Greener Journal of Educational Research Vol. 11(1), pp. 610, 2021 ISSN: 22767789 Copyright ©2021, the copyright of this article is
retained by the author(s) 

Effect of
5 Step ConstructivistBased Instructional Model on Student’s Interest in
Biology
Amaefuna, A.I.^{1}; Ezeliora,
B.A.^{2}
^{1}Department of Science
Education, Nnamdi Azikiwe
University, Awka.
^{2}Department of Science
Education, Chukwuemeka Odumegwu
Ojukwu University, Uli.
ARTICLE INFO 
ABSTRACT 
Article No.: 040721033 Type: Research 
Research has
shown that secondary school students perform poorly in subjects including
biology. A number of reasons have been adduced as being responsible for the
ugly trend, among which are the ineffective teaching methods adopted by the
teachers. Consequently, conscientious efforts targeted towards classroom
delivery methods that guarantee a shift from teachercentered
to studentcentered approach, where students are involved
in thinking and doing things themselves, have been made. One of such studentcentered approaches is the 5 step constructivistbased
instructional model. This model advocates for problem solving learning
environment, where the learner constructs and reconstructs knowledge, based
on their experiences. The study was carried out in Anambra
State. Three hundred and eightyfive senior secondary one biology students
formed the sample for the study. The reliability of BII was obtained using Cronbach Alpha and reliability coefficient of 0.81 was
obtained. The data obtained was analyzed using mean
and standard deviation. The result of the data analysis showed amongst others
that the 5 step constructivistbased instructional model facilitate
meaningful learning and interest of students. Findings also revealed that
constructivist based enable students to construct their own learning by
manipulating and interacting with their learning environment, thus abstract
concepts in biology will be easily mastered. Recommendations were also made. 
Accepted: 08/04/2021 Published: 15/05/2021 

*Corresponding Author Amaefuna,
A.I. Email: Ia.amaefuna@ unizik.edu.ng Phone: 08067254503 

Keywords: 



