Agbaji and Ejemot-Nwadiaro
Greener Journal of Medical Sciences
Vol. 9(1), pp. 17-31, 2019
Copyright ©2019, the copyright of this article is retained by the author(s)
Solid Waste Management in Calabar Metropolis: Case Study of Calabar Urban Development Authority (2008 – 2017)
Dickson David Agbaji1 and Regina Idu Ejemot-Nwadiaro*2
1Department of Political Science, Faculty of Social Sciences, University of Calabar
2Department of Public Health, Faculty of Allied Medical Sciences, University of Calabar
Article No.: 032919058
The challenge of managing solid waste generally in developing countries like Nigeria and its urban cities like Calabar has shifted from ensuring minimum damage to public health and environment to the manner in which discarded resources are to be handled such that future generations are not deprived of its value. This study, therefore examined the Calabar Urban Development Authority’s (CUDA) impact on the management and disposal of waste in Calabar Metropolis between 2008 and 2017. It relied on systematic qualitative content analysis of secondary sources of data, and the theory of Structural-Functionalism was adopted as the tool of analysis for the study. The paper argues that there are waste dumps by the road sides, open drains and open spaces, and paper and vegetable wastes in markets and residential areas throughout Calabar metropolis despite the efforts of CUDA to keep the town clean and green. These untended dumps constitute an aesthetic disaster and have strategically reduced the city’s long standing status as the cleanest in Nigeria. The paper, therefore, recommends the increased public awareness of CUDA’s duties and collection schedules, adequate equipping and funding of CUDA, adoption of a waste separation technique, and establishment of recycling and incineration plants.
Regina Idu Ejemot-Nwadiaro
E-mail: reginaejemot@ yahoo.com
Calabar Urban Development Authority (CUDA); solid waste; solid waste management; Calabar; waste disposal
Post-Publication Peer-review Rundown
View/get involved, click [Peer-review]
Adeniran, A.O. and Oyemade, H. (2016). Inventory analysis of solid waste management in Ikorodu community. Civil and Environmental Research, 8(9), 26-38.
Adewole, A.T. (2009). Waste management towards sustainable development in Nigeria: A case study of Lagos State. International NGO Journal, 4(4), 173-179.
Afangideh, A.I, Joseph, K.U., and Atu, J.E. (2012). Attitude of urban dwellers to waste disposal and management in Calabar, Nigeria. European Journal of Sustainable Development, 1(1), 22-34.
Afigbo, A.E. (1987). The Igbo and their neighbours: Inter-group relations in south-eastern Nigeria to 1953. Ibadan: University Press Limited.
Agbesola, O.Y. (2013). Sustainability of municipal solid waste management in Nigeria: A case study of Lagos (Unpublished Master’s thesis, Linkoping University). Retrieved from http://www.ep.liu.se/
Andrew-Essien, E.E. and Akintoye, O.A. (2012).Urban poverty and residential environment degradation in Calabar area of Cross River State, Nigeria. Global Journal of Human Social Science, 12(6), 49-55.
Australian Laboratory Services Environmental. (2014). Waste generation: Meaning, term, and glossary definition – What is waste generation? Retrieved from http://www.caslab.com/Waste_Generation_Meaning/
Barbalace, R.C. (2003, August). The History of waste: Do you want to be a garbologist? Retrieved on fromhttp://environmentalchemistry.com/yogi/environmental/wastechemistry.html/
Bogner, J., Ahmed M.A. Diaz, C.C., Faayi, A., Geo, Q, Hashimoto, S., Mareckowa, K., Pipati, R, and Zhang, T. (2007). Waste management. In B. Metz, D.R. Dandson, P.R. Bosch, R. Dave, and L.A. Meyers (Eds.), Climate change (2007): Mitigation. Contribution of Working Group III to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) (pp. 585-618).Cambridge, Unite Kingdom and New York, USA: Cambridge University Press.
Chandak, S.P. (2010). Trends in solid waste management: issues, challenges and opportunities. International consultative meeting on expanding waste management services in developing countries UNEP, 1-22.
