Greener Journal of Agricultural Sciences

Vol. 10(2), pp. 63-70, 2020

ISSN: 2276-7770;

Copyright ©2020, the copyright of this article is retained by the author(s)



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Nutritive assessment of different forms of Piliostigma thonningii leaves in West Africa Dwarf Sheep diet



Akinlade J.A.1; Fabule S.A.1; Alalade J.A.2; Asaolu V.O.1; Aderinola O.A.1; Okunlola O.O.2



1Department of Animal Production and Health, Ladoke  Akintola University of Technology

PMB 4000, Ogbomoso, Nigeria

2Department of Animal Health and Production, Oyo State College of Agriculture and

Technology, P.M.B. 10, Igbo Ora.Oyo State.






Article No.:052619099

Type: Research



Small ruminants are relatively easier to manage and produce than other species of livestock. An experiment was carried out to investigate the performance and nutrient digestibility of West African dwarf growing sheep fed mixture of Panicum maximum and different forms of Piliostigma thonningii for 60 days feeding trial. A total of twenty (20) WAD sheep were randomly allocated to four treatments (T1= P. maximum (PM) 100%; T2= 70% P. maximum (PM) + 30% fresh Piliostigma   thonningii ; T3= 70% P. maximum (PM) + 30% wilted Piliostigma thonningii ; T4= 70% P. maximum (PM) + 30% dried Piliostigma thonningii ) with five animals per treatment. The experimental diet was fed at 3% body weight of individual animals. The results revealed that animals fed T2 recorded the least weight gain (75.13g/day) while the highest weight gain (77.21g/day) was recorded for T4. The daily weight gain of animals were significantly different across all treatments (P<0.05). The forms of PT leaves had effect on dry matter (DM) and nutrient compositions. DM and NDF were higher (P<0.05) in the dry PT leaves. Mean crude protein (CP) was similar in the fresh (10.79±1.80), wilted (10.74± 0.9) and dry forms (10.26±1.20).  Higher value of (620.90± 2.10) neutral detergent fibre (NDF) was obtained for dry leaves and the least value (532.71±1.62) was obtained for the fresh leaves. Mineral contents was reduced in the dry form while the anti-nutrients except for the oxalate was significantly (P<0.05) reduced in the dry form of PT. Results suggest that feed intake, weight change and nutrient digestibility can be improved by feeding of PT leaves to sheep in the dry form, and that the drying reduced most of the secondary metabolites of PT leaves. Further studies is however recommended to determine whether further higher supplementation  levels for all forms of  PT leaves  is necessary for optimum utilization as the dry season feed supplement for sheep.


Accepted:  28/05/2019

Published: 25/04/2020


*Corresponding Author

Akinlade,Jelili Akinwole

E-mail: akinslautech@

Phone: +2348033722826


Keywords: Piliostigma thonningii; digestibility; anti-nutrients; supplementation








Lack of all year round   good quality feed remains a critical problem in the sustaining high productivity from ruminant, most especially the small ruminant animals in the derived savanna ecological zone (Akinlade et al 2002) of Nigeria. The ecological zone has been known for a cyclic change in the availability and nutritional status of forages

Thus the search for sustainable means of ameliorating these feed crises has been continuous. West African Dwarf sheep, predominant in this region is an early maturing, prolific and non-seasonal breeder, with an average of 80% multiple birth and are highly resistant to trypanosomosis (Akusu and Ajala, 2000).

Research findings on a number of multipurpose plants (Smith et al, 1995) are well documented. Roggero et al, (1996) however suggested that sustainability of multipurpose plants depends on making use of diverse local biological resources. This concept, which has also been advocated by some other researchers (Osagie,1998; Okoli et al, 2001), calls for wider use of the diversity of fodder tree species as providers of animal forage. Piliostigma thonningii is a leguminous browse plant belonging to the family Caesalpinicea found in the sub-humid region of Africa, growing in open woodland and savanna regions (Djuma, 2003).Its common name in English is camel’s foot. It has feathery green leaves up to 15-17cm; the fodder is rich in crude protein, minerals and vitamins (Tesemna et al, 1993) and can produce a forage yield of 1.5tonnes/annum, thus making it a reliable source of dry season protein supplement for ruminant animals. The seeds when grinded have been fed to cattle during winter (Djuma, 2003). It is widely grown, well adapted and enjoys even distribution in African and Asia (Schuttes and Hoffman, 1973) and other tropical and subtropical ecological zones of the world.  Most tropical browse species contain substantial amount of ant nutrient (Makkar, et al, 1993). Generally, drying or wilting have been used to preserve leaves of browse species for future use and reduce some of the inherent secondary metabolite present in these leaves, and have also been reported to have significant effects on chemical composition (Eroarome, 2002) as well as voluntary dry matter intake (ILCA,1990).This study therefore investigated the effects of wilting and drying of P. thonningii  leaves on feed intake by West African dwarf sheep as well as the nutrient composition of the herbage.





