Okweche et al
Greener Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Vol. 5 (6), pp. 210-216, November 2015.
Manuscript Number: 091515130
Comparative Efficacy of Some Insecticidal Plant Materials against Dry Wood Termite (Cryptotermes cavifrons BANKS (Insecta: Isoptera: Kalotermitidae) Infestation
Okweche Simon Idoko*1; Hilili Patrick Matthew1
and Ita Philip Bassey1
1Department of Forestry and Wildlife Resources Management, University of Calabar, PMB 1115, Calabar,
Laboratory study was conducted to determine the efficacy of six plant extracts Gmelina arborea Roxb (Verbenaceae) leaf, Aframomum melegueta [Roskoe] K. Schum. Zingiber officinale Rosc., Morinda lucida (L.) (Rubiaceae), Moringa oleifera Lam. (Moringaceae) (seed and leaf) and Garcinia kola Heckel (Guttiferae) on the management of African wood termite under ambient temperature and relative humidity (300c and 72%). Twenty termites were introduced into a covered container and treated with three levels (0.0 g, 0.5 g, 1.0 g) of the various plant extracts. The experiment was laid out in a completely randomised design (CRD) and replicated four times with factorial arrangement of treatments. Mortality was recorded at 12, 24, 36, 48, 60, 72, 84 and 96 hours exposure periods respectively. A. melegueta and G. kola were effective at 60 hours of exposure for 0.5g rate of application recoding 95% mortality while Z. officinale, M. oleifera recorded 100% mortality after 84 hours of exposure. At 1.0 g rate of application, M. oleifera seed and A. melegueta were efficacious after 12 hours, however, M. oleifera recorded 95% mortality after 60 hours and 100 % at 72 hours while A. melegueta and M. lucida recorded 95 and 75 % mortality at 48 hours of exposures respectively. No mortality was recorded untreated experiment. Conclusively, A. melegueta, M. lucida and M. oleifera seed and leaf can be used in the control of wood termite due to higher mortality recorded on application and as a substitute for synthetic insecticides.
Key words: Control, Exposure periods, Insecticidal plants, Mortality, Termite.
Abdullah Z. A., Ahmed A. Z. and Refaat A. A. (2014). Insecticidal activities of some plant extracts against subterranean termites, Psammotermes hybostoma (Desneux) (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae). International Journal of Agricultural Sciences 4 (9) 257-260,
Adejumo, T. O. and Langenk�mper, G. (2011). Evaluation of botanicals as biopesticides on the growth of Fusarium verticillioides causing rot diseases and fumonis in production of maize. J. Microbiol. Antimicrobiol. 4(1):23-31. DOI:10.5897/JMA11.106
Adenekan, M. O, Okpeze, V. E.; Ogundipe, W. F. and Oguntade, M. I. (2013). Evaluation of Moringa oleifera powders for the control of bruchid beetles during storage. International Journal of Agric. Policy and Research 1(10):305-310.
Ajaiyeoba, E. O. and Ekundayo, O. (1999). Essential oil constituents of Aframomum melegueta (Roscoe) K. Schum. seeds (Alligator pepper) from Nigeria. Flav. Frag. J. 14:109-111.
Ejechi, B. O. Ojeata, A. and Oyeleke, S. B. (1997). The effect of extracts of some Nigerian spices on biodeterioration of Okro (Abelmoschus esculentum (L) Moench) by fungi. Journal of Phytopathathology 145:469-472.
Akinwumi, F. O.; Fasakin, E. A. and Adedire, C. O. (2007). Toxic and repellence activities of four plant extracts to D. maculatus Degels in smoked African mudcat fish. Journal of Entomology 4: 149�154.
Etusim, P.E.; Uwom, K.U.; Melariri, P.E.; Ibeh, O.O. and Ogbonnaya, C.I. (2013). A study on the Toxicity of the Ethanol Extract of Moringa oleifera Seed Oil on Simulium Larvae. Journal of Biological Sciences and Bioconservation, 5 (1): 86-91.
Ewete, F.K.; Arnason, J.T.; Larson, J. and Philogene, B.J.R. (1996). Biological activities of extracts from traditionally used Nigerian plants against the European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis. Entomol. Exp. Appl. 80:531-537.
Faidi, N.; Makkar, H. P. S. and Becter, K. (2001). The potential of Moringa oleifera for agricultural and industrial uses. In: (ed.) Lowell, J. Fuglie The miracle tree: The multiple attribute of moringa (ed.) pp. 45 � 76.
Faizi, S.; Siddigui, B.; Saleem, R; Saddiguir, S. and Aftab, K. (1994). Isolation and structure elucidation of new nitrile and mustard oil glycosides from M. oleifera and their effect on blood pressure. J. Nat. Prod. 57(9):1256-1261.