INTRODUCTION
Biology, the science
of life and one of the core science subjects offered in senior secondary school
in Nigeria has as its major objective, enabling students to acquire proper
scientific understanding of the working of human body and be able to apply such
scientific knowledge in their everyday life. It is the key to economic,
intellectual, sociological human resources development and wellbeing of any
society (Ezuike and Ayo Vaugham,
2020). At this formative level, most of the biology concepts/topics are
abstract and difficult to understand by the learner (Okoli,
2013; Okoye, 2018; Agbo,
2018; Ihejiamazi et al., 2018). There is therefore
the need to capture and maintain the interest of students in learning biology
at the senior secondary school level. This will help to ensure continuous
availability of students in expected number who take important professions such
as medicine, pharmacy, dentistry, food science, agriculture, science education
engineering, environmental studies etc.
Interest is an
individual’s behavioural tendency to be attracted towards
a certain class or classes of activities. It is a source of motivation which
drives people to do what they want to do when they are free to choose (Okoro, 2012). The strength of a person’s attitude is his
interest. Interest promotes intrinsic motivation which has been shown to drive
and sustain student’s engagement in a particular task. It is a state of
curiosity about something. Ezeliora (2013) maintained
that student’s interest in learning science could be achieved by science
teachers through careful choice of the most appropriate teaching methods.
Interest, an aspect of effective domain is a construct that has to do with ones
readiness to like or dislike something. It is an important variable in learning
process because one becomes eager to learn what one is interested in. Bakare (1991)
states that interest is useful in predicting the success and the satisfaction
which an individual is likely to obtain from engaging in certain activities now
and in future. Ezeliora (2013) specifically
notes that the conventional lecture method commonly used in teaching in Nigeria
is boring and uninteresting. Interest could be aroused in an individual by
activity that tends to satisfy the individual’s needs (Audu,
2018). The teacher assumes that all the students in the class have the same
entry behaviour or that they know little or nothing.
He/she stands in front of the class and delivers lessons. Students work
individually and are assessed individually. Only the best students are rewarded
which force students to work against each other so as to be the best. The conventional
method renders students passive while the teacher gets the monopoly of the
teachinglearning activities. The student’s interest in the lesson becomes very
minimal. The appropriate teaching approach if used by the biology teacher can
overcome such events as lack of drive, timidity, selfimposed, isolation, poor
previous experience etc, that hinder interest in the
students. The five step constructivistbased instructional model encourages
students to collaborate and be more productive argues that learners do not
passively acquire knowledge but actively construct meaning through their
interpretative interactions with an experience in the world (Ihuarulam, 2012). It is activitybased, studentcentered
and interactive learning strategy which upholds the view that knowledge should
be constructed by the learner through active mental developmental processes (Ekon, Asuguo & Udo, 2017). As an important subject required for
creativity, sustainable development and nation building, biology at the
foundation level of senior secondary school should be taught using effective
instructional approach capable of arresting and maintaining high interest among
students irrespective of sex. This research work sought to investigate the
effect of 5 step constructivistbased instructional model on student’s interest
in biology. The work was guided by two research questions and two null hypothesis.
Purpose of
the Study
The purpose of this study was to determine
the effect of constructivistbased instructional model on student’s interest in
biology. Specifically, this study determined;
·
The mean interest scores of students taught
biology using CBM and those taught using CTM.
·
The mean interest scores of male and female students
taught biology using CBM.
Research
Questions
The following research questions were raised;
·
What are the mean interest scores of students
taught biology using CBM and those taught using CTM?
·
What are the mean interest scores of male and
female students taught biology using CBM?
Hypotheses
The following null hypotheses tested at .05 level of significance guided the study.
·
There is no significant difference in the
mean interest scores of students taught biology using CBM and those taught
using CTM.
·
There is no significant difference in the
mean interest scores of male and female students taught biology using CBM.
METHOD
Research
Design
The
quasiexperimental, nonequivalent pretest, posttest control group research
design was used for the study. The population of the study was senior secondary
one biology students in Anambra State. Coeducational
schools in the zone were used in the study. This is to ensure that subjects,
male and female students are equally involved in the experiment since sex was
an important variable of the study.
Purposive random
sampling technique was used to select twelve out of one fifty coeducational
school in the six education zones of Anambra State of
Nigeria. The schools were randomly assigned to experimental and control groups.
The design is diagrammatically shown below.
Group 
No of
Students 
PreTest 
Research
Condition 
PostTest 
I 
176 
Pretest on biology interest inventory. 
Taught using 5 step constructivistbased
instructional model. 
Posttest on biology interest inventory. 
II 
209 
Pretest on biology interest inventory. 
Taught
using conventional teaching method 
Posttest on biology interest inventory. 
Instrument
for Data Collection
Biology interest
inventory (BII) constructed by Bakare interest
inventory was used for
data collection. The instrument was face
validated by five experts from Chukwuemeka Odumegwu Ojukwu University Uli. Their comments and suggestions of the experts were
incorporated in building the final draft of the instrument. The instrument was
pilot tested on twenty SS1 biology students of a coeducational school not
included in the sample for the study. The result was used to determine the
internal consistency of the instrument using Cronbach’s
alpha reliability coefficient. The internal consistency was 0.81.
Experimental
Procedure
The class teachers
for the experimental group were trained on how to implement the 5 step
constructivist teaching model based on the following step:
Step
1: The teacher
interact with the students to identify the student’s prior knowledge of
the topic.
Step
2: The students were divided into three
groups and are given materials to explore and manipulate with guided
instructions.
Step
3: The students gathered together and
discussed their observations and findings based on the activities performed.
Step
4: Here the teacher discover through
discussions questioning and answering techniques whether the students were
still holding on the preconceived belief.
Step
5: The learner discussed the concepts
confidently and applied the knowledge outside classroom settings, for the
control groups, the teacher taught using conventional teaching lesson plan
prepared by the researcher. The experiment lasted for six weeks.
Control of
extraneous variables
The following steps
were taken to control extraneous variables that might constituted
a threat to the validity of the findings of the study.
Hawthon effect
This is the effect
that students felt that they are being used for an experiment. Awareness by the
students that they were being studied could affect their performances. To
control this effect, the normal time allotted for biology on the time table was
used in all sessions and the lessons were taught by their regular biology
teachers. The pretest and posttest were administered as part of the normal
continuous assessment for the subject.
Teacher
Variable
To ensure conformity
to experimental procedure, experimental conditions and the effective
implementation, the researcher prepared lesson plans for the experimental
groups and control groups. He discussed extensively the lesson plans and
experimental conditions with the teachers. The teachers were not allowed to
have access to the instrument beforehand.
Method of
Data Analysis
The data collected were analyzed using mean,
standard deviation and analysis of covariance (ANCOVA).
RESULT
The results were presented according to the
research questions in table 1 and 2 while the tests of the hypothesis were
presented in table 3 and 4.
Research
question 1: What are the mean interest scores of students taught
biology using CBM and those taught using CTM?
Table 1:
Mean interest and standard deviation scores of students taught biology using
constructivistbased instructional model and those taught using conventional
model.
Teaching
Approach 
N 
Mean 
SD 
N 
Mean 
SD 
CBM 
176 
136.39 
12.58 
176 
137.31 
11.27 
CTM 
209 
133.14 
4.74 
209 
135.62 
5.11 
#
Table 1 showed the pretest and posttest
mean interest scores of students taught biology using constructivistbased
instructional model to be 136.39 and 137.31 with standard deviation of 12.58
and 11.27, while students taught biology using conventional teaching model had
pretest and posttest mean interest scores as 133.14 and 135.62 with
standard deviation of 4.74 and 5.11
respectively. There was a difference in mean interest score of students taught
biology using CBM and those taught using CTM in favour
of those taught with CBM.
Research
question 2: What is the mean interest
scores of male and female students taught biology using CBM?
Table 2:
Mean interest and standard deviation scores of male and female students taught
biology using constructivistbased instructional model.
Teaching
Approach 
Gender 
PreTest 
PostTest 
Mean
Gain Score 



