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Greener Journal of Agricultural Sciences

ISSN: 2276-7770; ICV: 6.15

Vol. 7 (10), pp. 282-288, December 2017

Copyright ©2017, the copyright of this article is retained by the author(s)

http://gjournals.org/GJAS

 

 

 

 

Research Article (DOI: http://doi.org/10.15580/GJAS.2017.10.092117134)

 

Effects of Xylopia aethiopia (Dun.) A. Rich and Eucalyptus Camalduleusis Dehn. H Leaves extracts on leaf gall bug disease of Terminalia ivorensis A. Chev.

 

 

*Owoeye E.A., Adeleye A.S., and Arabambi D.I.

 

 

Forestry Research Institute of Nigeria; Moist Forest Zonal Research Station, p.m.b 2444, Benin-city.

 

 

 

ARTICLE INFO

ABSTRACT

 

Article No.: 092117134

DOI: 10.15580/GJAS.2017.10.092117134

 

Epicerura pulverulenta (African Moth)is one of the most important defoliator of Terminalia ivorensis A. Chev. leading to a great reduction in their production and yield potentials. The constant use of chemicals to control these phyto-pathogens poses potential threats to human health and the environment. A non–chemical control strategy such as the use of botanicals would be a better alternative. Botanicals are readily available, safe, efficacious and eco-friendly. This study was undertaken to investigate the effect of Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehn. Hand Xylopia aethiopia (Dun. ) A. Rich leaf extracts on the leaf gall bug disease of Terminalia ivorensis. The fresh leaves of both plants were blended to fine liquid extracts by conventional maceration techniques using distilled water. Prepared concentration (0.5-2.0%) of the extracts were then tested against the development of the leaf gall bug of Terminalia ivorensis . Benomyl(3%) was used as insecticidal drug. It was observed that the extract treatments had no significant effect expect for table 5,6,and the control which showed a significant effect.

 

 

Submitted: 21/09/2017

Accepted: 28/09/2017

Published: 16/12/2017

 

*Corresponding Author

Owoeye E.A.

E-mail: anitaowoeye@ gmail. com

 

 

Keywords:

Terminalia ivorensis, Eucalyptus Camalduleusis, Xylopia aethiopia and Leaf gall bug

 

 

 

 

 

 

INTRODUCTION

 

Terminalia ivorensis is a bulky forest tree which producesthe timber called Idigbo. It looks like Terminalia superba in nature,but it is notable by the dark,blackish and deeply fissured bark. It belongs to family combretaceae. In yoruba, it is called “idigbo”, in edo it is called “eghoin nekini” and in ijaw it is called “Ubiri” The germination time of the seed varies depending on the climate in Nigeria and parts of Africa. Macgregor (1934) has recorded 2 to 3 weeks,Cooper and Bramwell (1953) 2 to 3 weeks and in Ghana. The timber is used primarily for construction works and utility purposes for which it is available in large bulk for house building, planks, doors and window frames etc. It is easily sawn into planks at the sawmill and it is suitable for plywoods and veneers.The sap expressed from young leaves is applied to cuts and wound in Sierra leone(Burhill., 1972) (and is taken  with a bark decoction for enema and gonorrhea and kidney disorders and as an aphrodisiac. However,its cultivation is faced with numeroussetbacks such as attack by pests and diseases in the seedling nursery stage.

Young plantations in cote d’voire and Nigeria have been defoliated by the moth Epicerura spp.and by the locust Zonocertus variegatus,which may cause considerable decrease of yield. Spraying with insecticides decamethrin and thiocyclam hydrogen oxalate at concentration of 900g and 300g active ingredient per hectare, respectively showed good results, but a virus desease attacking the pests was also identified.The plantations are also attacked by ambrosias beetles of the genus Doliopygus. This causes small blackish holes in the wood. Newly planted stumps can be attacked by termites; this can be prevented by treating the base with insecticides. The River Red Gum wood (Eucalyptus Camaldulensis) is a tree of the genus Eucalytus. It is a plantation specie in many parts of the world,but it is native to Australia,where it is widespread,especially beside inland water courses. (Sleeet al,2006).The tree produces welcome shade in the extreme temperatures of central Australia and plays an important role in stabilizing river banks.The oils are used as an inhalant with steam and other preparations for relief of colds and influenza symptoms.Because of its refreshing odour and its efficiency in killing bacteria, the oil is also used an antiseptic (Orwa et al. 2009}.

