GREENER JOURNAL OF INTERNET, INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS
Submitted: 26/04/2017 Accepted: 02/05/2017 Published: 30/10/2017
Research Article (DOI: http://doi.org/10.15580/GJIICS.2017.2.042617054)
The Information Needs of Teachers and Students in Irepo Local Government Area, Kisi in Oyo State, Nigeria
*1Akinola John Olugbenga, 2Idowu Oluwafemi Adebayo,
3Adegun Isau Adewole, 4Kolajo Funmilola Susan,
5Akinola Ruth Iyabode Oluwafisayo
1Olusegun Oke Library, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Ogbomoso, Oyo State, Nigeria
2Keneth Dike Library, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria. infofm@ gmail. com
3Olusegun Oke Library, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Ogbomoso, Oyo State. Nigeria. adegunadewole@ yahoo. com
4Olusegun Oke Library, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Ogbomoso, Oyo State. Nigeria, fskolajo@lautech. edu. ng
5The Polytechnic Ibadan, Ibadan Oyo State. Nigeria. fisayo002@ yahoo. com
*Corresponding Author’s Email: gbengakinola@ yahoo. com; Phone: +2348033913876
The focus of the study was to examine the information needs and utilization of teachers and students in Irepo Local Government Area, Kisi, Oyo State, Nigeria. The study adopted a descriptive survey design and the simple random sampling technique was used to select one hundred (100) teachers and five hundred (500) students from two primary schools and two secondary schools. Questionnaire was the main research instrument used to collect data for the study, while descriptive statistics with tables of frequencies and percentage was used in analyzing the data. The study revealed that teachers needed information mostly on teaching subjects and school administration, the students on the other hand needed information relating to classroom subjects and their teachers. This was due to the fact that the primary goals/objectives of teachers were to teach and see to the school administration. Based on the findings of the study, the following recommendations were made among others to improve the information needs of teachers and students in Irepo Local Government Area, Kisi, Oyo State. Construction of modern libraries and rehabilitation of old ones to make teachers and students keep abreast of the latest development in all fields of human endeavour. Provision of recent and up-to-date materials, both print and non-print, should always be made available in sufficient quantities in our school libraries to support the school curriculum.
Keywords: Information, Information needs, Teachers, Students, Library, Secondary and Primary School Students.
It has been found that information needs are a difficult task as it is almost an investigative or decorative work. In order to identify information needs, one adopts various methods to gather information on the various factors that influence the information needs. In day-to-day work, lack of self-sufficiency constitutes information needs. These information needs represent gaps in the current knowledge of the user. Information is the form of ideas and knowledge needed to solve problems, which are of vital importance in the effective and efficient advancement and survival of an individual. Information enfolds man and spiritually, it is a vehicle and substance by which he deals with reality while attempting to understand reality. Primary education in particular is the level of education that develops in the individual the capacity to read, write and calculate. In other words, it helps to eradicate illiteracy, which is one of the strongest predictors of poverty (Bruns, Mingat & Rakotamalala 2003).
Thus, Primary education is the only level of education that is available everywhere in both the developed and the developing countries as well as in urban and rural areas (Akinbote, Oduolowu & Lawal 2001). This explains why primary education is the largest sub-sector of any education system and offers the unique opportunity to contribute to the transformation of societies through the education of the young ones (UNESCO 2001).
Participants in the World Conference on “Education for All” in Jomtien. (2006), pointed out that education is a fundamental right of all people, women and men of all ages throughout the world. It helps to ensure a safer, healthier, more prosperous and environmentally-sound world. It is an indispensable key for personal and social improvement. UNESCO (1990) has however pointed out that the current provision of education is seriously deficient and that it must be made more relevant, qualitatively improved and universally available. In recognition of the inestimable value of education, the Nigerian Government has adopted education as an instrument par excellence for effecting national development. Thus, education is viewed as an instrument for building a free and democratic society, a just and egalitarian society, a united strong and self-reliant nation and a great and dynamic economy (Federal Republic of Nigeria, 2004).
