Greener Journal of Educational Research

Vol. 8(5), pp. 119-130, July, 2018

ISSN: 2276-7789

Copyright ©2018, the copyright of this article is retained by the author(s)

DOI Link: http://doi.org/10.15580/GJER.2018.5.072118102







Contribution of Peace Education as a Determinant of Holistic Education of Students in Secondary Schools in Kiambu and Samburu Counties, Kenya



Dr. Waweru P.  Ndirangu1 and Prof. John Aluko Orodho2


Greener Journal of Educational Research, vol. 8, no. 5, pp. 119-130, July 2018



Principal of Magogoni Community Secondary and Technical School, Thika East Sub- County, Kiambu County, Kenya.

Associate Professor of Research and Statistics in Department of Educational Management, Policy and Curriculum Studies, School of Education, Kenyatta University, Kenya






Article No.: 072118102

Type: Research

DOI: 10.15580/GJER.2018.5.072118102



This study sought to determine the contribution of peace education as a determinant of holistic education of students in secondary schools in Kiambu and Samburu Counties, Kenya. An explanatory mixed methods research design that involves both quantitative and qualitative strands was adopted for the study. The actual sample reached for both phases was 707 participants. The research instruments used during the first quantitative strand of the study were questionnaires for principals, students and senior teachers. The qualitative data in the second phase was collected using observation checklists and interview guidelines for principals, senior teachers, members of BoM as well as Quality Assurance and Standards Officers from the Ministry of Education. Quantitative data from questionnaires was analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS). The major finding was that majority of respondents in Kiambu County compared to their counterparts in Samburu County considered peace education as one of the determinants of holistic education. The results especially based on regression analysis and corroborated by qualitative data from interviews and observations led to the conclusion that the use of a combination of peace education was one of the determinants of holistic education. It was thus recommended that Peace Education should be integrated into the syllabuses at all levels of learning from pre-unit to university to facilitate development of holistic education.


Submitted: 21/07/2018

Accepted:  30/07/2018

Published: 31/07/2018


*Corresponding Author

Prof. John Orodho

E-mail: orodhojohn@ gmail. com


Keywords: Academic, non-academic variables, holistic education, secondary schools. Kenya.









1.1. Background to the Study


The twin concepts of peace and holistic education are some of the 21st Century challenges confronting most societies, especially the African countries, thereby calling for governments and stakeholders to enhance integrated investments in education, research and human capital development in order to prepare citizens to operate effectively in the globalized economy (Republic of Kenya/UNESC, 2012). In this regard, education being a form of investment is perceived to hold the key to the development of both individual and society (Orodho, 2017a).  Thus, it is arguable that education systems all over the world have continued to be perceived as a dynamic process which produces human resources, instills values, and brings social cohesion based on academic excellence without investigating the contribution of other non-academic dynamics of education such as peace (Republic of Kenya, 2010a, 2010b; UNESCO,2012; United Nations, 2012). Nonetheless, holistic education, which goes beyond education based on academic achievement of the learners, is slowly gaining momentum and is becoming a familiar topic in most educational discourse.

With regards to peaceful co-existence of societies, UNICEF (2011a, 2011b) refers to holistic education as  the process of promoting the knowledge, skills, attitudes and values needed to bring about behavior changes that will enable children, youth and adults to prevent conflict and violence, both overt and structural; to resolve conflict peacefully; and to create the conditions conducive to peace, whether at an intrapersonal, interpersonal, intergroup, national or international level. Kester (2008) had earlier contended that peace education includes the cultivation of peace-building skills (e.g. dialogue, mediation, artistic endeavors).Thus, peace education as a practice and philosophy refers to matching complementary elements between education and society, where the social purposes (i.e. why teach), content (i.e. what to teach), and pedagogy (i.e. how to teach) of the educative process are conducive to fostering peace (Johnson & Johnson, 2006; Kiggundu & Nyamai, 2009).

It is therefore, clear that peace educators should imbibe the need to teach the values of respect, understanding, and nonviolence, present skills for analyzing international conflict, educate for alternative security systems, and use a pedagogy that is democratic and participatory (Jafari, Nasrabadi, &Liaghtdar, 2012).