2.1   Site


The research was carried out at the Small ruminant unit of Teaching and Research Farm, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology Ogbomoso, Nigeria. Ogbomoso is located on longitude 4o45oE and latitude 8o260N of Nigeria. It has an annual rainfall of 1247mm and a temperature of 270C (Chernowet al., 1993).


2.2     Housing and management of experimental animals


The housing consisted of open sides that allowed cross- ventilation, concrete floor laced with wood shaving and metallic roofing sheet. Twenty WAD sheep with average pre-trial body weight of 13.00 ± 1.3 procured from the local markets in Ogbomoso and its environment was used for the growth study. Twenty (20) Matured WAD sheep were used for the acceptability study.  On arrival, the sheep were given a prophylactic treatment against ecto and endo parasites with ‘Ivomec’ applied subcutaneously at the rate of 1ml/10kg body weight.


2.3.   Experimental Forage procurement


The leaves of P. thonningii used for the study were harvested from over 90 stands of Piliostigma tree growing within and around the University farm. The plants were mature and were about 10 years old and were observed to be at before flowering stage at the time of harvest. P.maximum was harvested at the pre flowering stage from an established paddocks in the University’s Teaching and Research Farm.


2.4       Voluntary intake of Piliostigma thonningii by WAD sheep.


Voluntary feed intake of P. thonningii as a sole diet by West Africa dwarf sheep was assessed. Twenty (20) Animals were kept in individual cubicles that were made of planks, concrete floor laced with wood shavings. The study lasted for a period of 21 days. Forage was offered at 3% body weight of individual animals on dry matter basis during this period to establish voluntary feed intake by subtracting the feed refusal from the amount originally offered the previous day.  The animals were made to undergo an adaptation period of two weeks, followed by a data collection period of 7days, fresh and clean water was made permanently available to the animals throughout the duration of the trial.


2.5       Growth performance of WAD sheep on fresh, dried and wilted Piliostigma thonningii PT mixed with Panicum maximum PM

The trial lasted for 60 days, with an initial adjustment period of 14 days. The animals were weighed at the commencement of the study and subsequently weekly. The animals were balanced for weight and sex and subsequently were divided into four groups of five animals each and were randomly assigned to experimental treatments. The animals were housed in individual pens.  There were four experimental diets.


Diet 1 Animal fed with sole P. maximum (PM) forage at 100% offered fresh.

Diet 2 consisted 70% P. maximum (PM) + 30% fresh Piliostigma thonningii.

Diet 3 was 70% P. maximum (PM) + 30% wilted Piliostigma thonningii

Diet 4 was 70% P. maximum (PM) + 30% dried Piliostigma thonningii


Feeds were offered in separate feeders at 0.9:00h every day. The proportion of each of the forages in the mixed diet was calculated as a percentage of the total dry matter allowance of 3% body weight of individual animals. Mineral salt block and fresh water was provided at all times. The forage PM was chopped manually into about 5cm lengths and was offered in separate troughs with whole leaves of PT according to each treatment. The daily feed intake was calculated as the differences between the quantity of feed offered and the refusal in the following day for each of the forage. Samples of the forage fed were collected; oven dried at a temperature of 600C to a constant weight for dry matter determinations. Samples were thereafter ground and made to pass through 1.00mm sieve and kept at 40C until when they were required for laboratory analysis.


2.6.      Nutrient Digestibility trial


This was carried out immediately after the completion of growth trial.  Animals were transferred to individual metabolic cages that had facilities for separate collection of faeces and urine, and allowed to undergo an adjustment period of 7days. This was followed by a collection period of 5days during which feed intake and faecal output were monitored.  The experimental diets were offered at 3% of body weight as in the growth trial. Fresh and clean water was made permanently available to the animals throughout the duration of the trial. 10% of daily faecal output by each animal was taken, dried to constant moisture level and stored at 40C until needed for analysis.