N 
Mean 
SD 
N 
Mean 
SD 

CBM 
Male 
73 
133.77 
13.82 
73 
135.79 
4.41 
2.02 

Female 
103 
131.25 
11.50 
103 
136.93 
12.12 
5.68 
Table 2 showed the pretest and posttest mean
interest scores of male students taught biology using CBM to be 133.77 and
135.79 with standard deviation of 13.82 and 4.41 respectively which the female
students had pretest and posttest mean scores of 131.25 and 136.93 with
standard deviation of 11.50 and 12.12 respectively. The male students had a
mean gain score of 2.02 while the female students had mean gain score of 5.68.
This shows a difference in mean gain score in favour
of female students.
Hypothesis
3:
There is no significant difference in the mean interest scores between students
taught biology using CBM and those taught using CTM.
Table 3:
Analysis of Covariance of Students Mean Interest Scores in Biology
Source 
SS 
Df 
Ms 
F 
P 
PreTest^{a} 
111.59 
1 
111.59 
1.54 
.215 
Group 
1063.59 
1 
1063.59 
14.69 
.000 
Error 
27644.73 
382 
72.36 


Total 
7035135.00 
384 



In table 3: The mean interest scores of
secondary school students taught biology using constructivistbased
instructional model and those taught using conventional model. F = 14.69, the obtained pvalue (.000) is less
than the stipulated level of significance (.05). The null hypothesis of no
significant difference between the two groups was rejected.
Hypothesis
4:
There is no significant difference in the mean interest scores between male and
female students taught biology using CBM.
Table 4:
Analysis of Covariance of Male and Female Students Mean Interest Scores in
Biology
Source 
SS 
Df 
Ms 
F 
P 
PreTest^{a} 
49.35 
1 
49.35 
.66 
.415 
Group 
338.979 
1 
338.97 
4.56 
.033 
Error 
28369.35 
382 
74.26 


Total 
7035135.00 
385 



The analysis in table 4 showed that there is
a statically significant difference in mean interest scores of male and female
students taught biology using constructivistbased instructional model and
those taught using conventional model. F =
4.56 and the obtain pvalue (.033) is less than the stipulated level of
significance (.05). The null hypothesis of no significant difference between
the two groups was therefore rejected.
DISCUSSION
OF THE FINDINGS
The findings of this
study showed that the students taught biology using five step
constructivistbased instructional model perform
better and female students are more interested than male students.
Constructivist model facilitate meaningful learning and interest of biology
students. This suits the findings Bello and Abimbola
(2012) that Dewey’s Cognitive and social theory is very necessary in the
interest of science materials. According to them, instruction is most efficient
when students engage in activities within supportive guidance that is mediated
by tools. In this way, interest and transfer of knowledge is enhanced.
The finding is in
line with studies by Nwagbo and Chikelu
(2011), Nasr and Asghor (2011), Oludipe
(2012), Okeke Osisi and Okeke (2015) who found that constructivistbased teaching
improves student’s interest in biology. This according to them might be due to
opportunity to interact and create cognitive confliction among students.
CONCLUSION
Based on the results
obtained in the study, and the discussion following thereafter, it was
therefore concluded that the five step constructivistbased instructional model
enable students to construct their own learning, by manipulating and
interacting with their learning environment, seemingly abstract concepts in
biology will be easily demystified and mastered. This will make students less
dependent on rotelearning.
Recommendation
Based on the results of the study, the
following recommendations were made;
1.
Since the five step constructivistbased
instructional model has been found to facilitate meaningful learning and
interest of students, biology teachers should be encouraged to employ its use
in the teaching of all science subjects and biology in particular.
2.
Teachers should engage students in
constructivist classes, since it improved and accommodate students with
different intelligent level.
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Cite this Article: Amaefuna, AI; Ezeliora, BA (2021). Effect of 5 Step
ConstructivistBased Instructional Model on Student’s Interest in Biology. Greener Journal of Educational Research,
11(1): 610. 