 It is the position of UNICEF (2011b) and Basl (2014) that peace education has a place in all societies – not only in countries undergoing armed conflict or emergencies. Because lasting behavior change in children and adults only occurs over time, effective peace education is necessarily a long-term process, not a short-term intervention. While often based in schools and other learning environments, peace education should ideally involve the entire community. Questions about the dimensions of peace education, such as what is helping to create a culture of peace and what is hindering it, have become more and more important on national and international levels. It is against this background that this paper which sought to profile the contribution of peace education to holistic development of students that this study was premised.


1.2. The State of the Art Review


There is a plethora of literature at the international, continental, national and local contexts about the role and importance of peace education for peaceful co-existence amongst societies (UNESCO, 2011; UNICEF, 2011; Trifonas & Wright, 2013; Sarkar & Khan, 2010). Trifonas and Wright (2013) contend that our  schools and nations intend to create democracy and community interdependence, yet to do so educators often use tactics of war-making (e.g. obedience-drilling, secrecy, and competitive games) that reflect more fully the very ideologies the school system intends to transcend. For example, many educators teach the benefits of capitalism through competitive games to illustrate individualism and hard work, yet to teach capitalism in this overly simplified manner exaggerates the negative characteristics of a capitalistic system (i.e. greed and exclusion).   

According to UNICEF (2011) and UNESCO (2011b) the impact of conflict on the education sector is enormous. Conflict results in the destruction and closure of schools, disruption of learning, displacement of teachers, insufficient learning materials and contributes to increased drop-out rates, psychosocial trauma of and poor learning outcomes for children and youth. In addition to denying children their right to realize their full potential through education, conflict also denies children the benefits of improved livelihoods, health and protection that education affords (UNICEF, 2009). As of 2011, there were   67 million children out of school and 28 million or 42% of these children live in countries affected by conflict. An additional 74 million adolescents are also out-of-school.21 Schools themselves are increasingly targets of attack, placing additional demands on the education system. Internally displaced populations and refugees create pressures on host community education systems that impact the quality of education (UNICEF, 2011).

UNICEF (2011), writing on peace building and education lament that insecurity is a primary development challenge of our time and a significant barrier to the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), including the right to universal primary education. These challenges are further complicated by the changing nature of conflict that involves multi-level, intra-state conflicts of extended duration and marked by recurring cycles of violent conflict. Current institutional approaches and arrangements have been inadequate to address these changing patterns. Peace building has emerged as a central strategy to address conflict and accelerate progress towards achieving the MDGs. Education has an important role to play in building peace, but it can also be a potential driver of conflict.

UNICEF (2011) notes that on the positive side, education in post-conflict recovery can provide an early ‘peace dividend’ through the reconstruction and return to normal functioning of the education system. It can also serve as an important preventative strategy before, during and after conflict by addressing inequalities that may exacerbate grievances between groups within society. Similarly, transformative education can also act as a force to challenge gender and other inequalities in the larger society and contribute towards transformation of accepted norms around violence, gender, and power (Trifonas& Wright, 2013).

 Peace building deals with complex challenges facing countries emerging from conflict and requires a holistic understanding of needs for security, justice, political stability, and socio-economic recovery. While the relationship between education and conflict is recognized, education’s role in peace building is not fully realized. Education as a peace dividend is accepted. However, education can contribute to other dimensions of peace building, such as conflict prevention, social transformation, civic engagement and economic progress (     Dube & Orodho,2016).  For example, education can contribute to improved governance by addressing underlying inequities that fuel conflict, providing education and employment opportunities to disenfranchised youth, empowering adolescent girls and women as actors in the peace-building process, imparting civic and political education and modelling democratic participation and decision-making (        Adan & Orodho,2016; Mayor,2005). Despite its power as an instrument of social change, education has suffered from relative neglect in peace building frameworks and plans.