2.7. Chemical analysis


Sub-samples of forages and faeces were bulked, re-dried and analyzed for proximate contents using the standard methods of (AOAC, 1990). Neutral detergent fibre (NDF), acid detergent fibre (ADF) and acid detergent lignin (ADL) were determined according to Van Soest et al. (1991).


2.8. Mineral Analysis

The mineral elements were analyzed according to the method of Walinga et al. (1989). The elements in the sample were brought into solution by wet digestion technique using a mixture of concentrated Nitric, Chloric and Sulphuric acids in the ratio 9:2:1 respectively. Fe, Zn, Ca and Mg were determined by Atomic Absorption Spectrometer while K was determined using atomic emission spectrometer and Phosphorus was determined using Spectrophotometer.


2.9. Anti-Nutritional Factor


Oxalic acid was estimated quantitatively by redox titration with standard potassium permanganate according to the procedure of Day and Underwood (1986). Saponin was determined using the method similar to that of Hudson and El-Difrawl(1981),phytic acid determined in accordance with the procedure of Ruales and Nair (1993). Tannic acid was determined in accordance with the procedure of AOAC (1990).


2.10. Statistical Analysis        


The data were analyzed using a completely randomized design with animals as replicates using General Linear Model (GLM) procedures of SAS, (1988). Means were separated assuming a probability level of 0.05.



3.         RESULTS


The chemical composition of the Panicum maximum and different forms of Piliostigma thonningii leaves are presented in Table 1. The values obtained from chemical composition showed significant (P< 0.05) differences among experimental diet.  High CP% content (11%) was observed for Panicum maximum compared to different forms of Piliostigma thonningii  leaves  (fresh; 10.79%., Wilted ;10.26% and dried ;10.72%)., Dried Piliostigma thonningii  leaves contained more (P<0.05)  NDF (59.34%), ADF (57.26%), ADL (43.60%) and energy (2.60cal/g) than Panicum maximum and fresh and wilted Piliostigma thonningii leaves.

Table 2 shows the mineral composition of the experimental diet. There were significant (P< 0.05) differences among different forms of Piliostigma thonningii leaves along with Panicum maximum and mineral content of the experimental diet. The mineral content (%) of diet ranged for Ca (0.30-0.62%), P (0.41-0.77%), K (0.30 - 0.62%), Mg (0.18 – 1.18%), Cu (3.04 - 4.13mg/kg), Fe (30.00 - 60.20 mg/kg) and Zn (38.70 - 60.57 mg/kg).

The anti-nutrient contents of different forms of Piliostigma  thonningii leaves as experimental diet was reported in Table 3. Among the forms, Fresh Piliostigma  thonningii  leaves gave a numerically higher values for Tannin (0.14%), Saponin (0.13%), Phytate (0.030%), Oxalate (0.03%) and Phenol (0.006%).


Voluntary feed intake and Weight gain of West African Dwarf (WAD) Sheep fed Panicum maximum supplemented with three forms of Piliostigma  thonningii leaves is as shown in Table 5. Total dry matter intake was significantly higher (P<0.05) in WAD sheep fed on 70% Panicum maximum with 30% Dried Piliostigma  thonningii leaves (52.65 g/h/day) compared to its counterpart. Neutral Detergent Fibre (NDF) intake in animals fed 70% Panicum maximum with 30% Dried Piliostigma  thonningii leaves was 29.79 g/h/d while least NDF intake was found in animal fed 70% P. maximum (PM) + 30% fresh Piliostigma   thonningii leaves (15.49 g/h/d). Total ADF intake of animal fed dried Piliostigma  thonningii leaves (20.86 g/h/d) was significantly (P<0.05) higher compared with others treatments. Crude Protein consumption (5.66 g/h/d) and daily weight gain 77.21g/h/day was higher in animals fed 70% Panicum maximum with 30% dried  Piliostigma  thonningii leaves than  animals of other treatments.

