Greener Journal of Agricultural Sciences

Vol. 9(4), pp. 436-446, 2019

ISSN: 2276-7770

Copyright ©2019, the copyright of this article is retained by the author(s)

DOI Link: https://doi.org/10.15580/GJAS.2019.4.101419186

https://gjournals.org/GJAS

 

Description: Description: C:\Users\user\Pictures\Journal Logos\GJAS Logo.jpg

 

 

 

 

Effects of Rhizobium Inoculation and Phosphorus Fertilizer rates on Nitrogen Fixation and Nutrient up take of Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) at Goro, Bale Zone, Oromia Regional State.

 

 

Tamiru Meleta 1*; Girma Abera 2

 

 

1 Sinana Agricultural Research Centre, Bale-Robe, Ethiopia

2 Hawassa University College of Agriculture, Hawassa

 

 

ARTICLE INFO

ABSTRACT

 

Article No.: 101419186

Type: Research

DOI: 10.15580/GJAS.2019.4.101419186

 

 

Chickpea response to two varieties of chickpea (Arerti and Habr), two Rhizobial inoculants (EAL 018 and EAL 029) and five P rate (0, 15, 30, 45 and 60 kg P2O5 ha-1) were studied in split plot arrangements. Main plot consisted of varieties whereas P2O5 levels and Rhizobium strains were kept in subplot. The experiment was laid out at Goro, Bale Zone, Oromia Regional State  during 2015/16  with the objective to determine the effectiveness of Rhizobium strains and phosphorus fertilizer application on two varieties of chickpea (Arerti and Habru).The nodulation rating, nodule volume and color were not significantly affected due to varieties. However, significant variation (P <0.05) was observed in number of nodule per plant (NNPP) and nodule dry weight (NDW) between varieties of chick pea, maximum NNPP and NDW was obtained from Arerti variety. All the nodulation parameters were significantly (P<0.05) affected due to rhizobium inoculation and P2O5 except the nodule color. Maximum nodulation parameters were recorded at 45 and 60 kg P2O5 ha-1and inoculation by EAL 029 strain except the nodule color. Significant interaction effect was observed between variety and Rhizobium inoculation for nodule rate (NR), NDW between variety and P2O5, rhizobium and P2O5 and also interaction effect between varieties, Rhizobium and P2O5 on NR and NDW. The N and P uptake at mid flowering, %Ndfa, grain, straw and total N and P content and crude protein content were significantly affected by variety, rhizobium inoculation and application of P2O5. Maximum response was obtained from EAL 029 strain inoculations and application of 45 kg P2O5 ha-1 for N uptake, seed N and P uptake were maximum at 45and 60 kg P2O5 ha-1 respectively. The current investigation indicated that Arerti variety inoculation with Rhizobium strain EAL 029 along with application of P2O5 at rate of 45 kg ha-1 found to be appropriate for chickpea production in the study area. The current investigation indicated that the use of P2O5 with Rhizobium inoculation as a nutrient management strategy could increase chick pea production. Since the experiment was conducted only for one year, we suggest the results to be verified with more varieties of chickpea and rhizobium strain under the same agro-climatic conditions.

 

Submitted: 14/10/2019

Accepted:  29/10/2019

Published: 01/11/2019

 

*Corresponding Author

Tamiru Meleta

E-mail: tamish09@ gmail. com

 

Keywords: Phosphorus; Rhizobia strain; Nutrient uptake; Chickpea; Bale Robe.

 

 

 


 

 

INTRODUCTION

 

Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) is an important leguminous crop with high nutritive value and source of protein. It is originated in southeastern Turkey (Redden and Berger, 2007).The crop is adapted to cool semi-arid areas of the tropics, sub-tropics as well as the temperate areas. It is the third most important crop in volume of production after   Faba bean and haricot bean, in Ethiopia (CSA, 2015). Legume crops such as chickpea, faba bean and field pea were the potential crops which can be grown in rotation to break the mono-culture cropping practice in Bale area. National average yield of chickpea in Ethiopia is 1.9 t ha-1 which is far below the potential yield of 4.5 t ha-1 (CSA, 2015). In south eastern Ethiopia, the average of 1.18 t ha-1 is even below the national average. The gap between actual and potential yield is the result of limited application of P fertilizer and rhizobium inoculation for chickpea production in the study areas.

