Greener Journal of Agricultural Sciences

Vol. 9(4), pp. 459-465, 2019

ISSN: 2276-7770

Copyright ©2019, the copyright of this article is retained by the author(s)

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Assessment of Cassava Processing Machinery in Akinyele Local Government, Oyo State, Nigeria

 

 

1Gbadamosi Jimoh and 2Kolawole O. Peter

 

 

1, Department of Agricultural Education, School of Vocational and Technical Education, Emmanuel Alayande College of Education, Oyo.

2, Department of Agricultural Education, School of Vocational and Technical Education,

Ekiti State University, Ado-Ekiti.Oyo Campus/Mechanization unit, IITA Ibadan.

 

 

ARTICLE INFO

ABSTRACT

 

Article No.: 121819218

Type: Research

 

 

The study was conducted to know the state of cassava processing machinery and the knowledge of operators on maintenance of that machinery in Akinyele local government areas of Oyo state. The local Government is currently hosting International Institute of Tropical Agriculture IITA and total number of 50 cassava processors responded to our questionnaires. The distribution was 5 cassava processors per ward. The questionnaires used to collect data consists of the demographic structures, observed cassava processing machinery, methods of operating the machines, assessment of abandoned machines and reasons, ownership of the processing centres, sources of power for operating machines and the relationship between the cassava processors and the machine manufacturers. The results show that 75% of the processors were female, average age between 31-40 years (46%). Most of the machines abandoned were obsolete because of new technology and no capacity development to improve those machines for the cassava processors. This will be needed to boost agriculture and employment.

 

Accepted:  16/12/2019

Published: 24/12/2019

 

*Corresponding Author

Kolawole Peter

E-mail: p.kolawole @cgiar.org

 

Keywords: Cassava root; Processing; Machinery; Survey; Gender

 

 

 

                             


INTRODUCTION

 

Economy and unemployment is currently driving Nigerian Agriculture. The Nigerian authority’s order of border closure against imported foods is making agriculture more interesting, many are returning to farm unwillingly without proper tools while others became emergency farmers of food crops. There is a need to fully transform agricultural practice from low level of mechanization to the highest level through the introduction of machinery. Tractors per 100 sq. km of arable land in Nigeria was 6.70 as at 2007. Its highest value over the past 50 years was 6.70 in 2007, while its lowest value was 0.21 in 1961 (FOA, 2007). Nigeria needs 750,000 tractors to be at par with global average (Okojie, 2018). Universities, private individuals and organizations are at the fore front of tackling the challenge of producing what we can use. These institutions have developed tillage, planting, harvesting and processing machines. However, processing machines are of much demand, therefore this paper’s focus is on cassava processing machines which come in different capacities and cost range that suit various farmers (Gbadamosi, 2017). Nigeria is currently exporting cassava processing machines to other countries thanks to IITA. Cassava (Manihot utilisima) is the most important food crop in Africa after rice and maize. The world's largest producer of cassava is Nigeria with a production of 47,406,770 tons in 2013 (Oishimaya, 2018). Cassava processing has received considerable attention in Nigeria due to increased demand for it as food with governmental policy backing. Farmers look up to the agronomist to provide them with improved varieties; they look up to engineers to help them solve complex issues of value addition by providing appropriate machines and equipment. This challenge has been undertaken by indigenous manufacturers, research institutes, universities and similar higher institutions.

These facilities designed and developed in hand tools format are usually manual, electric and internal combustion engine (ICE) operated machines. Equipment for processing cassava root are not different. All the unit operations involved in cassava processing have been successfully mechanized in Nigeria without exception. The fact that it is a perennial plant makes it easy to harvest when required and treated as a food reserve during droughts and famines. Cassava thus serves as both a cash and a subsistence crop. African nations are the most heavily dependent on root and tuber crops. In some countries of sub-Saharan Africa, cassava is even a staple or a sub-staple. In Ghana, 46% of the GDP of the country is contributed by trade in cassava. In India, cassava is a staple food in the Kerala and Andhra Pradesh states of the country. It is also consumed as an important carbohydrate source in Assam. The cassava produced in Thailand and Vietnam find the largest export market in China. In China, the Guangxi province is responsible for about 60% of the country’s cassava production. Several types of alcoholic beverages are also made from cassava. Cassava is also an important part of many cuisines worldwide. Cassava also has certain toxic properties that must be treated before consumption. Cassava roots are also used as an important animal feed. A number of laundry products utilize cassava derivatives as laundry starch.

