+

72

3.91

0.75

+

2.

Some teachers’’ reject posting to rural schools.

101

3.81

0.84

+

72

3.87

0.81

+

3.

Some teachers’ prefers urban schools were there are social amenities

101

3.75

1. 04

+

72

3.85

1.13

+

4.

There is need for the government to revisit  distribution of teachers policy

101

3.73

0.83

+

72

3.81

1.05

+

5

Government is politicising their distribution of teachers’ policy

101

3.71

1.17

+

72

3.79

1.01

+

6

Most teachers do not effectively teach when posted to rural secondary schools

101

3. 63

1. 09

+

72

3. 75

0.85

+

7

Government is not consistent in their distribution of teachers policy

101

3.57

1.09

+

72

3.73

0.79

+

8

Some teachers’ in the rural cannot cover the topic in the curriculum before examinations

101

3.51

0.73

+

72

3.71

1.07

+

9

Some teachers’ in the rural secondary schools are dedicated to their job.

101

3.47

1.15

+

72

3.65

0.73

+

10

Some teachers’ in the urban secondary schools are punctual to school.

101

3.41

0.75

+

72

3.43

1.03

+

 

Grand Mean

 

3.96

0.37

 

 

3.52

0.92

 

+ = Agreed, - = Disagreed; Benchmark = 2.50

 

 


The data in table 2 shows that the mean rating from items 1 to 10on the influence of distribution of teachers’ based on location and  job performance in public secondary schools in Delta  State, Nigeria .. The respondents agreed on all the items that most teachers transferred to rural schools  pays money to be reposted , some teachers’ reject posting to rural schools, Some teachers’ prefers urban schools were there are social amenities, there is need for the government to revisit  distribution of teachers policy , government is politicising their distribution of teachers policy, most teachers do not effectively teach when posted to rural secondary schools , government is not consistent in their distribution of teachers policy, some teachers’ in the rural cannot cover the topic in the curriculum before examinations , some teachers’ in the rural secondary schools are dedicated to their job and some teachers’ in the urban secondary schools are punctual to school.

            With the data in table 2 and the mean rating from items 1 to 10, the followings were noted. The mean rating for male administrators was 3.96and standard deviation of 0.37 while the mean rating for female administrators was 3.52 and standard deviation of 0.9. With the level of acceptance for the study as 2.50, the ratings school administrators based on their gender were higher than the criterion level of acceptance. This revealed that the influence of distribution of teachers’ based on location and job performance in public secondary schools Delta State of Nigeria was high as the ratings were high. 

 

Research Question 3: what is the influence of distribution of teachers’ based on work load and job performance in public secondary schools in Delta State, Nigeria?


 

Table 3: Influence of Distribution of Teachers’ Based on Work load and Job Performance in Public Secondary Schools Delta State of Nigeria.

 

 S/N

Influence of Distribution of Teachers’ Based on Work Load and Job Performance in Public Secondary Schools in Delta State, Nigeria.

Male Educational Administrators

Female Educational Administrators

 

N

 

X

 

SD

 

Decision

 

N

 

X

 

SD

 

Decision

1.

Teachers workload based on number of teachers

101

3.83

1.03

+

72

3.95

1.13

+

2.

Teachers’ workload based on number of students in the schools.

101

3.77

0.79

+

72

3.91

0.77

+

3.

The distribution of teachers based on minimum of 18 work load periods per week as recommended by the national policy on education.

101

3.71

0.68

+

72

3.88

1.03

+

4.

The distribution of teachers should be on teacher- student ratio of 1 to 40 .

101

3.68

0.91

+

72

3.83

0.79

+

5

The distribution of teachers should be on recruitment of additional teachers to cope with increase in students’ population

101

3.65

1.09

+

72

3.81

0.85

+

6

The distribution of teachers based on high work load lead to poor quality education.

101

3. 62

0.75

+

72

3. 77

1.15

+

7

Work load of teachers in the right proposition is based on adequacy of teachers in all the Areas of Specialization.

101

3.59

1..12

+

72

3.73

0.81

+

8

When the required number of teachers are not matched with  students per class it will result to poor quality education

101

3..53

0.79

+

72

3.69

1.17

+

9

Most classrooms in urban areas are over 50 students in population resulting to high work load among teachers.  

101

3.47

1.01

+

72

3.63

0.81

+

10

There are inadequate teachers in most subject area resulting to problem of distribution.