 

The amount of P2O5 rate and effective type of rhizobium strain were not identified for the Goro area. Most tropical soils are deficient in available phosphorus and in terms of appropriate and effective strains that are capable of fixing nitrogen. There is a need to identify appropriate rhizobium strain which will enhances nitrogen fixation attributes and yield of chickpea under different phosphorus levels. However, the recommended rate of fertilizer might vary according to crop type (variety), location, soil type, etc. Therefore; this research was initiated to study the effect of rhizobium inoculants and phosphorus fertlizer rates on, nodulation, nitrogen fixation and nutrient uptrake  of chickpea varieties

 

 

MATERIALS AND METHODS

 

Description of the Study Area

 

The experiment was conducted at Goro mid altitude of Bale, Oromia Regional State, and South Eastern Ethiopia during the main cropping season of 2015/16. Goro is located 30 km from Sinana Agricultural Research Center, 60 km from Bale Robe and 490 km from Addis Ababa. The site is situated at 6059’ N latitude and 400 29’E longitude and elevation of 1771 meters above sea level. The area has bimodal rainfall patterns. Based on this there are two separate crop growing seasons locally called ‘bona’ and ‘gana’. The main season bona extends from August to December and gana from March to May. The area receives a mean annual rainfall of 500 mm, with annual mean maximum and minimum temperatures of 200C and 16 0C, respectively. The soils are predominantly vertic in properties.

 

 

Treatments and Experimental Design

 

The experiment was laid out as a split plot design where two chickpea varieties (Arerti and Habru) were obtained from Debrezeyit Agricultural Research Center (DZARC) was allocated on the main plot, while factorial combined five phosphorus fertilizer rates (0, 15, 30, 45, and 60 kg P2O5 ha-1) and two Rhizobium strains (No inoculation, EAL 018, and EAL 029) was obtained from Menagesh Biotech PLC and Soil Microbiology Laboratory of National Soil Testing Center (NSTC), Addis Ababa, were assigned on the sub-plot in three replications. Treatments were assigned to each plot randomly. The total number of plots was 93 (90 for chickpea and 3 for wheat). The size of each plot was 4 m x 2.4 m (9.6 m2) and the distance between the plots and blocks were 1m and 2m respectively. The distance between adjacent rows and plants was 0.3 m and 0.1 m respectively. Each plot was consisted 8 rows. At physiological maturity, plants from the central four rows of a net plot size of 1.2 x 4m (4.8m2) were harvested and used for determining yield and yield components, while destructive sample were taken from the rest four rows for estimation of nodulation parameter. Reference crop wheat newly released variety Sanate was planted in the same area (4x2.4m) plots with 0.2m between rows and 0.05m between plants and consists of a total of 12 rows.

 

Experimental Procedures

 

Treatment application and field activities:

 

Before planting inoculation of the seeds was done using the dish as a container and sugar as adhesive material to stick the inoculums on the seeds. In oculation was done under the shade to avoid direct sun light. The inoculated seeds were kept in the shade for a few minutes to let them air dry before planting. Plots receiving non inoculants were planted before the others followed by those receiving inoculants in order to reduce the possibility of cross contaminations. Both rhizobium strains and P2O5 fertilizer were applied according to the treatments at the time of sowing. At planting 12 kg ha-1 of nitrogen fertilizer in the form of urea was applied to all plots as starter N in the chickpea treatments and the same amount was applied to wheat plots to keep the N balance. All weeds were removed by hand weeding and hoeing according to the locally recommended practice. Reference crop wheat (non nitrogen-fixer) was sown at the recommended seed rate of 125kg ha-1 and phosphorus fertilizer in the form of TSP (46 kg P2O5 ha-1) was applied at planting. Harvesting was done when the leaves started to senesces and shedding and pods turned yellow.

 

Soil sampling, preparation and analysis: one composite soil samples (0-30cm depth) was taken randomly in a W-shaped pattern from the representative fifteen spots of the experimental field using an augur. Finally the samples were analyzed for the following parameters: particle size distribution, pH, organic carbon, cation exchange capacity (CEC), K, total nitrogen and available P from the representative bulk soil sample before planting. Similarly, a surface soil sample of the same depth (0-30cm) was collected just after harvest from each plot by taking samples from five spots and total N and P were analyzed for each treatment in all replications following the standard procedure after harvest.

 

 

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

 

Table 1: Soil Physico-chemical Properties of the Experimental Site

Soil characteristics

Test result

pH (by 1:2:5 soil Water)

7.6

pH(Kcl)

6.89

Total N (N %)

0.17

CEC (cmol. (+) kg soil-1)

49.46

Av.P (ppm), Olsen

8.43

OC (%)

1.19

OM (%)

2.05

K+ (cmol. (+) kg soil-1)

2.83

Soil texture

Clay

46%

Sand

20%

                           Silt

34%

Soil texture Class

Clay

 

 

Effect of phosphorus and rhizobium inoculation on Nodulation Parameters

 

Number of nodule per plant

 