Writing on possible contradictory approaches to peace education, some researchers contend that peace education is fragmenting and divisive—it focuses on patriotism, militarism, and materialism—rather than holistic and interdependent (Malik, Sarkar& Khan, 2010). Such a lesson seems to value materialism above character, a situation that presents policy makers with the ideological and existential contradiction that our means do not meet our intended ends, our content and pedagogy are in conflict, and democracy is compromised. Education must consider this contradiction. In contrast, to teach cooperation, respect, the value of diversity, creativity and empathy, educators could use cooperative games, participatory pedagogy, and creative problem-solving activities that emphasize it.

Daresh (2006) writing on integrative theory of peace education observes that peace     education is an elusive concept. Although peace always has been and continues to be the object of an unceasing quest in almost all communities and groups, the training of each new generation centers on divisive issues of in-group/out-group differentiations, intergroup conflict and ongoing preparation for defense and war against real and perceived enemies. The universal presence of conflict and war in human history has always necessitated that priority be given to education for conflict management and war preparation, and for the preservation of the larger community, every new generation has been prepared to be sacrificed at the altar of war earning to work and live together (Orodho,2017a).

It has also been argued that thereis  absence of peace in a classroom in learning institutions as  characterized by some   forms of oppression in the school generally and classroom in particular. To this end,Kester (2008) has documented that the  oppressive classrooms, including: i) teachers lecturing for the entire period without responses from learners, or without giving learners the opportunity to question the agenda, ii) teachers allowing one or a few students to dominate class time, which silences the majority, iii) students being encouraged to memorize ‘facts’ rather than engage in critical thinking and inquiry, , and iv) student-bullying being allowed to flourish as ‘boys just being boys’ as being the most conspicuous areas of concern.

Bajaj (2015) notes that peace building has emerged as a central strategy to address conflict and accelerate progress towards achieving the MDGs. The 2009 UN Secretary General’s Report on Peace building set out five priority areas for interventions in post-conflict contexts. These include ‘establishing security, building confidence in a political process, delivering initial peace dividends and expanding core national capacity (Bajaj & Hantzopourous, 2016). Similarly, Bajaj and Hantzopourous (2016) opine that it   is extremely important to ensure that schools are inclusive, protective and participatory environments, which are accessible to all children affected by conflict. Measures such as promoting the re-integration of children formerly recruited or used by armed forces or armed groups and other children affected by the conflict, into formal / non-formal, primary and secondary education are extremely important. Increased security and protection of schools, including personnel and students, can also be enhanced by the effective monitoring, reporting and responding to attacks on schools.

Tchombe (2011) similarly avers that peace education is a dialogical experience conducted through participatory learning, where learners communally and cooperatively grapple with contemporary issues (i.e. talking points) related to local and global contexts. Peace education has gained attention all around the world as educators often find that the educational methods (e.g. lecturing and test-taking) do not match the intended social outcome, whether it relates to government, business, education, or technology, and that is largely what peace education concerns.

In the Kenyan context, Dube and Orodho (2016) in their study on level of disaster preparedness and policy implications in public secondary schools in Rhamu Town, Mandera County, noted generally, education in Kenya has not adequately addressed issues to do with peace building strategies and disaster preparedness in schools in the country.  Yet, education process has been hampered in many ways as a result of frequent disaster occurrences, with human loss and injury, social upheaval, school property damage and closure, and often leading children to leave school for long periods in the recovery period (Dube & Orodho,2016).

Drawing from the experiences from international and local contexts, it can be inferred that peace education should be regarded as an opportunity to improve the social well-being and responsibilities of both teachers and students. It starts with an honest willingness to engage teachers and educators in the learning process, which is an essential and powerful way to transform themselves individually and collectively. It fosters real self-learning and breaks up cultural generalizations (stereotypes) that fossilize our own perspectives, beliefs, and assumptions (Mayor, 2005). The initiation of planned and organized peace education at the school level involves a range of preparations such as setting up objectives, developing a contextual peace educational content package, training teachers and providing awareness to the parent community.