101

3.41

0.75

+

72

3.55

0.69

+

 

Grand Mean

 

3.14

0.89

 

 

3.46

0.92

 

+ = Agreed, - = Disagreed; Benchmark = 2.50

 

           


The data in table 3 revealed that the mean rating from items 1 to 10 on influence of distribution of teachers’ based on work load  was positive The respondents agreed in all the 10 items that teachers workload based on number of teachers , teachers’ workload based on number of students in the schools, the distribution of teachers based on minimum of 18 work load periods per week as recommended by the national policy on education,  the distribution of teachers should be on teacher- student ratio of 1 to 40, the distribution of teachers should be on recruitment of additional teachers to cope with increase in students’ population,  the distribution of teachers based on high work load lead to poor quality education,  work load of teachers in the right proposition is based on adequacy of teachers in all the areas of specialization, when the required number of teachers are not matched with  students per class it will result to poor quality education,  most classrooms in urban areas  are over 50 students in population resulting to high work load among teachers and  there are inadequate teachers in most subject area resulting to problem of distribution.

            With the data in table 3 and the mean rating from items 1 to 10, the followings were observed. The mean rating for male administrators was 3.14 and standard deviation of 0.89 while the mean rating for female administrators was 3.46 and standard deviation of 0.92. With the level of acceptance for the study as 2.50, the ratings school administrators based on their gender were higher than the criterion level of acceptance. This revealed that the influence of distribution of teachers’ based on work load was high as the ratings were high. 

 

Hypothesis 1: There is no significant difference on the influence of distribution of teachers based on areas of specialization and job performance in public secondary schools in Delta State, Nigeria.


 

 

Table 5: Influence of Distribution of Teachers based on Areas of Specialization and Job Performance in Public Secondary Schools in Delta  State, Nigeria.(ANOVA).

Source of Variation

Sum of Squares

Df

Mean Square

Calculated

F Value

Critical

 

Level of Significance

Decision

 

 Between Groups

70.058

3

35,029

 

 

1.28                    2.96

 

 

0.05

 

Significant Reject

Ho1

Within Groups

737.309

170

27,308

 Total

26548.679

173

 

 

           


Table 5 shows that the F calculated value was 1.28 while F Critical value was 2.96. Since the F Calculated value was more than the F Critical value, the null hypothesis which opined that there is no significant difference on the influence of distribution of teachers based on areas of specialization and job performance in public secondary schools Delta State of Nigeria was rejected. Therefore, there was significant difference between on the influence of distribution of teachers’ based on location and job performance in public secondary schools in Delta State, Nigeria.

 

Hypothesis 2: There is no significant difference between on the influence of distribution of teachers’ based on location and job performance in public secondary schools in Delta State, Nigeria.


 

 

Table 5: Influence of Distribution of Teachers’ Based on Location and Job Performance in Public Secondary Schools in Delta State, Nigeria.(ANOVA).

                                                              

Source of Variation

Sum of Squares

Df

Mean Square

Calculated

F Value

Critical

 

Level of Significance

Decision

 

 Between Groups

260.229

2

130.115

 

3.37             2.99                                                        

 

0.05

 

 Significant

Rejected Ho2

 

Within Groups

106491.223

2754

38.668

 Total

106751.452

2756

 

                                                                       

 


Table 5 shows that the calculated F value was 3.37 while Critical F value was 2.99. Since the F-Calculated was more than the F-Critical, the  null hypothesis  which opined that there is no significant difference between on the influence of distribution of teachers’ based on location and  job performance in public secondary schools in Delta  State, Nigeria was rejected. Therefore, there was significant difference between on the influence of distribution of teachers’ based on location and job performance in public secondary schools in Delta State, Nigeria.

 

Hypothesis 3: There is no significant difference on the influence of distribution of teachers’ based on work load and job performance in public secondary schools in Delta State, Nigeria.


 

 

Table 6: Influence of Distribution of Teachers Based on Work Load and Job Performance in Public Secondary Schools in Delta State, Nigeria.(ANOVA)

 

Source of Variation

Sum of Squares

Df

Mean Square

Calculated

F Value

Critical

 

Level of Significance

Decision

 

 Between Groups

146259.020

 

3

3442.739

 

 

-64.825            2.65

 

 

0.05

 

 Significant Reject

Ho3

 

Within Groups

6885.478

170

46.813

 Total

30391.486

173

 

                                                                             

                                                              


Table 6 revealed that Calculated F value of -64.825 was more than the Critical F value of 2.65. Hence, the  null hypothesis  which opined that there is no significant difference on the influence of distribution of teachers’ based on work load and job performance in public secondary schools  Delta State of  Nigeria was rejected. This revealed that there was significant difference on the influence of distribution of teachers’ based on work load and job performance in public secondary schools in Delta State, Nigeria.

 

 

DISCUSSION

 

What is the influence of distribution of teachers based on Areas of Specialization and job performance in public secondary schools in Delta State? The study revealed that the influence of distribution of teachers based on Areas of Specialization was high as the ratings were high. 

There is no significant difference on the influence of distribution of teachers based on Areas of Specialization and job performance in public secondary schools in Delta State of Nigeria. The study further revealed that there was significant difference on the influence of distribution of teachers’ based on location and job performance in public secondary schools in Delta State, Nigeria. This finding was not in line with the findings of Henry, Bastian and Fortner (2011) that equitable teachers’ distribution influences their job performance. Furthermore, this finding was not in agreement with the finding of Certo and Fox (2002) that teachers’ equitable distribution relates with levels of job performance.