Data concerning number of nodules per plant was significantly (P<0.05) affected due to varieties, rhizobium inoculation and phosphorus fertilizer rates. Mean data indicated that application of 60 and 45 kg P2O5 ha-1 significantly increased nodule number by 11.24 and 13.20% respectively in chickpea relative to the control. The increased in number of nodules per plant with P2O5 application could be because of P is required for plant growth, nodule formation and development, each process being vital for N2 fixation. Phosphorus is known to initiate nodule formation as well as influence the efficiency of the rhizobium-legume symbiosis thereby enhancing nitrogen fixation (Haruna and Aliyu, 2011). Rhizobium inoculation with EAL 029 significantly increased number of nodules per plant by 7.19% than EAL018 and control presented in Table 2. This study revealed that inoculation significantly improved nodule number per plant as compared with uninoculated treatment. This might be because of inoculated bacteria strain had good nodulation inducing capacity over the native soil rhizobium population.  Significance difference was observed between varieties in terms of nodule number per plant .Higher nodule number was observed in Arerti than Habru chickpea varieties. The results of this experiment showed variability in nodulation among the varieties, which might be due to inadequate compatibility between the varieties used and strain applied. In conformity with this result Kenani et al. (2012), reported that Ethiopian and introduced chickpea germ plasma were high in genetic diversity for both symbiotic and agronomic characters. The two and three interaction effect had not significant effect on number of nodule per plant.


 

Table 2. Effects of variety, Rhizobium strain and phosphorus rate on number of nodule, Nodulating rate, nodule colour, nodule volume and nodule dry weight of Chickpea.

 

Treatments

Number of

Nodule plant-1

Nodulation rating plant-1

Nodule

Colour

Nodule Volume(ml)

plant-1

Nodule Dry

Weight (mg) plant-1

Variety

 

 

 

Arerti

37.79a

6.20

2.32

0.65

136.47

Habru

34.74b

6.08

2.33

0.63

136.09

LSD (5%)

2.382

ns

Ns

ns

Ns

rhizobium inoculation

 

 

Uninoculated

35.29b

5.92b

2.32

0.61c

136.13ab

EAL 018

35.68b

5.96b

2.34

0.64b

132.90b

EAL 029

37.83a

6.56a

2.32

0.67a

139.80a

LSD (5%)

1.371

0.373

Ns

0.029

5.1647

phosphorus kg ha-1

 

 

 

0

33.64c

4.65d

2.30

0.60c

132.67ab

15

35.29b

5.56c

2.30

0.62c

127.58b

30

36.76ab

6.57b

2.34

0.63bc

138.50ab

45

38.08a

7.08a

2.36

0.68a

141.42a

60

37.42a

6.86ab

2.35

0.67ab

141.22a

LSD (5%)

1.770

0.481

Ns

0.038

6.667

CV (%)

7.31

10.09

4.69

9.05

7.33

Means in column followed by the same letter are not significantly different at 5% level of significance.

 


 

Nodulation rating

 

Nodulation rate was significantly (P<0.05) affected by the main effect of Rhizobium inoculation and P2O5 level. Similarly, interaction effects of variety x inoculation, inoculation x phosphorus, and variety x phosphorus x inoculation .The present result revealed that inoculation with EAL 029 rhizobium strain increased nodulation rate by 10.81% as compared to control. The higher nodulation due to inoculation resulted in higher nitrogen fixation and eventually produced higher number of pods per plant which bring about higher grain yields as a whole (Singh et al., 2011). Similarly, significant (P <0.05) variation was observed due to P2O5 fertilizer application. Nodule rating per plant was increased by 47.5% and 52.3% due to application of 60 kg P2O5 and 45 kg P2O5 ha-1 compared with control treatment. These results are in accordance with the findings of Alemu (2009) who reported that fenugreek varieties fertilized with P2O5 alone showed highly significant differences in nodulation rating at 26 kg P2O5 ha-1.

Arerti variety chickpea inoculated with strain EAL 029 produced the higher nodule rating (6.75 plant-1), followed by Habru variety inoculated with strains EAL-029 (6.37 plant-1). Similarly, Arerti variety applied with 45 kg P2O5 ha-1 provide higher (7.49 plant-1) nodulation rate per plant followed by Habru variety with 60 kg P2O5 ha-1 (7.13) per plant. Nodule rating was also influenced by interaction effect of variety, rhizobium inoculation and phosphorus rates. Maximum (8.04 gm plant-1) nodulation rate was recorded from variety Arerti when inoculated with EAL 029 and application of 45 kg P2O5 ha-1 followed by the same variety when inoculated with  EAL 018 and applied with 30 kg P2O5 ha-1 .This result indicates that nodules root colonization was affected by P2O5 fertilizer. This is because when nutrients are available to the optimum level, effective and large nodules colonize the tape root systems. Consistent with this suggestion Jennings (2004) reported that, mature, effective (nitrogen fixing) nodules are often clustered on the primary root and have pink to beef stick red centers.