1.3 The Statement of the Problem


The foregoing literature reviewed suggests that a general or integrated theory of peace is needed: one that can holistically account for the intrapersonal, inter-personal, inter-group and international dynamics of peace, as well as its main principles and pre-requisites. An essential component of this integrated theory must also be the recognition that a culture of peace can only result from an authentic process of transformation, both individual and collective. The critical importance of having peaceful coexistence in schools prompted the choice of this topic. The topic was also chosen because not much is written in the case of Kenya to prepare the youth with the kind of peace education that should lead to learning n diversity of students form various socio-economic and geographical variations.





2.1. The Design                                                                               


The study adopted   the mixed methods research and specifically used the explanatory sequential mixed methods research design (Creswell, 2012). A mixed methods research designis a procedure for collecting, analyzing, and “mixing “both quantitative and qualitative methods in a single study or a series of studies to understand a research problem (Boone & Boone, 2012; Creswell & Plano Clark, 2011; Dross, 2011). The basic assumption is that the uses of both quantitative and qualitative methods, in combination, provide a better understanding of the research problem and question than either method by itself (Creswell, 2003). The justification for the choice of this design was hinged on the fact that the design would enable the researcher to use a qualitative strand to explain initial quantitative results (Creswell, Plano, Clark, et.al. 2003; Creswell, 2012).


2.2. Population and Sample selection


Combinations of stratified random sampling and purposive sampling procedures   were used to select the required samples from the target population. The combinations of sampling methods were justified due to the  ability to provide an opportunity for random selection of subjects and ability to strategically chose subjects for the study who had the required knowledge and experience on issues being investigated (Cohen &Manion, 2011; Cresswell,2012; Field,2009; Orodho, Nzabalirwa, Odundo, Waweru & Ndayambaje,2016 ). Combinations of random and purposive sampling techniques yielded a sample size of 390 for Kiambu and 317 for Samburu Counties, making a combined sample size of 707.


 2.3. Research Instruments and Data Collection


The questionnaire for School Principals and teachers contained both structured and unstructured questions. The content of the interview protocol was grounded in the quantitative results from the first phase of the study (Bamberger, 2012; Orodho, 2017b). The interview Guide for the members of the Board of Management contained focused questions regarding their rating of   academic and non-academics   as determinants of holistic education of students. An observation checklist was designed to contain most of the indicators of academic and non-academic dynamics that enhance students’ holistic education.

The investigators appropriately checked the extent to which rating of level of management of academic and non-academic variables by school principals. During the observation, an attempt was made to ascertain the extent to which what was reported in the first phase of the study was consistent with what was observed on the ground in the selected schools   visited during the study. As counseled by Creswell et.al (2011), explanatory designs should have a qualitative strand that complement and corroborate results obtained from the quantitative strand of the design structure.

Piloting was done in one school in Kiambu County and one in Samburu County. These two schools were excluded from participating in the main study. The purpose of the pre-test was to determine the validity and reliability of the research instruments, especially the questionnaires, to be used for data collection (Orodho, 2017b). The content validity of the instruments was assessed by a panel of experts comprising of lecturers at Mount Kenya University who were well versed in research methods at postgraduate level of scholarship.This study employed the split half method which does not require the researcher to get back to the respondents (Orodho,2012; Orodho, Khatete & Mugizaneza,2016).  This method, which involves splitting the questionnaire   items into odd and even components and analyzing their reliability by comparing the totals of the two dichotomies and conducting a Pearson’s Product Moment correlation followed by a modified Brown Prophesy estimate . A value greater than .75 for the correlation coefficient of each of the questionnaires designed for School Principals, and senior teachers was separately deemed adequate to declare the questionnaires as reliable (Boone& Boone,2012; Brook,2013; Orodho, 2009; 2017a).

The data were collected from multiple sources to provide the richness and the depth of data in line with   the explanatory design procedure which is a variant of mixed methods research was carried out in two phases (Creswell, et.al, 2011). The data collection strategies were   implemented in two phases, starting with the implementation of the quantitative strand.  During the first phase, the researcher visited the field for the first time to create rapport with the respondents and provide information about the study. This strategy helped to pave way for distribution of the questionnaires which would  be done during the second visit. Phase one therefore involved the implementation of the quantitative strand and through administration of questionnaires to school Managers and teachers. The questionnaires were hand delivered to the respondents, with a copy of the research permit from the National Commission for Science, Technology and Innovation (NACOSTI).