Information is critical, it is persuasive to decision making and it is one of the significant frontiers remaining to challenge man. Despite all man's abilities to generate information, he is limited in his ability to link the information he generates to the information he needs in his daily challenges. Vicki (2004) and Whitefish (2004) have shown with clarity the importance of developing library services in the high school environment. This was achieved by their in-depth collections of data for the 21st century libraries in high schools. Also Robin (2005), confirmed that any high school without an efficient and effective library is com-parable to a car without engine.
This is to say his strivings, aspirations, his welfare, his humanity are in a very direct way. A service that is not designed to the needs of its users may become underutilized, redundant or even obsolete, Grover and Carabell (1995) Education can be regarded as the heartbeat of any nation. As a man nourishes his heart to be alive, a nation must also cater for her educational system to keep it ‘alive’ technologically, economically, politically, socially and to ensure quality products. The issue of quality in the educational system has been receiving a great deal of attention in the society in recent times. Parents as well as the entire society have been clamoring for quality (Nwogbo, 2007). Wilson (2009), information need is an individual or group desire to locate and obtain information to satisfy a conscious need. Needs and interest leads to information search.
Based on the aforementioned, Ekechukwu (1999) view school library as an integral part of the institution’s programme and not just shelves of books in a school or a periodical mobile library services but school library resources which are centrally housed in a school and organized by staff that are professionally prepared to administer its services and activities to teachers and students. Akanwa (2007) also expressed an idea similar to the above in her consideration of school library as an integral part of the school. She pointed out that, it is a laboratory where many activities and experiments are carried out, and all these activities and experiments are geared towards the development of the child and the nation. Lewin (2004) articulated six reasons for investing in secondary education. First of all; the programme to universalize primary education has increased demand. Achieving the two most cited Millennium Development Goals (MDGS) which are: to achieve universal primary education, and to reduce maternal mortality by three-quarters and under-five child mortality by two-thirds, can only happen if there is expanded post primary enrollment. Furthermore, secondary education has a responsibility in the battle against HIV. Poverty reduction has a direct link with investment and participation at the secondary school level. National competitiveness depends on the knowledge and skill of its citizens in high value-added sectors; these are acquired in secondary school.
Khan and Shafigue (2010) stated that the objectives of studying information needs includes; the examination of wants; the explanation of observed phenomena of information use or expressed needs; the prediction of instance of information use; and the control and improvement of the utilization of information for solving problems and making decisions. While Kamarudin (2010) stated that information needs leads to information seeking which could be successful or unsuccessful. If successful, information located would be used for decision making and problem solving. Satisfaction occurs when the located information has been analyzed and satisfies original needs.
Historical Background of the Schools
Since man become conscious of his immediate environment, education has been recognized and adjudged as a veritable tool for development. This is seen in the fact that prior to the advent of the colonialists Kisi just like every other Yoruba towns, employed the traditional system of education, as taught morally in all its ramifications. This is in conformity to customs, ethics and value, with special reference to Yoruba tradition and culture. Following the establishment of Oyo Divisional Council, the then government attempted the establishment of the first educational facility for western education in Kisi in 1940. It was named L.A. School, Agede, and it contained a block of classrooms then. But now it has turned over to ten blocks of classroom; having L.A School I and L.A. School 2 in the big compound. By May, 1940, the recruitment exercise into the school began with the then Iba of Kisi, Iba Adesina Lawan Afolabi, as well as other High Chief sending their wards to the school. The school had a population of about 25 pupils in 1940, but only between 10 and 11 were able to complete their Primary education there and then.
However in early 1955, the number of primary schools in Kisi increased to three with Baptist Day School, established in 1942 by the Baptist Church and Ansaru Deen Society, Later in 1955, other primary schools established in Kisi were L.A. school, Koso and L.A school, Agoropelu with the total population of pupils not less than three hundred and fifty. It would be recalled that Free Primary Education was introduced in the defunct Western Region of Nigeria. This, I feel, informed the increase in the number of schools in Kisi.