 Cassava root is locally consumed in Nigeria as fufu, gari, or as cassava flour. Its products and by products are utilized in the industry and as livestock feeds. IITA has just introduced naturally fortified variety with β- carotene otherwise known as pro vitamin A. Processing the large tones of cassava in Nigeria to a targeted product for local consumption or export depends on the available machinery inputs. Therefore, the overall goal of cassava processing in Nigeria through agricultural mechanization practice is to enhance productivity, add value to products, reduce losses and drudgery, increase turnover of product which can increase house hold income and improve their overall welfare.

Davies et al (2008) carried out survey of cassava processing machinery in the whole Oyo state as well as in Iwo local government area (LGA) of Osun state. Gbadamosi (2017) carried out appraisal of cassava processing machinery in Oyo town.  In continuation of Gbadamosi’s work, Akinyele LGA became a subject of these investigations with the objective to know the level of cassava processing mechanization adoption in every LGA of Oyo state for knowledge transfer to vocational students of agricultural science on how to feed the future generation. This paper is an effort to document another LGA report critically, looking at cassava processing machinery in Akinyele LGA of Oyo state.

 

 

MATERIALS AND METHODS

 

Survey of cassava processing machinery at Akinyele Local Government Area (LGA) as a case study was conducted by means of a structured questionnaire, administered through a participatory learning technique. The Local Government Area was divided into wards with 5 cassava processors. Thus, a total of 50 processing centers were visited. The questionnaire was divided into two sections A and B. Section A consists of social economic characteristics of the cassava processor which are names of the processor, of respondent, age, marital status, religion, sex, educational level and year of experience in processing. Section B consists of the type of machines, gender of operator and the machine manufacturer, the processor and the machine owner. The power sources for the machines, the abandoned machinery and the reason.

The study was carried out at Akinyele local government area of Oyo State, Nigeria. Moniya is the headquarter, its geographical coordinates are 7° 31' 42" North, 3° 54' 43" East. It is about 20 kilometers north of Ibadan, the capital of Oyo state. The altitude is between 300 and 600 meters above sea level. The mean annual temperature is about 27°C while that of rainfall is 1165mm. The vegetation of the area is Southern Guinea Savanna zone of Nigeria (Gbadamosi, 2017).

 

Population for the Study

 

The population of the study was all the identified cassava Processors in Akinyele local government with headquarters at Moniya.

 

Sample and Sampling Techniques

 

A total of 50 centres were randomly selected, each cassava processor or delegate at each centre was engaged.

 

 

 

Collection of Data

 

Questionnaires designed by the researchers for the collection of data in this study were used.

 

Data Analysis

 

The result collected was analyzed using simple frequencies and percentage.

 

RESULTS

 

Table 1 shows the demographic structure of cassava processors as related to their socio-economic characteristics. The results revealed that majority of the cassava processors were female (75%) and married adults (70%) with their ages ranging from 31-40 years. This is an indication that the processors are still more active. The results also revealed that most of the cassava processors were Christians (61%) while least of them were traditionalists (9%) and this implies that the operation  is not affected by religious beliefs. The results also revealed that the cassava processors had formal education, 50% attended primary, 40% secondary and 10% tertiary schools. The observation also noticed that the most of the respondents (45%) had been into cassava business for 15 years.

Cassava processing machines in the study area is presented in table 2. The results revealed that machines were not available in most of the processing centres with value of grater at (47.41%), dewaterer (6.61%) and sieves (45.97%), these were common. However, peelers, washer, fryer, dryer and millers were not observed in this present study and this is a strong indication that the cassava processors were still operating at a manual level.


 

 

Table 1. Demographic Structure of Socio-economic characteristics.

Parameters                 Frequency               Percentage (%)

 

Sex

Male                                         10                                            25

Female                                     40                                            75

Marital status

 Single                                      03                                            06

 Married                                    35                                            70

 Divorced                                  02                                            04

 Widowed                                 05                                            10

 Separated                                05                                            10

 

Age

Below 20                                  05                                            10

21-30                                        07                                            14

31-40                                        23                                            46

40 above                                  15                                            30

 

Religion

Islam                                        15                                            30

Christianity                               30                                            60

Traditional                                05                                            10

 

Educational Level

Primary                                    30                                            60

Secondary                                05                                            30

Tertiary                                    10                                            10

 

Year of Processing Experience

Below 20                                  22                                            44

21-30                                        18                                            36

31-40                                        05                                            10

40 above                                  05                                            10

 

Source: Fieldwork, 2019

 

 

 

The methods of processing operation of cassava are presented in table 3. The results show that peeling, washing, grating, dewatering, frying and drying were 100% respectively operated manually by the women and children. The sieving was done both manually (60%) and mechanically (40%) while millings were done mechanically (100%).