The second phase of the study was implemented on completion of analyzing the results from the first quantitative phase of the study. Using the quantitative results, the researcher identified the senior teachers and members of the Board of Management (BOM) who had displayed sound knowledge of non-academic dynamics as determinants of holistic education of learners for further scrutiny(Orodho, Khatete & Mugiraneza,2016).  A qualitative evaluation research was undertaken to investigate the extent to which some of the non-academic indicators were being implemented in schools.



 2.4. Data Analysis Techniques and Procedures


The quantitative data from questionnaires were coded, entered and analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) Computer programme version 20. Descriptive statistics (frequencies, means, standard deviations and percentages) were computed by the SPSS Computer programme to determine the respondents’ perceptions and rankings of the role of academic and non-academic dynamics on holistic education in the study locales.  Descriptive statistics were generated from analyzing Likert scale items which were created by calculating a composite score (sum or mean) from five Likert type items (Orodho, Ampofo, Bizimana & Ndayambaje, 2015). For this reason, the composite score for Likert scales used in this study were analyzed at interval measurement scale (Orodho, Nzabalirwa, Odundo, Waweru, & Ndayambaje, 2016). The study then used the recommended descriptive statistics for interval scale items which included the mean for central tendency and standard deviation for variability (Asamoah, 2014; Ary, Jacobs & Steven, 2010; Orodho, Khatete & Mugiraneza, 2016).

The following null hypothesis was tested at a significance level of .05.


HO: There is no significant relationship between school leadership and holistic education of students in public secondary schools in Kiambu and Samburu Counties.





3.1. Findings of the Study


3.1.1. An Overview


The main objective was to assess the influence of peace education on provision of holistic education of students in public secondary schools in Kiambu and Samburu Counties. A related null hypothesis was that there was no significant influence of peace education on holistic education of students in public secondary schools in Kiambu and Samburu Counties. To achieve this objective, a questionnaire with items based on status of peace advocacy commonly used and respondents’ perceptions regarding their level of contribution to holistic education were employed. The items in the questionnaires for principals, teachers and students were structured using a five-point Likert scale ranging from 1= Never, 2= Rarely 3= Occasionally 4= frequently and 5= Very frequently were used. For data analysis, means and standard deviations were used to summarize the respondents’ level of rating regarding the influence of peace on holistic education.  The greater the mean score, the closer the dynamic becomes a significant influence of holistic education.


3.1.2. Peace advocacy and Holistic Education


The respondents were requested to indicate   the level of influence of peace education to holistic education. The results are presented in Table 1. Table 1 shows that the mean for the seven items constituting peace advocacy ranged from (M=2.52, SD=1.09) to (M=3.84, SD=1.02). The most frequently mentioned aspect of peace advocacy was that peace contributed to holistic education (M=3.84, SD=1.03).


Table 1: Peace and Holistic Education

Ranking of status of peace education and

contribution to holistic education




Current teaching of peace education advocates for forgiveness and mutual understanding.




Peace education prepares learners for responsible co-existence




Peace education inculcates global connectivity with other humanity




Peace education fosters life-skills




Peace education develops global connectivity




Peace education fosters harmonious co-existence with other humanity




Peace education contributes to holistic education






The second highly mentioned aspect was that peace education fosters harmonious co-existence (M= 3.80, SD=1.02). The attributes that peace education develops global connectivity and peace education fosters life-skills were ranked third and fourth respectively. Peace education prepares learners for responsible co-existence and peace education inculcates global connectivity with other humanity took fifth and sixth positions, respectively. Current teaching of peace education advocates for peace was ranked seventh as a strategy to achieve holistic education (M=2.52, SD=1.09).