 

Nodule color

 

The nodule colour of chickpea varieties in the current finding was non-significantly (P<0.05) varied in all treatments. The developed nodule color ranged between pink to slightly dark red for all treatments. This revealed that both the inoculated and the indigenous Rhizobium were effective irrespective to chick pea varieties and rates of P2O5 application. With this regard, many authors reported that legume nodules having dark pink or red centers due to presence of leg hemoglobin are an indication for effectiveness of the rhizobial strain used and it is correlated to nitrogen fixation (Butler and Evers, 2004).

 

Nodule volume per plant

 

Analysis of data indicated that nodule volume per plant was significantly affected by inoculation treatment and phosphorus application rates but not by two and three way interaction effect. Among both strain the mean maximum nodule volume (0.67 ml) was produced by EAL 029 strain inoculation treatment while the lowest (0.61 ml) volume nodule per plant was recorded from control. This means that, inoculation of chickpea varieties with effective bacterial strain increased nodule volume and at the same time it increased effectiveness of nodules. Purohit (2001) stated that, the rate of nitrogen fixation of nodule is directly proportional to the volume of the effective nodule. Nodule volume was significantly (P< 0.05) varied because of P2O5 fertilizer application. The highest volume (0.68 ml) was produced when 45 kg P2O5 ha-1 was applied, while the lowest (0.32 ml) nodule volume was recorded from the control. The results are in line with Alemu (2009), who reported that highly significant variations were observed in nodule volume per plant of fenugreek varieties in response to increasing the rate of phosphorus application.

 

 

Table 3. Interaction effect of variety and phosphorus application rate on nodulation rating of chickpea varieties.

Variety

P2O5 (kg ha-1 )

Nodulation rating per plant

0

4.46f

15

5.71cd

Arerti

30

6.78ab

45

7.49a

60

6.58b

0

4.84ef

Habru

15

5.42de

30

6.36bc

45

6.67ab

60

7.13ab

LSD (5%)

0.821

CV (%)

14.24

Means in column followed by the same letter are not significantly different at 5% level of significance

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Table 4. Interaction effect of variety and Rhizobium inoculation on nodulation rate and nodule dry weight of chickpea varieties.

Variety

Rhizobium

Nodule rating per plant

Nodule dry weight

per plant

No inoculation

6.15ab

135.53ab

Arerti

EAL 018

5.71b

129.77b

EAL 029

6.75a

144.10a

Habru

No inoculation

5.68b

136.73ab

EAL 018

6.2ab

136.03ab

EAL 029

6.37ab

135.50ab

LSD (5%)

0.902

8.69

CV (%)

20.22

8.79

Means in column followed by the same letter are not significantly different at 5% level of significance

 

Nodule dry weight per plant

 

The dry weight of nodule was significantly (P< 0.01) affected by the main effect of P2O5 rates and rhizobium inoculation. Phosphorus application at 60 and 45 kg P2O5 ha-1 was significantly increased nodule dry weight by 6.44 and 6.60% respectively as compared to the control. This is probably due to the positive role that P2O5 plays in promoting nodulation and enhancement of photosynthesis in plants. This is in accordance with the finding of Amza (2002) who reported that higher phosphorus level resulted in greater dry weight of nodule per plant of chickpea while the lower P2O5 level provide minimum dry weight of nodule per plant. Similarly, inoculation of chickpea by EAL 029 rhizobium strain gave the highest (139.80gm per plant) nodule dry weight while the lowest (132.9 mg per plant) nodule dry weight was obtained from control, but significant variation was not observed between varieties on nodule dry weight. The current results are in agreement with previous reports of Assefa (2016) who reported that chickpea varieties inoculated with strain EAL-029 produced higher nodule number, nodule dry weight and shoot nitrogen content followed by strain ICRE-03.Interaction of variety and inoculation revealed that the. The highest (144.10gm plant-1) nodule dry weight was recorded from Arerti variety inoculated with EAL 029 while the lowest (129.77 gm plant-1) was obtained from EAL 018 of Arerti. However, significant variation was not observed due to other interaction effects.


 

Table 5.  Interaction effects of variety, Rhizobium inoculation and phosphorus application rate on nodulation rating of chickpea varieties.