The first attempt in the establishment of secondary school in Kisi was in 1963. It existed for only five (5) years before it was closed down in 1968 in lieu of a crisis in Kisi. As a result of-the wide time lag between the establishment of primary school and the very first secondary school many indigenes of Kisi were forced to stop at the primary education level. But few willing ones traveled out of the town to seek for secondary education. The credit of laying the foundation of modern secondary school goes to a body consisting of indigenous well-to-do intellectuals, called Kisi Progressive Union (KPU) when it established Kisi Community Grammar School (K-COM) in 1976. The establishment of the K-com afforded many indigenes to have secondary education. This development coupled with the introduction, of a new free Primary Education Programmed by the defunct Unity Party of Nigeria (UPN) Government in Oyo State gave a boost to education upliftment, and as a result, other secondary, schools such as Lagbulu Memorial High School and Iba High School were established in 1981 and 1982 respectively.
The first West African School Certificate (WASC) examinations took place in Kisi in 1981 with 54 candidates. The number increased steadily to 327 in 1986, but a sharp drop was noticed in the early 1990s, as there was a recorded decrease in the number of students' enrolment in Secondary Schools. Suffice it to mention is the establishment of a satellite campus of the state College of Technology in Kisi in 1982, but because of unavailability of appreciable numbers of interested students from the catchment areas, the project was short-lived. It disappeared even before its first graduation. This problem was made worst as there were no good roads at that time, and this made it difficult for students mostly from Ibadan to travel to Kisi.
However, various reforms have been introduced into Kisi education system very recently. This was brought about by the dramatic improvement in the basic social amenities such as relatively good roads, electricity, tap water, Global System of Communication (MTN Lines and Airtel Lines) and a newly constructed NIPOST Office and a local Government Library in the area.
The efforts of the Kisi progressive Union (KPU), Kisi Students Association (KISA) and the Youth Corps members (NYSC) in public enlightenment and house-to-house campaign on the need to send their children to school were highly commendable. At the end of 1999/2000 academic year, the town had 16 Primary Schools, 4 Secondary schools and outreach Teachers Institute. This development continued to grow that at the end of 2005/ 2006 academic year the town had (20) Twenty Primary Schools and (5) Five Secondary Schools owned by the State Government.
Furthermore there were Four (4) Private Primary Schools, (1) One outreach teachers Institute and (1) One outreach polytechnic used as a study center.
In conclusion, it is necessary to say that, Kisi can now boast of about 2,000 students population in higher Institutions all over the country, with almost 8,000 students population in both Primary and Secondary Schools with well trained teachers range from B.ED, N.C.E and TCII. In this view a tertiary Institution can at present be sited in Kisi, Irepo Local Government Area. With the newly and massive rehabilitated roads, accessibility to Kisi is no longer difficult. The services of part-time lecturers can easily-be hired with no problem.
STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
The Primary objectives of the teachers in the school are to acquire information to teach and train students and guide them for further reading. But there are complaints from both the students and the teachers that their information needs are not met. It is against this background that this study intends to investigate the information needs of teachers and students in Irepo Local Government Area, Kisi Oyo State, Nigeria.
OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
This study is concerned with examining the information needs of teachers and students in Irepo Local Government Area, Kisi, Oyo State. Specifically, the term of the- study are:
(i) The information needs of the teachers and students of the schools.
(ii) To identify their pattern of collecting information and examine the problems they encounter in seeking for their needed information.
(iii) To suggest some measures that can be taken to supplement the already one in use by the teachers and students in order to meet their information needs.
(iv) To evaluate the effectiveness of library services in relation to the information needs of teachers and students.
(v) To establish the extent to which the existing sources could meet needs of teachers and students presently.
(vi) Finally, to make recommendations for further improvement, such recommendations will be based on the outcome of the study.
In order to achieve the set aims and objectives of this study, the following research questions shall be used as guide in the research work.
1. What are the information needs of teachers and students in Irepo Local Government Area Kisi of Oyo State?
2. Are the library resources and services adequate to meet the information needs of teachers and students?
3. What are the various means/ ways by which the teachers and students seek for their information needs?
4. What are the problems militating against their information needs?
5. What are the contributions of the government towards the ' improvement of present information- sources and services?
6. How can the problems facing the information needs of teachers and students in Irepo Local Government Area of Kisi be overcome?