 

Table 2. Cassava Processing Machines in the Study Area.

Machines           Observed                    Machines Percentage (%)

Peeler                          -                                               -

Washer                        -                                               -

Grater                          165                                           47.41

Dewaterer                      23                                           06.61

Sieves                          160                                           45.97

Fryer                            -                                               -

Dryer                            -                                               -

Millers                          -                                               -

 

Source: Fieldwork, 2019

 

 

Table 3 Methods of processing operation of cassava

Operations                  Frequency                   Percentage (%)

Peeling

Manual                         50                                            100

Mechanical                   -                                               -

 

Washing

Manual                         50                                            100

Mechanical                   -                                               -

 

Grating

Manual                         50                                            100

Mechanical                   -                                               -

 

Dewatering

Manual                         -                                               -

Mechanical                   50                                            100

 

Sieving

Manual                         30                                            60

Mechanical                   20                                            40

 

Frying

Manual                         50                                            100

Mechanical                   -                                               -

 

Drying

Manual                         50                                            100

Mechanical                   -                                               -

 

Milling

Manual                         -                                               -

Mechanical                   50                                            100

 

Source: Fieldwork, 2019.

 

Table 4 shows the participation in washing and drying of cassava. The results revealed that most of the cassava processors washed cassava before grating with value of 80% like previous studies. Drying is done by spreading the residue of the sieved cassava mash into a flat surface in the sun and 100% of the respondent’s sundry cassava to form cassava flour in for sale.

 

 

 

Table 4. Participation in Washing and Drying of Cassava.

Operation                                Response                    Frequency                               Percentage

Washing                                   Yes                                          40                                 80

No                                            10                                 20

Drying                                      Sun drying                                50                                100

Mechanical                               -                                  -

 

Source: Fieldwork, 2019

 

 

The abandoned machines and reasons for the abandonment of the machines are presented in table 5. The results revealed that grater, dewater and fryer were 53, 18 and 30 respectively. The reasons for abandonment was due to lack of technicians, as Technical colleges do not produce skilled technicians as expected, old age, high operational cost and non-availability of spare parts while most of the processing centres lack peelers, washers, dryers and millers.

 

Table 5. Abandoned Machines and reasons for the Abandonment of the Machines.

 Key Number of Abandoned (NA) Lack of Good Technician (LGT) Old Age (OA) Un-Availability (UA) High Operation Cost (HOC) Total Spare Part (TSP)

Machine                       NA       LGT     OA       UA       HOC     TSP

Peeler                          -           -           -           -           -           -

Washer                        -           -           -           -           -           -

Grater                          15        10        16        16        06        53

Dewater                        06        04        -           -           08        18

Sieves                          -           -           -           -           -            -

Fryer                            10        -           16        04        -           30

Dryer                            -          -           -           -           -           -

Miller                            -           -           -           -           -           -

 

Source: Fieldwork, 2019.

 

 

Table 6 indicated the gender in relation to cassava processing operations. The result shows that some cassava processing operations are gender dependent.

Men engaged in processing operations like grating, dewatering and milling while women were predominant in peeling, washing, sieving, frying and drying.

 

Table 6. Gender in Processing

Operation                               Frequency                               Percentage

 

Peeling

Male                                         05                                                        10

Female                                     35                                                        70

Male and female                       10                                                        20

 

Washing

Male                                         05                                                        10

Female                                     45                                                        90

Male and female                       -                                                           -

 

Grating

Male                                         50                                                        100

Female                                     -                                                           -

Male and female                       -                                                           -

 

Dewatering

Male                                         50                                                        100

Female                                     -                                                           -

Male and female                       -                                                           -

 

Sieving

Male                                         10                                                        20

Female                                     36                                                        72

Male and female                       04                                                        08

 

Frying

Male                                         -                                                           -

Female                                     50                                                        100

Male and female                       -                                                           -

 

Drying

Male                                         -                                                           -

Female                                     50                                                        100

Male and female                       -                                                           -

Milling

Male                                         50                                                        100

Female                                     -                                                           -

Male and female                       -                                               -

 

Source: Fieldwork, 2019.

 

 

Table 7 revealed the ownership of the processing centres in the study area. The results indicated that processing centres were predominantly owned by individuals (50%) while 30% were owned by cooperative societies and 20% were controlled by non-governmental organizations with non-involvement of the government.