Treatments

Varieties

Rhizobium inoculation

P2O5 (kg ha-1 ) 

Nodulation Rate plant-1

Arerti

Without inoculation

0

4.10d

15

6.68ab

30

6.75a-e

45

6.87a-e

60

6.37c-h

 EAL 018

0

4.00n

15

4.15i-n

30

6.00d-i

45

7.57ab

60

6.85a-e

EAL 029

0

5.27h-m

15

6.30c-h

30

7.60ab

45

8.04a

60

6.53b-f

Habru

Without inoculation

0

4.40k-n

15

5.00i-n

30

5.40f-k

45

6.57b-f

60

7.05a-d

CP EAL 18

0

5.33g-l

15

5.85e-j

30

6.48b-g

45

6.30c-h

60

7.03a-e

CP EAL 29

0

4.80j-m

15

5.40f-k

30

7.20a-c

45

7.15a-d

60

7.30a-c

Lsd (5%)

1.197

 

CV (%)

11.93

 

Means in column followed by the same letter are not significantly different at 5% level of significance.

 


 

 

Shoot Nitrogen uptake at 50% flowering

 

The shoot N uptake of chick pea was significantly (P<0.05) varied due to main effect of rhizobium strain and P2O5 fertilizer rates. Application of 60 and 45 kg P2O5 ha-1 resulted in significantly higher N uptake (626.25 and 616.63 mg plant-1) respectively while the lowest (563.31mg plant-1) N uptake was recorded from the control. Rhizobium inoculation with EAL 029 strain significantly increased shoot N uptake at 50% flowering. The highest (630.53mg) N uptake was obtained from inoculation with EAL 029 strain as compared with other treatments. The increased response to all nodulation parameters with increasing levels of Phosphorus in the present study may have contributed to higher N fixation and N uptake at 50% flowering stage. The results are in conformity with those of Hussain et al. (2007) who observed maximum N uptake due to increasing rates of P2O5 and N up to 60 kg P2O5 ha-1. However, significant difference was not observed in N uptake due to variety, and by interaction effect between two and three factors

 

 

Shoot phosphorus uptake at 50% flowering

 

The P uptake was significantly (P < 0.001) varied due to individual effect of P2O5 fertilizer rate and inoculation with EAL029 strain. As it is evident from the data presented in Table 6, inoculation with EAL 029 strain showed highly significant (P<0.05) variation on P uptake as compared to uninoculated treatment. There was no significant difference in P uptake between the two chick pea variety and interaction effect between variety, inoculation and P2O5 application rates. Thus, increasing P2O5 from 0 to 60 kg P2O5 ha-1 resulted in about 17.2% increment in P uptake per plant. The increased response of chickpea to applied P2O5 in respect to P uptake may be due to the fact that P2O5 is essential for plant growth and photosynthesis activity and the high response of rhizobia to applied P2O5 were contributed to development of more vegetative growth which in turn increasing more nutrient uptake Addisu (2013). Rhizobium inoculation significantly increased shoot P uptake at 50% flowering. The highest (117.82mg) P uptake was obtained from inoculation with EAL 029 strain as compared with other treatments. On the other hand, there was no significant difference in P uptake due to interaction effect.


 

Table 6.  Nutrient uptake of chickpea as influenced by variety, rhizobium inoculation and phosphorus rate.

Treatments

Shoot nitrogen

Uptake ( mg plant-1)

Shoot  phosphorus                           Uptake ( mg plant-1)

Variety

Arerti

630.40

116.53

Habru

556.63

102.68

LSD (5%)

Ns

Ns

Rhizobium inoculation

Uninoculated

578.79b

106.09b

EAL018

576.23b

104.91b

EAL 029

625.53a

117.82a

LSD (5%)

35.22

9.023

phosphorus kg ha-1

0

563.31c

98.91b

15

574.37bc

108.39ab

30

595.35bc

109.07ab

45

608.30ab

115.79a

60

626.25a

115.87a

LSD (5%)

45.479

11.649

CV (%)

                 8.02

        9.19

Means in column followed by the same letter are not significantly different at 5% level of significance.

 

 


Effects on Nutrient Uptake of chickpea varieties

 

Seed nitrogen uptake

 

Seed nitrogen uptake was significantly affected by variety, rhizobium inoculation and P2O5 fertilizer application. The highest mean N uptake (92.0 and 94.1 kg ha-1) of chickpea seed was obtained from application of EAL 029 rhizobium strain and Arerti variety of chickpea respectively. This result was in agreement with Tahir et al. (2009) in which soybean grain, straw and total nitrogen accumulation increased by 9, 122 and 76% over the control as a result of rhizobium inoculation. An increase in N contents due to rhizobium inoculation could be related to significant increase in nodulation resulting in higher accumulation of N through biological N2 fixation. The main effect of P2O5 application showed significant influence on chickpea seed N uptake. Application of P2O5 at the rate of 60 kg P2O5 ha-1 were resulted in increasing N uptake by 8.8% as compared to the control (0 kg P2O5 ha-1). It was significantly increased when the rate changed from 30 to 60 P2O5 ha-1. The increase in seed N uptake may be due to the result of increase in plant growth which resulted in high N fixation. Interaction effect of the treatment had no significant effect on chickpea seed N uptake.