Chartered Institute of Purchasing and Supply (CIPS). (2007). How to develop a waste management and disposal strategy. Pp. 1-27. Retrieved from https://www.google.com.ng/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=1&cad=rja&uact=8&ved=0ahUKEwjT-7Tf5bLYAhUBuhQKHbhIDBIQFggnMAA&url=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.cips.org%2FDocuments%2FAbout%2520CIPS%2FDevelop%2520Waste%2520v3%2520-%252020.11.07.pdf&usg=AOvVaw3oyFbJHiOrqlGtbcDmRS_5/
Clayton, A. and Radcliffe, N. (1996). Sustainability – A systems approach. London, UK: Earthscan Publications Ltd.
Coker, M.A., Obo, U.B., and Ugwu U. (2013). Managing sustainable development in our modern cities: Issues and challenges of implementing Calabar urban renewal programmes, 1999-2011. Asian Social Science, 9(13), 74-84.
Ebegbulem, J. (2010). Government and politics of the modern state (Enlarged Edition). Cross River, Nigeria: Kings View Publishing House.
Ekpoh, I.J., Ekpoh, U.I. and Bassey, N.U. (2008). The role of environmental education and public enlightenment in urban waste management in Calabar, Cross River State of Nigeria. African Journal of Environmental Pollution and Health, 6(1), 7-12.
Enemuo, F.C. (1999). Approaches and Methods to the study of politics, in R. Anifowose and F. C. Enemuo (Eds.), Elements of Politics. Akoka-Yaba, Lagos: Sam Iroanusi Publications.
Eni, D and Abua C. (2014).The impact of Urban renewal on quality of life (QOL) in Calabar, Calabar, Nigeria. Research on Humanities and Social Sciences, 4(17)129-135.
Eni, D.I., Ubi, A.E. and Digha, N. (2014). Vulnerability assessment of boreholes located close to Lemna landfill in Calabar metropolis, Nigeria. International Journal of Physical and Human Geography, 2(2), 6-15.
Ottong, J.G., Ering, S.O., and Akpan, F.U. (2010). The population situation in Cross River State of Nigeria and its implication for socio-economic development: Observations from the 1991 and 2006 censuses. Journal of Emerging Trends in Educational Research and Policy Studies (JETERAPS), 1(1), 36-42.
Esu, B.B., Arrey, V.M., Basil, G., and Eyo, E.E. (2011). Analysis of the economic impacts of cultural festivals: The case of the Calabar Carnival in Nigeria. Tourismo: An International Multidisciplinary Journal of Tourism, 6(2), 333-352.
Guangyu, Y. (2011). Disposal of solid waste. Point Sources of Pollution: Local Effects and its Control. Encyclopaedia of Life Support Systems (EOLSS) (Vol. 1). Retrieved from http://www.eolss.net/sample-chapters/c09/e4-11-03-03.pdf/
Guerrero, L.A., Maas, G. and Hogland, W. (2013). Solid waste management challenges for cities in developing countries. Elsevier, Waste Management, 33, 220-232.
Hammed, T.B., Sridhar, M.K.C. and Wahab, B. (2016). Enhancing solid waste collection and transportation for sustainable development in the Ibadan metropolis, Nigeria. European Journal of Research in Social Sciences, 4(7), 23-32.
Imam, A., Mohammed, B., Wilson, D.C., and Cheeseman, C.R. (2008). Solid waste management in Abuja, Nigeria. Elsevier, Waste Management, 28, 468-472.
Inyang, B. (2016, June 20). Calabar succumbs to refuse. This Day Newspaper. Retrieved from http://www.thisdaylive.com/index.php/2016/06/20/calabar-succumbs-to-refuse/
Isirimah, N.O. (2002). Understanding the Nature, Properties, and Sources of Waste for Quality Environment. Port Harcourt: Tom and Harry Publications Ltd.
Kalu, N. (2014, September 19). Calabar’s burden as Nigeria’s cleanest city. The Nation Newspaper. Retrieved from http://thenationonlineng.net/calabars-burden-as-nigerias-cleanest-city/
Lardinois, I., and Furedy, C. (1999). Source separation of household waste materials: Analysis of case studies from Pakistan, the Philippines, India, Brazil, Argentina and the Netherlands. Gouda, Urban Waste Series, 7.
Longitude, Latitude, GPS Coordinates of Calabar. (2016). Retrieved from http://www.gps-latitude-longitude.com/gps-coordinates-of-Calabar/
Matsunaga, K. and Themelis, N.J. (2002). Effects of affluence and population density on waste generation and disposal of municipal solid wastes.