Nutrient digestibility of West African Dwarf (WAD) Sheep fed Panicum maximum supplemented with three forms of Piliostigma thonningii leaves as shown in Table 6. Significantly (P<0.05) highest value were obtained on animals fed 70% Panicum maximum with 30% Dried Piliostigma thonningii leaves for CP digestibility (77.15%),NDF(78.04%), and ADF(75.56%), followed by animals fed 70% Panicum maximum with 30% wilted Piliostigma thonningii leaves and the least value was also observed on animal animals fed 70% Panicum maximum with 30% fresh Piliostigma thonningii leaves for CP (72.82%), NDF(73.43%), and ADF(73.28%).


Table 1: Effect of Chemical composition of the P. maximum and different forms of P. thonningiileaves.

                                                CP%            NDF%       ADF%       ADL%            GE(cal/g)                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     


P. maximum                            11.00a            50.47d         41.20d         40.03c                2.10a

Fresh P.thonningii                    10.79b            52.07c         41.26c         40.70c          1.60b                                                                                                          

Wilted P.thonningii                   10.26b              56.26b        47.09b         41.60b          1.40b

Dried P.thonnigii                      10.72b              69.34a        57.26a         43.60a           2.60a

SEM                                        0.01                0.001         0.001           0.01              1.00


abc Means with different superscripts within the same row are significantly (P<0.05) different


Table 2. Minerals composition of the P. maximum and different forms of P. thonningiileaves.

Minerals Composition





Cu mg/kg

Fe mg/kg

Zn mg/kg

P. maximum








FreshP. thonningii
















Dried P.thonnigii
















abc Means with different superscripts within the same row are significantly (P<0.05) different


Table 3: Anti-Nutrients contents of Experimental diet

Experimental diet                    Tannin         Saponin           Phytate             Oxalate             Phenol

P. maximum                                -                        -                       -                        -                     -

Fresh P. thonningii                    0.14                  0.13                  0.030                  0.03                0.006

WiltedP.thonningii                     0.01                  0.12                  0.005                  0.02                0.005

Dried P.thonnigii                       0.01                  0.11                  0.004                  0.02                0.04

SEM                                         0.01                  0.01                  0.01                    0.01                0.01


Table 4: Performance of WAD rams fed Piliostigmathonningii.

Parameters                                          T1                    T2                    T3                    T4           SEM

Average Initial Weight (kg)                    13.20                13.20                13.18                13.18         0.02

Average Final Weight (kg)                    17.81                17.71                17.80                17.81         0.20

Average Weight Gain (kg)                     4.61                  4.51                  4.62                  4.63           0.20

Daily Weight Gain (g/day)                     76.92                75.13                77.01                77.21         1.54

T1: Animal fed with sole P. maximum (PM) forage at 100% offered fresh.

T2: consisted 70% P. maximum (PM) + 30% fresh Piliostigmathonningii.

T3: was 70% P. maximum (PM) + 30% wilted Piliostigmathonningii

T4: was 70% P. maximum (PM) + 30% dried Piliostigmathonningii


Table 5: Voluntary Intake and Weight Gain by West African Dwarf (WAD)Sheep fed three forms of Piliostigma           thonningii supplements



Parameters                                1                                2                       3                       4                   SEM

                                                  Control                       fresh               dried                wilted


Dry Matter Intake (g/h/day)

Panicum maximum                   112.64a                      84.79b                  80.53d             82.13c              0.01

P. thonningii                              0.00d                         24.96c                  36.62b             52.65a              0.01

Total                                        112.64                      109.75                  117.19             134.78              0.02

NDF Intake (g/h/day)

Panicum maximum                   61.37a                        45.85b                  43.86d             44.77c              0.01

P. thonningii                              0.00d                          15.49c                 19.99b             29.79a              0.01

Total                                       61.37                          61.34                  63.85               74.56               0.02

ADF Intake(g/h/day)    

Panicum maximum                   46.79d                        34.97c                 33.19d            33.87c                0.01

P.     thonningii                          0.00d                         14.29c                  17.43b             20.86a                0.01

Total                                        46.79                          49.26                  50.62              54.73                 0.02

CP Intake(g/h/day)

Panicum maximum                   13.63a                         10.18c                 9.72d                11.82b               0.01

P.thonningii                               0.00d                          2.69c                  3.75b                5.66a                0.01

Total                                        13.63                         12.87                   13.47                17.48                0.02