 

Straw Nitrogen uptake

 

The analysis of variance showed that there was no significant difference in straw N up take of chickpea between variety and interaction effect between applied treatments (variety, inoculation and P2O5). However, main effect of inoculation and P2O5 highly significantly (P<0.01) affected straw N uptake of chickpea. The application of 30 and 45 kg P2O5 ha-1 increased straw N up take by 13.6 and 18.4% as compared to the rest treatment. The result was similar with Sarawg et al. (1999) who reported that application of P2O5 increased the shoot N content of chickpea over the control. Similarly inoculation of chickpea with EAL 029 rhizobium strain increased straw N uptake by 8.4% as compared to the control.   

 

Total Nitrogen up take

 

It is evident from data presented that total N uptake was increased significantly with increasing levels of phosphorus. The results showed that total N uptake increased with increasing phosphorus rates, with the highest total N uptake (142.59 and 139.40 kg ha-1) was obtained by phosphorus application 45 and 60 kg P2O5 ha-1 as compared to the control. Similarly, seed inoculation with EAL 029 rhizobium strain significantly enhanced total N uptake of chickpea by 7.95% as compared to the control. The increased total N uptake as the result of increasing P level and inoculation could be due to increased availability of N and P2O5 which enhances crop growth. Moreover, there was non-significant difference between chick pea variety and interaction effect of variety and phosphorus, inoculation and phosphorus and three way interactions in total N uptake of chickpea.


 


 

 

Table 7. Grain, straw and total N and P uptake and crude protein content of chickpea as influenced by variety, rhizobium inoculation and phosphorus rate.

 

Variety

Seed N uptake (kg ha-1)

Straw N uptake

(kg ha-1)

Total N uptake

(kg ha-1)

Seed P uptake

(kg ha-1)

Straw P uptake (kg ha-1)

Total P uptake (kg ha-1)

Crude Protein (%)

Arerti

91.99a

47.86

139.85

14.18

2.57

16.75

20.39a

Habru

87.24b

42.39

129.63

12.69

2.43

15.12

19.87b

LSD (5%)

1.3214

ns

Ns

Ns

ns

ns

ns

Rhizobium Inoculation

 

 

 

 

Uninoculated

87.33b

44.11b

131.43b

12.44b

2.39b

14.83b

19.94

EAL018

87.46b

43.45b

130.91b

13.69a

2.30b

15.99a

20.21

EAL 029

94.06a

47.82a

141.88a

14.18a

2.80a

16.98a

20.25

LSD (5%)

4.639

3.6468

7.2986

1.0043

0.3553

1.1353

ns

Phosphorus kg ha-1

 

 

 

 

0

85.93b

42.24b

128.17b

12.01c

2.23b

14.24d

19.21d

15

86.35b

41.49b

127.85b

12.32bc

2.28b

14.60cd

19.74c

30

88.57ab

47.12a

135.69ab

13.56ab

2.44ab

16.00bc

19.86c

45

93.47a

49.12a

142.59a

14.78a

2.89a

17.67a

21.22a

60

93.75a

45.66ab

139.40a

14.52a

2.65ab

17.17ab

20.63b

LSD (5%)

5.9889

4.708

9.4225

1.2966

0.4587

1.4656

0.5243

CV (%)

7.99

12.48

8.36

11.54

21.96

10.99

3.11

Means in column followed by the same letter are not significantly different at 5% level of significance; LSD = Least Significant Difference; CV= Coefficient of Variation


 


 

 

Seed phosphorus uptake

 

The main effects of rhizobium inoculation and P2O5 application were highly and significantly (P<0.01) affected chickpea seed phosphorus uptake (SPU). However, interaction effects had no significantly affected on seed P uptake. The results showed that seed P uptake was increased by 23.06 % at 45 kg P2O5 ha-1 as compared to the control. Havlin et al. (1999) also indicated that large quantities of P are found in seed and P2O5 is considered to be essential for seed formation. Result of seed phosphorus uptake was influenced by rhizobium inoculation. Inoculation by EAL 029 and EAL 018 provide maximum (14.18 and 13.69 kg ha-1) seed phosphorus uptake respectively as compared to uninoculated ones.

 

Straw phosphorus uptake

 

Analysis of variance showed that two and three factors (variety, inoculation and phosphorus) did not show interaction effect on straw P up take. Similarly, the main effect of variety was remained non-significant. However, the main effects of inoculation and P2O5 level highly significantly (P<0.01) affected chickpea straw P up take. The present result revealed that the variation in straw P uptake in response to P2O5 fertilizer application revealed that the soil P2O5 levels influence on amount of P uptake by chickpea. Application 45, 60 and 30 kg P2O5 ha-1 increases straw Phosphorus up take by 29.6, 18.8 and 9.4% respectively as compared to the control. Inoculation with EAL 029 strain show maximum (2.80 kg ha-1) straw P uptake, while inoculation with EAL 018 show minimum (2.39 kg ha-1) straw P uptake.