Madukwe, D. K.; Onuh, M. O. and Christo, I. E. (2012). Effects of M. oleifera leaf extract on the growth and yield of soybean (Glycine max L. Merri) and sweet pepper (Capsicum annum L.). Int. J. Appl. Res. Technol. 1 (3): 90 � 97.
Mao, L. and Henderson, G. (2007). Antifeedant activity and acute and residual toxicity of alkaloids from Sophora flavesces (Leguminosae) against Formosan subterranean termites (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae). Journal of Economic Entomology, 100 (3): 866 � 870.
Ojo, J. A,; Olunloyo, A. A. and Akanni, E. O. (2013). Efficacy of Moringa oleifera leaf powder against Callosobruchus maculates (F.) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) on stored cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp). Researcher 5(12): 240-244.
Okigbo, R.N, and Ogbonnaya, U.O. (2006). Antifungal effects of two tropical plant leaf extracts (Ocimum gratissimum and Aframomum melegueta) on post-harvest yam (Dioscorea spp.) rot. African Journal of Biotechnol., 5:727-31.
Okwute, S. K. (1992). Plant derived pesticidal and antimicrobial agents for use in agriculture. A review of phytochemical and biological studies in some Nigerian plants. Journal of Agricultural Science Technology,2 (1): 62-70.
Oloke, J. K. (1992). Fungicidal Effects of the Volatile Oil of Aframomum melegueta. Fitoterapia 63:269-70.
Oparaeke, A. M, Dike, M. C. and Amatobi, C. I. (2005) Field evaluation of extracts of five Nigerian spices for control of post-flowering insect pests of cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. Plant Protection Science. 41:14-20.
Peterson, C. J. and Ems-Wilson, J. (2003) Catnip essential oil as a barrier to subterranean termites (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) in the laboratory. Journal of Economic Entomology, 96 (4): 1275-1282. DOI: 10.1021/bk-2011-1090.ch004.
Sanaa J. T. (2008). The effect of some plants extracts and essentioal oils on the workers of termites laboratory Microcerotermis gabriles (Isoptera: Termitidae) Bas. J. Vet. Res. 7:2, 2008.
Scott, I. M.; Jensen, H.; Nicol, L.; Bradbury, R.; Sanchez-Vindas, P.; Poveda, L.; Arnason, J.T. and Philogene, B.J.R. (2004). Efficacy of piper (Piperaceae) extracts for control of common home and garden insect pests. Journal of Economic Entomology, 97 (4):1390-1403. DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jee
Sen-Sarma, P. K.; Thakur, M. L.; Mishra, S. C. and Gupta, B. K (1975). Wood destroying termites in India. Forest Research Institute Dehradun p. 187.
Sohail, A., Mazhar, I. Z., Abid, H., Muhammad, A R. and Muhammad, S. (2011). Evaluation of plant extracts on mortality and tunnelling activities of subterranean termites in Pakistan, Pesticides in the Modern World - Pests Control and Pesticides Exposure and Toxicity Assessment, Dr. Margarita Stoytcheva (Ed.), ISBN: 978-953-307-457-3.
Ukeh, D.A, Birkett, M. A.; Pickett, J. A.; Bowman, A. S, and Luntza, A. J (2009). Repellent activity of alligator pepper, Aframomum melegueta and ginger, Zingiber officinale, against the maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais. Phytochem., 70(6):751-758.
Ukeh, D. A.; Oku, E. E.; Udo, I. A.; Nta, A. I. and Ukeh, J. A. (2012). Insecticidal effect of fruit extracts from Xylopia aethiopica and Dennettia tripetala (Annonaceae) against Sitophilus oryzae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).Chilean Journal of Agricultural Research, 72(2) 195-200.
Umoetok, S.B.A.; Isah M.D.; Ukeh J. A and Udo, I. A. (2013). Evaluation of the Insecticidal and Deterrence Properties of Pepper Fruit, Dennetia tripetala (G. Baker) and Ginger Zingiber officinale Roscoe against Maize Weevil Sitophilus zeamais (Motsch.). Journal of Biology, Agriculture and Healthcare, 3 (6): 76-82.
Umukoro, S. and Ashorobi, R.B. (2007). Further studies on the antinociceptive action of aqueous seed extract of Aframomum melegueta. Journal of Ethnopharm. 109:501-504.
Call for Articles/Books
Call for Scholarly Articles
Authors from around the world are invited to send scholarly articles that suits the scope of this journal. The journal is currently open to submissions and will process and publish articles daily, immediately they are ready.
The journal is centered on quality and goes about its processes in a very timely fashion. Seasoned editors/reviewers will be consulted to review each article(s), profer quality evaluations and polish the articles with expertise before publication.
Use our quick submit button to submit or simply send your article(s) as an e-mail attachment to email@example.com or firstname.lastname@example.org.
Call for Books
You are also invited to submit your books for online or print publication. We publish books related to all academic subject areas. Submit as an e-mail attachment to email@example.com.