3.1.3. Peace advocacy and Holistic Education by respondent and study Locale


A follow up of the findings was made in an attempt to find out the extent to which the views of the respondents regarding physical facilities to holistic education differed across the study locales of Kiambu and Samburu counties. Cross-tabulations of type of respondents by locale yielded results presented in Table 2.


Table 2:  Cross tabulations of responses on peace advocacy by study locale




Kiambu County

N                %

Samburu County

N             %


N        %


Very Little Importance














Very Important














Senior Teacher

Very Little







Little Importance














Very Important






















Very Little







Little Importance














Very Important






















Very Little







Little Importance














Very Important
















The results in table 2 indicate that while all principals in Kiambu considered the influence of peace to holistic education to be either important or very important, only half of their counterparts in Samburu County held similar view. About 80% of all principals in both Kiambu County and Samburu Counties considered peace as a major contributory factor to holistic education. This suggests that to a large extent, principals in the two locales consider peace education to be a critical influence provision of holistic education. Table 2 carries data that revealed that while over three quarters of senior teachers in Kiambu, constituting 77.1% considered peace as a factor contributing to holistic education, slightly over two thirds comprising 67.8 % expressed similar opinions in Samburu.

The results in Table 2 similarly revealed that over three quarters of students, comprising 76.5% and 75.8% in Kiambu and Samburu counties respectively considered peace as having a critical influence on holistic education. Overall, over three quarter of all respondents in both study locales of Kiambu and Samburu Counties considered peace to influence holistic education. The results reveal a general trend that according to all categories of respondents spread in different counties and type of schools, there was consensus that peace should be one of the critical factors to be used in the provision of holistic education.


3.1.4  Peace Advocacy and Holistic Education by respondent and Type of School


An attempt was also made to examine the extent peace advocacy and holistic education perceptions differed by type of school classification. The responses were cross- tabulated by type of school classification and results displayed in Figure 1.


Figure 1: Peace education fosters holistic education by type of school classification



The results carried in Figure 1 shows that a large proportion of respondents considered peace advocacy to influence holistic education across all the three types of school classifications. Overall picture was that the county schools attached more premium to peace education as being a critical factor in the provision of holistic education


3.1.5. Hypothesis Testing on Peace advocacy on Holistic Education


Ho4: There is no significant influence of peace education on provision of holistic education for students in public secondary schools in Kiambu and Samburu Counties. In order to test the null hypothesis, it was found necessary to conduct a normality test. The normality test was carried out to determine whether the sample data was drawn from a population that was normally distributed as one of the conditionality of using parametric test in analysis. Normality tests check whether the data is normally distributed among the respondents in the two locales of Kiambu and Samburu Counties. Data were collected against the null hypothesis that it is normally distributed. This implies for the null hypothesis to be tested, the data has to be normally distributed. The normality test was done using the quantile -quantile (Q-Q) plot. The Q-Q- plots for various independent variables. The Q-Q plot for school co-curricular is displayed in Figure 2.


Figure 2 : Normal Q-Q Plot on peace education and holistic education



The test of hypothesis was based on the information generated from principals, senior teachers and students’ responses.  The chi-square homogeneity test of association was used to test the influence of peace on holistic education. Table 16 indicates the results of the chi-square test. The results indicate that principals χ2(df= 2, N=20) = 10.741 p= .005 with the generated p-value = .005 less than the significant value of .05 led to the rejection of the null hypothesis that there was no significant influence of peace on holistic education of students in public secondary schools in Kiambu and Samburu Counties. This led to the adoption of the null hypothesis that there was no significant influence of peace education on provision of holistic education in Kiambu and Samburu Counties. A closer scrutiny of the data revealed that principals in Samburu County tended to put more premium than their counterparts in Kiambu County.

The results for senior teachers χ2(df=3,N=76) = 3.581 ,p= .310  indicated that the p-value =.310 generated by the SPSS was larger than the significance level of .05 , which  led to the retention of the null hypothesis at level of significance alpha=.05. The finding indicates that according to the senior teachers, there is no significant influence of peace education on holistic education in the study locale.