           Xylopia aethiopicais a tree of more than 20 cm of height and 60 to 75 cm in diameter. It grows in the forest zone and especially along the rivers andits green colour takes a brown blackcoloration after drying and they are commonly used as spices. In Nigeria, the leaf extracts are powerful antibiotics and valuable medicine against malaria as well as their application in local anesthesia as pain relief(Kingdom and Baladin., 1993; Bruneton,1999; Harbone,1973).Recently the leaves were documented to possess photochemicals such as alkaloids,saponins,tannins,steroids and flavonoids (Aguoru et al., 2016)

In view of the potentials of these plant extracts of X. aethopica and E. Camadulensis,it is pertinent to explore their abilities as control agent of leaf gall bug of Terminalia ivorensis.

 

 

MATERIALS AND METHODS

 

Collection of samples

 

Fresh leaves samples of Eucalyptus camandulensisDehn. Hand Xylopia aethiopia (Dun.) A. Rich were obtained from Moist forest research station, Benin City, Edo State in November, 2016. The plants used for experiment were authenticated by Mr Emmanuel Isebemhe, the taxonomist of the Moist Forest Zonal Research Station, Benin-City.

 

Experimental Design

 

The experiment was set up in a Randomized complete Block Design (RCBD) replicated 4 times with 2 treatments involving sprayed Eucalyptus Camaldulensis leaves extract and Xylopia aethiopia leaves extract; as well as a control.

The plantswere watered daily. Disease severity was recorded on bi-weekly basis. There were two rows with four plants in a sets, there were set A,B,C and D. Each had a total of 16 plantswith a control of 4 plants sprayed with insecticides (Benmoyl). Disease severity was rated as follows; leaves regarded as ‘no infections’ were the leaves that had no gall bug per leaf, mild infections were leaves with 5-10 spots per leaf and severe infections were leaves with 10-30 spots per leaf and very severe were leaves with 30-150 leaf gall bug per leaf. The leaf gall bugs were taken for 3months. The result obtained was subjected to analysis of variance.

 

Data Collection and Analysis;

 

16 plants were sampled for treatment, while disease severity of leaves with varied categories of infection was taken bi-weekly. At 3 months old, the number of leaf gall spots per leaf was taken. The results obtained were subjected to analysis of variance.

 

 

RESULTS

 

The results from this study showed that leaf extracts of both Plants demonstrated no significant difference on the gall growth at different concentration of the extract.Table 1shows the leaf gall growth readings for the initial readings taken before leaves extracts of Xylopia aethiopia and Eucalyptus camaldulensis were applied.The mean data of unsprayed Eucalyptus leaves extracts designate plants (set A to D) range from 3.4-5.0 and 3.37-5.06 for unsprayed Xylopia aethiopia leaves extract designate plants. A t-test analysis (Table 1c) conducted on the mean data of unsprayed Eucalyptus leaves extract designate plants and unsprayed Xylopia aethiopia leaves extract designate plants showed that therewere no significant differences.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

There is no significant difference between the means of data obtained because t critical is greater than t calculated. From table 1a and 1b, the mean data of sprayed Eucalyptus leaves extracts plants at different concentration ranged from 3.87-4.87 and 3.69-3.13 for Xylopia leaves extract sprayed plants. A t-test analysis (Table 1c) conducted on mean data of sprayed Eucalyptus leaves extracts plants and sprayed Xylopia extract plants showed that there were no significant difference.

 

 

 

 

 

There is no significant difference between the means of data obtained because t critical is greater than t calculated.

From Table 2a and 2b, the mean data of sprayed Eucalyptus camadulensis leaves extract plants andXylopia aethiopia leaves extract plants at different concentrations ranged from 3.51-4.87 and 5.25-3.44 for Xylopia aethiopia extract sprayed plants showed that there were no significant difference.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The mean data of sprayed Eucalyptus camadulensis leaves extract plants at different concentrations ranged from 3.81-4.87 and 3.81-4.87 and 3.00-6.12 for Xylopia aethiopia leaves extract sprayed plants showed that there were no significant difference.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The mean data of sprayed of sprayed Eucalyptus leaves extract plants at different concentrations ranged from 3.70-4.75 and 3.0-6.12 for Xylopia leaves extract plants showed that there is a significant difference as shown below.