Weight gain (g/h/day)              76.92                          75.13                  77.01                77.21                0.01

abcdMeans with the same superscripts within the same row are not significantly different (P<0.01)



Table 6: Nutrient Digestibility of WAD Sheep fed three forms of Piliostigma  thonningii

Nutrients                                                                     Treatments


                                    Control             fresh            dried                wilted

1                                          2                   3                        4                  SEM


CP                               74.48c               72.83d            77.15a               76.79b                 0.02

NDF                             74.68c               73.43d            78.04a               76.83b                 0.02

ADF                              74.53c             73.28d             75.56a               74.70b                 0.01


abcdMeans with the same superscripts within the same row are not significantly different (P<0.01)




4.         DISCUSSION


Chemical composition.


The Crude protein of Panicum maximum was slightly higher than different forms of  Piliostigma thonningii leaves. The Crude protein of the forages ranged from 10.26% to 11.00% which will provide ammonia required for rumen micro organism to support optimum microbial activity. Crude protein content (CP%) of different forms of Piliostigma thonningii leaves  falls within the  range of  browse plant from West Africa ( Rittner and Reed, 1992). All forms of diet used in the current study had a CP above 7% of critical level and can be used to supplement poor quality roughage to increase productivity of ruminant livestock.

Higher values observed from dried Piliostigma thonningii leaves for NDF, ADF and Lignin respectively this might occur due to unfavourable reaction which reduced availability of nutrients during drying of the experimental diet (Smith et al., 1995). Such reaction has been implicated as causing changes in the cell-wall structures.. The increase NDF concentration in wilted and dried Piliostigma thonningii  leaves agreed with the reports of (Parachristous and Nastis, 1994). These researchers reported that drying generally increase NDF and lignin content of browse leaves. Generally the low level of NDF can be difficult to achieve in sub tropical/tropical areas due to the predominance of high NDF forages and so 40% is considered a more achievable target in sub tropical grazing system. Jung and Allen (1995) reported that NDF range from (30-80%) in tropical forages. The ADF ranged above 40% in this present study. ADF content refers to the cell wall portion consist of cellulose and lignin. As the ADF increase the digestibility of the forage usually decreases (Albayraket al., 2001).Causing consumption of the forage by animal to reduce (Ayin et al., 2010). Nussionet al (1998) reported that forage with ADF content around 40% or more shows low intake and digestibility.

Mineral Analysis

The mineral analysis of a plant gives the idea of possibility either the plant should be used for any feeding trial purpose. The Calcium content for the diet ranged (0.40-0.62%) and higher than (0.09%) observed for Canavalia ensiformis leaves reported by Akinlade  et al., (2007). The calcium content values found in this study were considered adequate for the optimum performance of ruminants. The different forms of Piliostigma  thonningii  leaves would meet the theoretical Ca requirement of 0.30% Ca diet needed for all form of production in ruminant (ARC, 1980).

Phosphrus (P%) content in the  experimental diets ranged between 0.41 to 0.77% and were higher compared to the NRC recommended value of (0.15%) for phosphorus (NRC, 1985). The level of phosphorus in both diet were consistently above the 0.2% level which would satisfy livestock dietary maintenance requirement (NRC, 1985).

The value of Potassium (K%) in the experimental diets ranged (0.25- 0.62%).The level of %K in the diets was higher than 0.18% recommended for grazing animals (Mc Dowell, 1985). However, it has been suggested that ruminants with high productivity may require %K level above (1.0%) under stress particularly heat stress (Khan et al., 2005). Potassium help to maintain body weight and regulate water and electrolyte balance in the blood and tissue (NRC, 1985).

The Magnesium (Mg%) content for the experimental diets ranged between 0.21 to 1.18%. The higher forage Mg level found in this present study were above (0.12-0.20%) of requirement of ruminants diet suggested by (NRC, 1985). Magnesium is an important mineral element in connection with its role in circulatory disease such as chronic heart disease and calcium metabolism (Hassan and Umar, 2006).

The Iron (Fe mg/kg) content of the diets (30.00-60.20 mg/kg) were higher compared to (10.58mg/kg) recorded for iron content of Mucuna utilis leaves. Iron level obtained in this present investigation could meet the requirement of ruminants for optimal performance. The optimal requirement for ruminant is (50mg/kg).