 

Table 7. Ownership of the Processing Centre.

Ownership                   Frequency                                                       Percentage

Individual                                  25                                                                    50

Cooperative societies                15                                                                    30

Non-government                       10                                                                    20

Government                              -                                                                       -

 

Source: Fieldwork, 2019.

 

 

The source of power for operating the machines is shown in table 8. The results indicated that most of the engines were running on diesel (70%) while petrol, electricity and both electricity and diesel operations were 10%, 06% and 14% respectively.

 

Table 8. Sources of Power for Operating the Machines.

Source of Power                     Frequency                               Percentage

Diesel                                       35                                                        70

Petrol                                       05                                                        10

Electricity                                 03                                                        06

Electricity/diesel                       07                                                        14

 

Source: Fieldwork, 2019.

 

 

Table 9 shows the relationship between the cassava processors and machine manufacturers. The result revealed that the most machines observed were manufactured by welders. The relationship between the cassava processors and manufacturers were moderate (75%), poor (20%) and high (5%).

 

 

Table 9. Relationship between the Cassava Processors and Machine Manufacturers.

Relationship

High                                                     05

Moderate                                              75

Poor                                                     20

 

Source: Fieldwork, 2019.

 

 

 


DISCUSSION

 

The current findings on demographic structure of cassava processors in relation to socio-economic characteristics, that favoured female, married, adults with age were in line with Gbadamosi (2017).

Similar range of values for gender, marital status, age and religious as observed has been reported. Due to the level of graduate unemployment, the researcher was expecting to see more operators with tertiary qualifications than what was reported. Researchers documented a range of values in favour of educational level and year of processing experiences but this was not the case. However, he noticed that males dominated cassava processing machine operations in this current study, that grater, dewater and sieves were commonly used in harmony with previous documented findings.

Gender, in cassava processing operations shows that females are always ready to switch their role for males to take over whenever machine is involved.

 

 

CONCLUSION

 

This paper discusses delivery activities in agricultural machinery in Akinyele LGA of Oyo state Nigeria, placing emphasis on cassava tuber processing machines. It is worthy to mention that the researchers are lecturers that have direct contact with students and are also involved not only in cassava tuber processing research but also in other agro-production machine research. This study shows that the people involved in the processing of cassava were females, married with formal educational background however, grater operators, dewaterers and sieves were the major machines while most of these machines were operated manually and some were abandoned due to obsoleteness and old age. Ownership was through individuals with moderate relationship between the processors and the machine manufacturers and the machines were operated with fossil fuels nonrenewable energy source.

 

 

RECOMMENDATIONS

 

Based on these findings, government involvement will be needed in the setting-up or ownership of cassava centres as a way to create more employment among the young. They should assist in educating the cassava processors in the new innovation and implementation of modern tools. Most recent machines discovered should be introduced in order to assist modern peelers, washers, fryers, dryer and millers.

Government can assist in the introduction of modern processing of cassava mechanically through extension agents and loans could be given to the people involved in the cassava processing to expand their work.

 

 

REFERENCES

 

Davies, R.M. Olatunji M.O. and Burubai W. 2008. A Survey of Cassava Processing Machinery in Oyo State World Journal of Agricultural Sciences 4 (3): 337-340, 2008 ISSN 1817-3047 IDOSI Publications.

FAO 2007 Nigeria - Agricultural machinery, tractors per 100 sq. km of arable land

https://www.indexmundi.com/facts/nigeria/indicator/AG.LND.TRAC.ZS

Fieldwork, 2019. An Appraisal of Cassava Processing Machinery in Akinyele Local Government Area of Oyo State, Nigeria. Unpublished Research Project of Faculty of Education Department of Agricultural Science Ekiti State University. Ado Ekiti

Gbadamosi J. 2017 An Appraisal of Cassava Processing Machinery in Oyo Metropolis, Oyo, Oyo State, Nigeria International Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences 2017; 2(6): 68-72

Okojie J. (2018) Nigeria needs 750,000 tractors to be at par with global average

       https://businessday.ng/agriculture/article/nigeria-needs-750000-tractors-par-global-average-ritvonen/

Oishimaya N. (2018). Top Cassava Producing Countries

WorldAtlas, worldatlas.com/articles/top-cassava-producing-countries-in-the-world.html.

 

 

 


Cite this Article: Gbadamosi, J; Kolawole, OP (2019). Assessment of Cassava Processing Machinery in Akinyele Local Government, Oyo State, Nigeria. Greener Journal of Agricultural Sciences 9(4): 459-465.

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