Table 3 :Chi-Square Tests on Peace   advocacy and holistic education




Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)


Pearson Chi-Square




Likelihood Ratio




Linear-by-Linear Association




N of Valid Cases




Senior Teacher

Pearson Chi-Square




Likelihood Ratio




Linear-by-Linear Association




N of Valid Cases





Pearson Chi-Square




Likelihood Ratio




Linear-by-Linear Association




N of Valid Cases





Pearson Chi-Square




Likelihood Ratio




Linear-by-Linear Association




N of Valid Cases




a. 2 cells (20.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is 2.07.

 b. 5 cells (83.3%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is 1.60.

c. 2 cells (25.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .74.



The results for students χ2 (df= 4, N= 450) = 7.588, p= .108 revealed that the p-value generated by SPSS was greater than the significance level of .05 used to test the hypothesis. This led to the retention of the null hypothesis at significance alpha level of .05. The retention of the null hypothesis led to the conclusion that, according to students, there was no significant influence of peace education on provision of holistic education of students in public secondary schools in Kiambu and Samburu Counties.

The overall result across all respondents, type of schools and counties χ2 (df= 4, N= 546) = 7.165, p= .127 revealed that the p-value generated by SPSS was greater than the significance level of .05 used to test the hypothesis. This led to the retention of the null hypothesis at significance alpha level of .05.   The retention of the null hypothesis led to the conclusion that, according to all respondents, there was no significant influence of   peace education on provision of holistic education of all respondents in public secondary schools in Kiambu and Samburu Counties.


3.1.6. Triangulationof Quantitative and Qualitative Data


The influence of peace education to holistic education was stressed by QUASOs in the study locale.  These QUASOs categorically stated that:


Peace education as the process of promoting the knowledge, skills, attitudes, and values needed to bring about behavior changes that will enable children, youth, and adults to prevent conflict and violence, both overt and structural; to resolve conflict peacefully; and to create the conditions conducive to peace, whether at an intrapersonal, interpersonal, intergroup, national, or international level. All these are cumulatively geared towards development of holistic education (QUASO Kiambu & QUASO Samburu, 2015).


The members of BoM and principals in schools in Kiambu and Samburu Counties maintained that:


peace education as activities that develop the knowledge, skills, and attitudes needed to explore concepts of peace, enquire into the obstacles to peace both in individuals and societies, to resolve conflicts in a just and non-violent way, and to study ways of constructing just and sustainable alternative futures. Others have suggested that the focus of peace education is (or should be) to develop an appreciation for the global connection of all humanity and our interdependence on the finite natural resources of the earth (BoM 03.09,23,31,45 IN Kiambu County & Principal 01,05 in Samburu County).


Therefore, the clear message from the foregoing citation underscores the importance of peace education at the school level and stresses unequivocally for the cultivation of a safe and prospering future for the world. This finding is in tandem with other scholars and researchers from developed and developing countries especially in Africa. Peace education in classrooms aims at equipping students with necessary knowledge and attitudes through respectful, tolerant, participatory, and cooperative techniques and methods (Adan & Orodho, 2016). The quantitative results of this study obtained during the first phase revealed that peace advocacy singly or in conjunction with other dynamics contributes to holistic education of the learner. The quantitative results have thus been confirmed by the qualitative results obtained during the second phase of the study.

         The results of the study also find support in earlier studies by Adan and Orodho (2016) who maintained that peace-building focuses on cultivating harmonious relationships based on mutual respect and social justice, and therefore suggests that long-term peace education should focus on building mutuality among all citizens and teaching them the competencies, attitudes, and values needed to build and maintain peace in society (Ibrahim & Orodho, 2016; Bwana & Orodho, 2014).

         The principals and members of the BoM in Samburu County were very supportive of including peace education to influence provision of holistic education. They unequivocally stated that:


When students and community members are engaged to resolve their own problems and conflicts, this kind of empowerment enables the underprivileged groups to learn, feel, and use their power and influence. He identifies the following stages for empowerment: (1) overcoming feelings of powerlessness, (2) confronting deep-seated fears of violence, (3) increasing awareness of public affairs, (4) leadership training, and (5) taking action (Principal 09, 11, 25 & BoM 23, 32,45 in Samburu County).