 

 

 

 

 

 

The mean data of sprayed Eucalyptus leaves extract plants at different concentrations ranged from 3.37-5.0 and 3.12-4.75 for Xylopia aethiopia leaves extract sprayed plants showed that there is a significant difference as shown below.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

DISCUSSION

 

The result of the effect of sprayed Eucalyptus Camadulensis and Xylopia aethiopia leaves extracts on the development of leaf gall spots on grown Termalinia Ivorensis showed that sprayed leaves extract has no significant effect except for Table 5,6 and control shows that there is a signicant effect on the development of the disease. This is similar to the work of Omokhua et al,2009, who used different sterilized granite and river sand and sawdust which are industrial waste that were considered for seed propagation for effective protection of young seedlings.Also according to the findings of (Ukioma et al,2016),it was observed that the larvae of Epicerura pulverulenta are potential threat to the growth and establishment of Terminalia ivorensis. This work agrees with the findings of (Kanga et al,1991) who opined that E.spp is a major defoliator of T.ivorensis. it was suggested in their research that appropriate control measures such as cultural practises (pruning) and recommendedchemical (decamathrin) should be applied in severe cases of infestation.

 

 

CONCLUSION

 

Based on the results of the study, the following can be made:-

 

1.   Sprayed Eucalyptus camadulensis and Xylopia aethiopia leaves extracts has a negligible effect on the development of leaf gall spots field grown Terminalia ivorensis.

 

2.   There is no significant difference between leaves of the varied categories of infection for sprayed Eucalyptus and Xylopia aethiopia leaves extract except for table 5,6 and the control.

 

Also as the plants grew older some of the leaves on the plants dropped. Leaf gall spots on the plants starts developing from 2months, it is adviced that management practices such as sterilization of any nursery medium should be done before use. Sawdust which are industrial waste may be considered for seed propagation for effective protection  of young seedlings (Omokhua et al,2009).

 

 

REFERENCES

 

Aguoru, C.U., C. Pilla and J.O. Olasau (2016). Phytochemical screening of Xylopia aethopica  with emphasis on its medicinally active principles.Journal of medicinal plant research vol. 10(22):  306-309.

Bruneton J.(1999). Pharmacognosy,Phytochemistry and Medicinal Plants intercept limited.England U.K. pp 125

Burhill, H.M. (1972). The useful plants of West Africa. Vol 1. Pp 422.

Cooper,L.G, and Bramwell A.G (1953).Notes on nursery and Planting Practice.Mann River and Bends Rehabilitation Scheme.Nigeria Forestry Department lnformation.pp.34-35.

Harbone J.B.(1973). Phytochemicals Methods Chapman and Hall Limited.,London,U.K,pp 49-188.

Kanga, L. and Fediere, G. (1991): Forest Ecology and Management.39;73-79.

.Kingdom A.D and Baladrin M.F (1993).Human Medicinal agents from plants.Washington, D.C.Symposium series.p 534.

.Macgregor,W.D.(1934).Silviculture of the Mixed Deciduous Forests of Nigeria.Oxford For Memoirs,18,p1-108. .

Orwa C.,Mutua A,Kindt R, Jamnadaes R,Anthony S.(2009).Agroforestry Database,a tree reference and selection guide version 4.0 //www.worldagroforestry.org |sites|treedatabases.asp.

Slee,Andrew,Brooker,M.H,Duffy,S.M,West, S.G. (2006).Eucalytus Camadulensis var.obtusa.Centre for plant Biodiversity Research.Retrieved 2012/06/16.

 

 

Cite this Article: Owoeye EA, Adeleye AS, and Arabambi DI (2017). Effects of Xylopia aethiopia (Dun.) A. Rich and Eucalyptus Camalduleusis Dehn. H Leaves extracts on leaf gall bug disease of Terminalia ivorensis A. Chev.. Greener Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 7(10): 282-288, http://doi.org/10.15580/GJAS.2017.10.092117134.