 

Total Phosphorus up take

 

Rhizobium inoculation showed significant (P<0.01) variation on total P uptake as compared to uninoculated treatment. Inoculation of chickpea with EAL 029 and EAL 018 increase total P uptake by 14.50 and 7.82% as compared to the control, respectively. This result was in accordance with Tahir et al. (2009) who reported that rhizobium inoculation of soya bean increased total uptake of P by 79%. The higher P uptake due to rhizobium inoculation could be due to the fact that some isolates of rhizobia have the ability to solubilize precipitated P2O5 components and thereby increase P uptake in plants Qin et al. (2011. The main effect of variety and interaction effect had not showed significant effect on total P uptakes at physiological maturity. However, total P uptake was significantly (P<0.05) affected by P application rates. The total P uptake of chickpea was improved by 12.4%, 20.6% and 24.1% at application of 30, 60 and 45 kg P2O5 ha-1), respectively as compared to the control.

 

Amount of N2 fixed and Percentage of N2 Derived from the Atmosphere

 

Rhizobium inoculation and phosphorus application rate significantly (P<0.05) influenced the amount of N2 fixed and % Ndfa. The mean amount of N2 fixed and % Ndfa for the application of 45, 60, 30 kg ha-1 and inoculation of EAL 029 strain was higher than that of the control (0 kg ha-1) and uninoculated treatment. The result showed that variety and interaction effect of the treatment did not significantly increase the amount of N2 fixed and the percentage of N2 derived from the atmosphere (% Ndfa).

The amount of N2 fixed and % Ndfa increase with increasing phosphorus rate. The maximum amounts (45.69 and 42.96 kg ha-1) of N2 fixed were recorded from the application of 45 and 60kg P2O5 ha-1. Similarly maximum (0.35 and 0.34%) % Ndfa were obtained from application of 45 and 60 kg P2O5 ha-1. The amount of N2 fixed in chickpea was significantly increased by 47.09 and 56.59 %, with phosphorus application of 60 and 45 kg P2O5 ha-1 respectively over the control (0 kg P2O5 ha-1). The %Ndfa increased with the application of 60 and 45 kg P2O5 ha-1 by 25.93 and 39.63 %, respectively over the control (0 kg P2O5 ha-1). The observed improvements with amount of N2 fixed and % Ndfa increase with increasing phosphorus rate might be due to the P increases the number and size of nodules and the amount of nitrogen assimilated per unit weight of nodules, increasing the percent and total amount of nitrogen in the harvested portion of the host legume and improving the density of Rhizobia bacteria in the soil surrounding the root (Basher et al., 2011). This indicates that P deficiency does not only limit plant growth, it can also limit symbiotic N2 fixation as the latter has been noted to have a higher P requirement for optimal functioning than either plant growth or nitrate assimilation.

 Similarly inoculation of chickpea by EAL 029 increase of N2 fixed and % Ndfa by 35.86 and 18.04% as compared to uninoculated ones respectively. The increase in N2 fixed and % Ndfa might be due to inoculation of seed with appropriate Rhizobium inoculums probably attributed to the enhanced availability of N through BNF for vegetative growth of the plants. Also inoculation of Rhizobium is significantly increase nodule number, nodule weight and root weight (Ali et al., 2008).


 

Table 8. Effects of variety, inoculation, and phosphorus rate on Post harvest soil, amount of N2 fixed and percentage of N2 derived from the atmosphere (% Ndfa).

 

Treatments

Post harvest

Soil N (%)

Amount of  N2

fixed (kg ha-1)

% Ndfa

Variety

 

 

Arerti

0.160

40.242

0.33

Habru

0.155

34.226

0.30

LSD (5%)

Ns

Ns

Ns

Rhizobium Inoculation

 

Uninoculated

0.151b

32.042b

0.288b

 EAL 018

0.157b

36.123b

0.309b

EAL 029

0.165a

43.537a

0.341a

LSD (5%)

0.008

4.790

0.02

Phosphorus kg ha-1

 

0

0.148b

29.175d

0.27d

15

0.157b

31.192cd

0.28cd

30

0.153ab

37.202bc

0.31bc

45

0.167a

45.685a

0.35a

60

0.164a

42.915ab

0.34ab

LSD (5%)

0.010

6.183

0.030

CV (%)

7.57

19.86

12.29

Means in column followed by the same letter are not significantly different at 5% level of significance

 

 

 


CONCLUSION

 

Ethiopia stands first in area and production of chickpea, but third in productivity per unit area after Egypt and Sudan. This clearly indicates the importance of chickpea in Ethiopian agriculture, but requires more efforts to improve its productivity for profitable and sustainable production. The results showed that Rhizobium inoculation and application of phosphorus fertilizer rate had significantly differences in nodule number per plant, nodule rating, nodule volume, nodule dry weight, straw N and P uptake at 50% flowering and grain, straw and total N and P uptake at maturity; especially in case of Arerti variety inoculation with EAL 029 strain and application of 45 kg P2O5 ha-1. Therefore, proper fertilization program including phosphorus integrated with inoculation of effective rhizobium strain should be implemented to improve the productivity of grain legumes and thereby increase the productivity of legumes and provide good quality chickpea in our Country.