Metz, B., Dandson, D.R., Bosch, P.R., Dave, R., and Meyers, L.A. (Eds.). (2007).Climate change (2007): Mitigation. Contribution of Working Group III to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, USA: Cambridge University Press.
Murali, U., Vijayakumar, C., Ramesh, M., and Baskaran, M. (2017). An overview of hazardous waste management in India. International Journal of Engineering and Management Research, 7(4), 355-368.
New Telegraph. (2017, October 14). Carnival Calabar target 2 million tourists for 2017. Retrieved from https://newtelegraphonline.com/2017/10/carnival-calabar-targets-2-million-tourists-2017/
Nwagwu, E.J. (2012). An appraisal of Economic and Financial crimes commission (EFCC): The war as giant corruption in Nigeria (1999-2007). Retrieved on August 30, 2017, from http://www.academicexcellencesociety.com/an_appraisal_of_economic_and_financial_crimes_commission.html/
Ogban, M.E. and Akuruju, V.A. (2016). The stigmatization of residential properties due to proximity to waste dump. IMPACT: International Journal of Research in Business Management, 4(11), 37-46.
Okonkwo E.M. and Eboatu A.N. (1999).Environmental pollution and degradation. Palladan Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria: Onis Excel Creations Publication Ltd
Oyeniyi, B.A. (2011). Waste management in contemporary Nigeria: The Abuja example. International Journal of Politics and Good Governance, 2(2.2), 1-18.
Randall, V. and Theobald, R. (1998). Political change and underdevelopment: A critical introduction to third world politics (2nded.). London: Macmillan Press Ltd.
Samson-Akpan, P.E. (2009, September). Solid waste management in Calabar, Cross River State. Researchgate. Retrieved from http://www.researchgate.net/publication/247773973_solid_waste_management_in_Calabar_Cross_River-State/
Scarpitti, R.F. and Anderson, L.M. (1989). Social problem. New York, USA: Harper & Row publishers, Inc.
Seadon, J.K. (2010). Sustainable waste management systems. Journal of Cleaner Production, 18, 1639-1651.
Sule, R.A.O. (1981). Environmental pollution in an urban center: Waste disposal in Calabar. Third World Planning Review, 3(4).
Sujauddin, M., Huda S. M. S. and Rafiqul-Hoque, A. T. M. (2008). Household solid waste characteristics and management in Chittagong, Bangladesh, Waste Management, 28(9), 1688-1695.
Udoakah, Y. and Akpan, U. (2013, October).A sustainable approach to municipal solid waste management in Southern Nigeria. Paper presented at the Institute Of Electrical, Electronics Engineers (IEEE), Global Humanitarian Technology Conference (GHTC) Silicon Valley-San Jose, California USA.
Uwadiegwu, B.O. and Chukwu, K.E. (2013).Strategies for effective urban solid waste management in Nigeria. European Scientific Journal, 9(8) 296-308.
Wikipedia.org (2018). Waste sorting. Retrieved on 10 May, 2018, from https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Waste_sorting/
Wokekoro, E. and Inyang, M.P. (2007). Waste disposal in low-income neighbourhood and its impact on health: The case of Port Harcourt, Nigeria. International Conference “Waste Management, Environmental Geotechnology and Global Sustainable Development (ICWMEGGSD'07 - GzO'07)” Ljubljana, SLOVENIA, August 28-30.
Cite this Article: Agbaji DD; Ejemot-Nwadiaro RI (2019). Solid Waste Management in Calabar Metropolis: Case Study of Calabar Urban Development Authority (2008 – 2017). Greener Journal of Medical Sciences, 9(1): 17-31, http://doi.org/10.15580/GJMS.2019.1.032919058.
Call for Papers/Books/Thesis
Call for Scholarly Articles
Authors from around the world are invited to send scholary articles that suits the scope of this journal. The journal is currently open to submissions and will process and publish articles monthly in two yearly issues.
The journal is centered on quality and goes about its processes in a very timely fashion. Seasoned editors/reviewers will be consulted to review each article(s), profer quality evaluations and polish the articles with expertise before publication.
Simply send your article(s) as an e-mail attachment to firstname.lastname@example.org or email@example.com.
Call for Books
You are also invited to submit your books for online or print publication. We publish books related to all academic subject areas. Submit as an e-mail attachment to firstname.lastname@example.org.