The concentration of Zinc in the forage fell between (38.70-60.57mg/kg) and higher than (30mg/kg) zinc suggested at critical dietary level, although it has been recommended that concentration of 12-20mg/kg are adequate for growing ruminants( Anonymous, 1980). Zinc is a trace element for protein and nucleic acid synthesis and normal body development during period of rapid growth such as Kid/Lamb and recovery of illness (Melakuet al., 2005).

The Copper Cu content of the experimental diets ranged (3.04-4.13mg/kg). Most of the dietary treatment samples analyzed in the present study fell below the (8 - 14mg/kg) reported by (Khan et al., 2005). Forage Cu content decline with forage maturity and is higher in leaf than in stem. High concentration iron and zinc also reduce copper status and may increase copper requirement


Anti-Nutrient Content


The tannin values obtained at different forms of processed Piliostigma thonningii leaves ranged (0.01-0.14%). Tannin concentration reported in this work was below the range of 1.43-1.53% reported by Khan et al., (2005) in wild edible forages consumed by ruminant. Tannin at this level protects liable plant protein in the rumen and consequently increase the supply of high quality protein into the duodenum (Mcleod, 1974). Saponin values from different forms of processed Piliostigma thonningii leaves ranged (0.11-0.13%). Feedstuff containing saponin had been shown to be defaulting agent (Teferedegne, 2000) and capable of reducing methane production (Babayemiet al.,2004b). Saponin have effect on erythrocyte hemolysis reduction of blood and liver cholesterol, depression of growth rate, bloat (in ruminant), inhibition of smooth muscle activity, enzyme inhibition and reduction in nutrient absorption. Saponin have been reported to alter cell wall permeability and therefore to produce some toxic effect when ingested (Belmar et al. 1999).

The phytate content of the different forms of processed Piliostigma thonningii leaves ranged (0.005-0.030%). The phytate content in this present investigation were lower than 1.35% in Psophocarpus tetragonolobus leaves reported by Alalade  et al (2016). The phytic value was lower than the range value of 3.47% and 3.24% reported for some browse legume in Nigeria (Oke, 1969). The negative effect of phytate in nutrition is the chelating of certain essential element such as Ca, Fe, Mg and Zn this contribute to mineral deficiency in people whose dietary on some food rich in phytate for their mineral intake (Hurell, 2005). Nevertheless, phytate are considered as phyto-nutrient providing an antioxidant effect and their mineral binding properties prevent colon cancer by reducing oxidative stress in the lumen of the intestinal tract (Vucenik and Shamsuddin, 2003).Oxalate values of the  different forms of Piliostigma thonningii  leaves in this study ranged (0.02-0.03%). The oxalate content of experimental diet lower than (0.40%) Parkia  biglobosa  leaves reported by Alalade  et al (2016). Oxalate concentration in the browse plant used was tolerable forage containing oxalate is less of a problem for ruminants but at a high concentration may cause digestive disturbance (Seifert, 1996), kidney failure and death (Acamovic et al., 2004 ).

The highest values was obtained for drymatter intake, Crude protein intake, NDF intake  and ADF intake on animal fed 70% Panicum maximum with 30% dried Piliostigma  thonningii leaves compared to other treatments. These values were higher than the (33.36g/h/d) reported by Arigbede, (2007).The CP, NDF and ADF digestibility values obtained were higher than the values 62.17, 62.48 and 62.29% recorded by Youssufet al. (2005).



5.         CONCLUSION


Piliostigma  thonnningii leaves can be fed with P. maximum in fresh, wilted and dried forms, the secondary metabolites in Piliostigma  thonningii  was further depleted by drying, this however induced higher NDF but did not inhibit intake. Weight gain, Voluntary intake, Nutrient digestibility were favoured with animals fed 70% Panicum maximum with 30% dried Piliostigmathonningii leaves

It is suggested that Piliostigma thonningii could not be used as a sole diet for sheep, but could serve as supplement especially when dry or wilted at up to 30% and used as a reliable dry season short term feed supplement in small holder livestock farming system in the tropics.





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Cite this Article: Akinlade JA; Fabule SA; Alalade JA; Asaolu VO; Aderinola OA; Okunlola OO (2020). Nutritive assessment of different forms of Piliostigma thonningii leaves in West Africa Dwarf Sheep diet. Greener Journal of Agricultural Sciences 10(2): 63-70.