 

 

REFERENCES

 

Alemu Desa. 2009. Effect of phosphorus application and rhizobium inoculation on nodulation, yield and yield related traits of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.) in sinana, south eastern Ethiopia. Thesis, Haramaya University, Haramaya, Ethiopia.

Ali M.E., Khanam D. M., Bhuiya H. A., Khatun M.R. and Talukder M.R. 2008. Effect of Rhizobium inoculation on different varieties of garden pea (Pisum sativum L.). J. Soi. Nature2:30-33.

Azma F. 2006. Added nitrogen, it is occurrence mechanism and implications to fate of N in the soil plant system .Pak.J.Agron.1:54-59.

Basher K., Ali S., USAir A. 2011. Effect of different phosphorus levels on xylem sap components and their correlation with growth variables of mash bean. Sarhad Journal of Agriculture, Vol. 27, and No. 4.

Bulter T.J. and Evers G. 2004. Inoculation, nodulation, nitrogen fixation and transfer. Texas cooperative extension (press).

CSA (Central Statistics Authority). 2015. Agricultural Sample Survey. Reports on area under cultivation, yield and production of major crops for main (Maher) season, Ethiopia.

Haruna I. M. and Aliyu L. 2011. Yield and economic returns of sesame (Sesamumindicum L.) as influenced by poultry manure, nitrogen and phosphorus at Samaru,  Nigeria. Elixir Agric., 39: 4884-4887.

Havlin J.L., Beaton J.D., Tisdale S.L. and Nelson W.L. 1999. Soil Fertility and Fertilizers: An Introduction to Nutrient Management, Prentice Hall, New Jersey. pp 499.

Hussain M.D., Roman M.M. & Fujita M. 2007. Comparative investigation of glutathione S-transferees, glyoxalase and alliance activities in different vegetable crops. Journal of Crop Science and Biotechnology. 10, 21-28, ISSN 2005-8276.

Jennings J. 2004. Forage legume inoculation. In: Agriculture and Natural Resources University of Arkansa press. UK.

Kenani G., Berkeley E., Imia M. 2012. Genetic diversity and population structure of Ethiopian chickpea (Cicero arietinum L.) germplasm accessions from different geographical origins as revealed by microsatellite markers. Plant Mol. Biol. Rep. 30: 654 – 665.

.

Qin L., Jiang H., Tian J., Zhaod J. and Liao H. 2011. Rhizobia enhance acquisition of phosphorus from different sources by soybean plants. Plant Soil 349:25–36.

Redden R.J. and Berger J.D. 2007. History and origin of chick pea .In:Yadaw et al.,(eds) chick pea breeding and management pp 1.13.CABI Walling ford, UK.

Sarawg S.K., Tiwari P.K. and Ttripathi R.S. 1999. Uptake and balance sheet of nitrogen and phosphorus in gram as influenced by phosphorus, biofertilizers and micronutrients under rain fed condition. Indian J. Agron., 44(4): 768-772.

SAS Inst.Inc. 2002. SAS online doc. 9. Cary, In. NC: SAS Institute Inc. USA.

Singh A., Baoule A., Ahmed HG., Dikko AU., Aliyu U.,Sokoto MB., Hassan J., Musa M., Haliru B. 2011. Influence of phosphorus on the performance of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.) varieties in the Sudan savanna of Nigeria. Agri. Science. 2(3): 313-317.

Tahir M., Javed M. R., Tanver A., Nadem M. A. andWasaya A., Bukhari S.A.H. and Rehman J. U. 2009. Efect of different herbicides on weeds, growth and yield of spring planted maize (Zea mays L.). Pak. J. Life Soc. Sci. 7(2): 168-174.


 

 

 

Cite this Article: Meleta, T; Abera, G (2019). Effects of Rhizobium Inoculation and Phosphorus Fertilizer rates on Nitrogen Fixation and Nutrient up take of Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) at Goro, Bale Zone, Oromia Regional State. Greener Journal of Agricultural Sciences 9(4): 436-446, https://doi.org/10.15580/GJAS.2019.4.101419186 

.