Greener Journal of Medical Sciences

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Aziz et al

Greener Journal of  Medical Sciences Vol. 3 (6), pp. 207-210, August 2013.

 ISSN: 2276-7797  

Research Paper

Manuscript Number: 061213671


Dialysis Disequilibrium Syndrome: A Case Report & Concise Review


*1Fahad Aziz, 2Simanta Dutta, 3Misbah Zaeem


1Department of Cardiovascular Disease, Penn State Hershey Medical Center, 500 University Drive, 

MC Hershey, PA-17036.

2,3Department of Internal Medicine, Section on Hospital Medicine, Medical Center Boulevard, 

Winston- Salem NC 27157.


*Corresponding Author’s Email: @


Dialysis Disequilibrium Syndrome (DDS) is characterized by neurological symptoms caused by rapid removal of urea during hemodialysis. It develops primarily from an osmotic gradient that develops between the brain and the plasma as a result of rapid hemodialysis. This results in brain edema that manifests as neurological symptoms such as headache, nausea, vomiting, muscle cramps, tremors, disturbed consciousness and convulsions. In severe cases, patients can die from advanced cerebral edema. Recent advancements in cell biology implicate the role of urea disequilibrium (with a smaller contribution from organic osmolytes) as the pathophysiological mechanism responsible for this syndrome. 

Keywords: Dialysis Disequilibrium Syndrome, Hemodialysis, urea disequilibrium.

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