These sentiments are in tandem with those expressed by Salomon (2002), who maintained that the primary concern of peace education is the reconciliation of society, protection of human rights, and development of peace skills. Teachers must be able to foster positive social interactions among children, and establish and maintain positive collaborative relationships with families and the larger community to support students’ learning and well-being (Bajaj & Hantzopourous, 2016 & Basl, 2014; Sava& Orodho, 2014). That is why teachers should be prepared with universal values, such as freedom, justice, human rights, gender equality, tolerance, and respect for the right to live. They should also develop an understanding of peace and a desire for an internalized peaceful culture (Bajaj, 2015; Dube & Orodho, 2014; House & Bodea, 2017).



3.2. Discussion of Findings


The findings indicate that there is need to introduce and intensify efforts in incorporating peace education in formal, non-formal and informal curricular in schools. With regard to formal school curriculum and peace education in Kenya, peace education could be inseminated into the students using the exiting subjects in the school curriculum in Kenya. Subjects, such as History, Social Studies, Geography, Government and Religious Studies are relevant in this case. In History, students should be made to understand the past and present happenings in their communities and use the knowledge to better their future. It is also a very good area of specialization that impacts the values of Peace Education. With regards to non-formal curriculum, schools should devise out of class activities such as drama, music and club activities that foster peaceful coexistence.  These non-formal activities should be perceived as necessary in teaching learners the development of an understanding of their immediate surroundings. It also makes students develop skills which will enable them deal with and manage the forces of the world in which they live. Awareness of peaceful teachings should be a conduit for making learners understand how to live harmoniously in a society where many different groups co-exist.  Students learn topics such as socialization, conflicts, co-operation, heroes, heroines, ethic diversities, human rights and emergent problems in the society. Peace education is supposed to instill in learners the acts of discipline, tolerance and such acts that would encourage peaceful co-existence of people in the society.

The findings of this study are in tandem with what other scholars and educators have earlier documented and also acknowledges the fact that there is much more to be learnt about the impact of conflict and violence on development, and how to make practical, measurable steps towards more resilient, sustainable and peaceful states (United Nations, 2012).  The emerging message from the reviewed literature tends to concur that there is an analytical priority on learning from peaceful states than conflicting states. This is premised on the fact that studies in psychology where there has been broad recognition of the limitation of studying problems and the need to broaden understanding of human behavior (Sava & Orodho, 2014; Smith, 2011).





4.1. Conclusions


The thrust of this study was to determine the contribution of peace education on holistic education of students in secondary schools in Kiambu and Samburu Counties, Kenya. The  picture was that the county schools attached more premiums to the influence of peace on provision of holistic education. It is apparent that the respondents in national schools were operating in a more secure environment compared to their counterparts in county and sub-county schools. As such most have not experienced problems or challenges related to peace and security.The test of hypothesis led to the retention of the null hypothesis that there was no significant influence of peace on development of holistic education of students in public secondary schools in Kiambu and Samburu Counties. The overall result was similar to that posted by teachers and students. The principals were the only group of respondents who were convinced that peace advocacy largely influenced provision of holistic education.

The overall conclusion is that the contribution of peace education to holistic education led to the promotion of  requisite  knowledge, skills, attitudes, and values needed to bring about behavior changes that will enable children, youth, and adults to prevent conflict and violence, both overt and structural; to resolve conflict peacefully. The respondents were also unequivocal that creation of   conducive atmosphere for peace, whether at an intrapersonal, interpersonal, intergroup, national, or international level was a major requirement for any efforts aimed at providing holistic education.


4.2. Recommendation


Peace education should be integrated into the syllabuses at all levels of learning from pre-unit to university to facilitate development of holistic education.





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Cite this Article: Ndirangu WP and Orodho JA (2018). Contribution of Peace Education as a Determinant of Holistic Education of Students in Secondary Schools in Kiambu and Samburu Counties, Kenya. Greener Journal of Educational Research, 8(5): 119-130, http://doi.org/10.15580/GJER.2018.5.072118102.