Nnadozie’s (2006) study on the evaluation of library resources revealed that … policy-makers, fiscal planners, administrators and other tech-no-crats in Nigeria are yet to appreciate the pivotal role of library and other information institutions to the Nation’s development quests. While lamenting on the problems besieging the development of school libraries in Nigeria, Okiy (2006), stated that there is no clear cut policy on funding school libraries and so they are generally few and ill equipped, lacking proper accommodation, qualified staff, relevant information resources such as books and other educational materials. Abels (2014), is of the opinion that the frequency of information seeking among secondary school students to meet their information needs has increased in recent times, presently secondary school students seek for information on regular and daily basis.
In a study by Grefins, (2011) find out the information needs of secondary school students in California, United States of America, the result revealed that the secondary school students have information needs in the areas of learning, games, recreation, entertainment, leisure, holiday, family, parental care, teaching methods, teachers, culture, religion and peer group. In another study, conducted by Seaman (2012), it was reported that secondary school students information needs encompass information about learning, academic growth, health, family, societal values, friendship and peer groups, religious groups, childhood and adulthood, career choice and culture and personal development. The study concluded that majority of secondary school students have similar information needs.
Kerins, Madden and Fulton (2004) report that the whole essence of information need and seeking behaviour is for information use and the actual process of using information has to do with the way individuals internalize information content. Having access to relevant and timely information has a role to play in the way the information is used. Unagha (2008) recognizes libraries as spatial enablers of teaching and learning. The guidelines noted that libraries have to be of the appropriate size and quality to meet the minimum standards for promoting any meaningful teaching /learning. According to Bitter (2012) secondary school students have information needs just like their tertiary institution counterpart. However, the information needs of secondary school students are quite different and even more complex compared to the information needs of tertiary institution students. Fieldman and Etington (2010) believe that secondary school students select their information needs based upon values, interest and characteristics that they exhibit.
In line with this Afolabi, (2003) reasoned that information is a conveyor, a change agent, a reinforcement of ideas, and opinions. This means that with useful information, someone's behaviour can change for good or bad. Afolabi (2004) again viewed information as a symbol or a set of symbols which has the potentials and power of communicating messages. According to him information is a unique and critical source of living without which human life may be leading for crisis and isolation. Information therefore is a source of change that conjures on the mind of the recipient a completely new opinion of which he is aware or unaware.
The study was carried out in Irepo Local Government Area, Kisi Oyo State Nigeria. The population of the study comprises of One hundred (100) Teachers and Five hundred (500) Students from Two Primary Schools and Two Secondary Schools was randomly selected, data collected was analyzed using frequency counts and percentages. The result was presented in the table formats.
FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION
Thirty questionnaires were given to the teachers of Ansarudeen Demonstration Primary school. Twenty-five were given to L.A. Primary School, Oke tege, while Twenty were given to Kisi Community Grammar School and Twenty-five were given to Lagbulu Grammar School. The table above reveals that the four schools recorded 100% return data. This shows that out of 100 questionnaires distributed, all were returned forming 100% of the questionnaire distributed. While Seventy questionnaires were given to each of A.D.S Pry School and L.A.I Oke Tege Primary School, while one hundred and eighty were given each to Kisi Community Grammar School and Lagbulu Grammar School. The table above shows that the four schools also recorded 100% return rate. This shows that-out of all 500 questionnaires distributed; all were made up of 100% of the questionnaire distributed.
Looking at the above table, none of the respondents had Teachers Grade II Certificate, 44% respondents had N.C.E. Certificate, 47% had professional teaching certificate of First University Degree, while 8% had professional teaching qualification of Masters Degree in Education. Also 1% had Postgraduate Degree in Education.