What is the influence of distribution of teachers’ based on location and job performance in public secondary schools in Delta State, Nigeria? The study revealed that the influence of distribution of teachers’ based on location and job performance in public secondary schools, Delta State of Nigeria as the ratings were high. 

There is no significant difference between on the influence of distribution of teachers’ based on location and job performance in public secondary schools in Delta State, Nigeria. The study in addition revealed that there was significant difference between on the influence of distribution of teachers’ based on location and job performance in public secondary schools in Delta State, Nigeria. This findings do not corresponds with the finding of Petty, Fitchett, and O'Connor (2012) that school locations relate with teachers’ job performance.

What is the influence of distribution of teachers’ based on work load and job performance in public secondary schools in Delta State, Nigeria. The study revealed that the influence of distribution of teachers’ based on work load was positive was high as the ratings were high.

There is no significant difference on the influence of distribution of teachers’ based on work load and job performance in public secondary schools in Delta State, Nigeria. The study furthermore revealed that there was significant difference on the influence of distribution of teachers’ based on work load and job performance in public secondary schools in Delta State, Nigeria. This finding was not in agreement with the finding of, 2011) that there was significant relationship   between workload, role and teachers’ job performance in public secondary schools in Delta State, Nigeria.

 

 

FINDINGS

 

From the data analysis, the followings findings were arrived at:

 

1       The influence of distribution of teachers based on areas of specialization, location and work load was high as the ratings were high. 

2       There was significant difference between influence of distribution of teachers’ based on areas of specialization , location and work load and job performance in public secondary schools in Delta State .

 

 

CONCLUSION

 

Based on the findings, it was concluded that:

 

  1. Distribution of teachers based on areas of specialization, location and work load influence positively influence teachers’   job performance in public secondary schools in Delta State.

1       Areas of specialization, location and work load do not significantly influence teachers’ job performance in public secondary schools in Delta State.

 

 

RECOMMENDATIONS

 

The following recommendations were made:

 

1       The Ministry of Education and Post Primary Education as a matter of policy redistribute teachers in public secondary schools  Delta State of  Nigeria based on subject area to ensure quality education.

2       The Education Ministry and Post Primary Education as a matter of policy ensure uniformly redistribute teachers in rural and urban public secondary school  Delta State of  Nigeria to enhance teacher’s job performance.

 

 

REFERENCES

 

Certo, J. L., & Fox, J. E. (2002).Retaining quality teachers. High School Journal, 86(1), 57-75.

Elfers, A., & Plecki, M. (2016).The role of a district teacher leadership program in supporting school and district improvement initiatives. The WERA Educational Journal, 3.

Federal Government of Nigeria (2004).National Policy on Education, (2004) Nigerian Education and Research Council (NERCN) Abuja; Abuja Press.

Henry, G. T., Bastian, K. C., & Fortner, C. K. (2011). Stayers and leavers: Early-career teacher effectiveness and attrition. Educational Researcher, 40(6), 271-280. doi:10. 3102/0013189X11419042.

Louis, K. S., Mayrowetz, D., Murphy, J., & Smylie, M. (2013). Making sense of distributed leadership: How secondary school educators look at job redesign. International Journal of Educational Leadership and Management, 1(1), 33-68.

Nkweke , G.O & Dollah, S.A  (2011) Teaching staff strength and workload in public secondary schools Ogba/Egbema/Ndonilocal government area of River state. Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences 2 (7)

Okotoni, O. &Okotoni, A. (2003) Conflict Management in Secondary Schools in Osun State, Nigeria. Nordic Journal of African Studies 12(1): 23-38

Osuya, E. C. (2008). Practices associated with the recruitment and selection of secondary school teachers in Nigeria. A Professional Seminar Paper Presented in the Department of Educational Administration and Policy Studies, Faculty of Education, Delta  States University, Abraka.

Spillane, J. P., Anderson, L. (2014). The architecture of anticipation and novices’ emerging understandings of the principal position: Occupational sense making at the intersection of the individual, organisation, and institution. Teachers College Record, 116, 1-42.

The Nigerian Educational Research Development Council (1996).An assessment of availability, adequacy and utilisation   of teacher in Nigerian public secondary schools.

Vincent, 0.I. (2010).An analysis of teachers’ utilisation in secondary schools in Mid-Western States of America. European Journal of Educational Studies 2(2), 1-6.


 

 

Cite this Article: Oroye, ORZ (2019). Influence of Distribution of Teachers on Job Performance in Public Secondary Schools, Delta State of Nigeria. Greener Journal of Educational Research, 9(1): 65-72, http://doi.org/10.15580/GJER.2019.1.052119094.