Table 3 shows areas of information needs of both teachers and students in the selected public schools. About 60% of the teachers needed information mostly on their teaching subjects, while 5% indicated school services, 20% further preferred school administration to any other area. Also 15% needed information most of their students. On the other hand, most of the students (62%) needed information mostly on their classroom subjects, while 11% indicated academic information, 13% indicated knowledge acquisition, 12% indicated fellow students and 2% of the respondents indicated sports.
Table 4 shows areas of information sources of both teachers and students in the selected public schools, 6% of teachers indicated school records, 49% used to visit the school library, 5% consulted school calendar, 5% also consulted school timetable, 35% consulted syllabus and scheme of work, while nobody consulted or indicated other sources listed above apart from these. Students indicated sources of their information needs. 52% of the students indicated classroom subjects; 8% indicated Academic information; 14% indicated knowledge acquisition; 17% indicated fellow students while 9% of the students indicated sports.
Table 5 shows use of library of both Teachers and Students in the selected public schools 35% of the teachers made use of the library daily, while 65% indicated twice in a week. In all the respondents, that make use. of the school library, teachers that use it from time to time are more. While students are asked to indicate how frequent they made use of library. 52% of the teachers indicated daily, 44% indicated once in a week, 4% indicated monthly.
Table 6 shows problems militating against Teachers and Students in the selected public schools, teachers to indicate the problems they often encountered in their bid to meet their information needs. Looking at the above table 30% of the respondents indicated large students population in classroom, 15% of the respondents indicated economic constraints, 45% indicated lack of libraries/ information centres, 10% indicated poor environment, lack of libraries/information centres and large population of students in classroom were identified as the greatest problems of information needs of teachers in Irepo Local Government Area, Kisi, Oyo State. Also Students indicated the constraints they often encountered in their bid to meet their information needs indicated Economic constraints, 3.8% indicated inadequate teachers, 50% indicated lack of libraries, 9.4% indicated lack of communication equipment, 21% indicated large population in classroom and 1.2% indicated poor environments. It should be noted that lack of libraries/information centres, large population in classroom and economic constraints were identified as the greatest problems of information needs of students in Irepo Local Government Area of Kisi, Oyo State.
Table 7 shows the class of students, 14% of the students were in pry 5, 14% again from pry 6, while 12% came from JSS 1, 12% from 2, 12% from JSS 3, 12% from SSS 1, 12% students from SSS 2, 12% students from SSS 3.
Table 8 shows the analysis of how the students generated information for their consumption. It was observed 40.8% generated information through their notebooks, 5.6% indicated, through classmates, 2.8% indicated through head boy/girl, 2% indicated through school library, 27.6% through their teachers, 12% indicated through their principals and 10.8% indicated through their head teachers.
Information is very crucial to the effectiveness of teaching and learning in primary and secondary schools. While teachers needed information mostly on teaching subjects and school administration, the students on the other hand needed information relating to classroom subjects and their teachers. This was due to the fact that the primary goals/objectives of teachers were to teach and see to the school administration. This further implied that without adequate information, teaching and learning activities in Irepo Local Government Area, Kisi Oyo State would be negatively affected as well as the educational advancement of the entire local government.
Based on the findings of the study, the following recommendations were made to improve the information needs of teachers and students in Irepo Local Government Area, Kisi, Oyo State.
1. Construction of modern libraries and rehabilitation of old ones to make teachers and students keep abreast of the latest development in all fields of human endeavour.
2. Provision of recent and up-to-date materials, both print and non-print, should always be made available in sufficient quantities in our school libraries to support the school curriculum.
3. More funds should be made available by the government for effective management and smooth running of the school libraries
4. Users education programme should be organized periodically for teachers and students to enable them appreciate the values of information and its relevance for effective teaching and learning process.
5. Provision of a well-equipped ICT Centre and E-library stock with relevant e-resources materials.
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Cite this Article: Akinola JO, Idowu OA, Adegun IA, Kolajo FS, Akinola RIO (2017). The Information Needs of Teachers and Students in Irepo Local Government Area, Kisi in Oyo State, Nigeria. Greener Journal of Internet, Information and Communication Systems, 3(2): 020-028, http://doi.org/10.15580/GJIICS.2017.2.042617054