Greener Journal of Social Sciences

Vol. 9(2), pp. 18-26, 2019

ISSN: 2276-7800

Copyright ©2019, the copyright of this article is retained by the author(s)

DOI Link: http://doi.org/10.15580/GJSS.2019.2.071619136  

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Women, Social Media and Self – Employed Business: The Study of Oyo State Civil Service, Southwest, Nigeria

 

 

Isola, Abidemi Abiola

                

Babcock University, Department of Political Science and Public Administration

Ilishan Remo, Ogun State, Nigeria.

 

 

 

ARTICLE INFO

ABSTRACT

 

Article No.: 071619136

Type: Research

DOI: 10.15580/GJSS.2019.2.071619136

 

This paper examines work - life balance challenges women experience when it comes to juggling career with self - employed business especially in Oyo state, Nigeria. Also, it explored the role of social media in facilitating work-life balance with the use of social media. There are substantial literatures on work-life balance. However, only few studies have investigated juggling official work with private owned business. Therefore, this paper with the adoption of survey research design examined the use of social media by female civil servants in the Ministry of Women Affairs in Oyo state, Southwest, Nigeria (2014-2016) in promoting their private businesses so as to ensure upkeep of their homes in particular. The findings reveal that many female civil servants agreed that the use of social media can promote their private businesses in order to support their families when salaries are unstable and ensuring that they are at their official duty post as at when due. Conclusively, with the present recession in Nigeria, the use of social media can promote businesses. Thus, female civil servants can thrive and ensure sustainable growth in the economic aspect of their family, hence, contributing economically to the society as a whole.

 

Submitted: 16/07/2019

Accepted:  20/07/2019

Published: 27/08/2019

 

*Corresponding Author

Isola Abiola

E-mail: abidemiisola@ gmail.com

Phone: 08035804634

 

Keywords: Social Media; Career Women; Business; Civil Servant; Self-employed

 

 

 

 


 

INTRODUCTION

 

Career, being a profession and actions taken by an individual is a lifetime decision. This achievement enhances a woman’s status in the society and boosts her self-esteem within her clan. However, the organisation she works in determines how she spends her leisure time when it comes to undertaking a self- employed business in which she has interest. This is mainly because such a business ought not to interfere with her duties in the organisation she works with. Hence, a female civil servant may find it difficult to be involved in a business she will have to leave in the hands of an outsider (a sales girl or boy as the case may be) especially at this recession period in Nigeria.

The use of social media can ease the pursuit of a female civil servant who intends to be involved in a self–employed business. This is similar to the assertion of Andreas and Micheal (2010), that social media, which can also be referred to as ‘Web2, 0’ is an internet based tool and service that allows interaction between internet users in order to generate content, distribute and explore for information. For instance, the advertisement of old and new products can be displayed and accessed on the social media by internet users.  Self-employed business or private business which will be used interchangeably in the context of this paper  has to do with a government worker who is involved in a small business, an entrepreneur who desires to have a secondary source of income using social media to promote such business.  

What is social media? Social media is an online medium of communication among different groups of people whether friends, strangers or acquaintances. It can also be seen as a means of participating in social networking via websites and application with the use of different online tools like Instagram, blog, Facebook, Twitter, LinkedIn, YouTube, Inter alia. This paper focuses on social media tools which include Facebook, Instagram, Twitter and LinkedIn that may be useful for a female civil servant involved or interested in self-employed business.  This could earn her more income, whether the salary is stable or not and she may decide to contribute her quota to the economic aspect of her family. Career women in the context of this paper are the female civil servants working under the Ministry of Women Affairs, Oyo state Nigeria.

A civil servant is an employee under the body of either federal, state or local government administration called Civil Service. Civil service is a body of state administration which excludes judiciary and military branches of government. They are politically neutral to issues that have to do with partisan politics. It is a professional body of the state administration with a feature of permanency. It is an administrative service of the government agencies either national or international.

The civil servant or public employee works in various fields like teaching, management, administration for federal, state and local government in ensuring the smooth running of the administration under which they are functioning by designing, formulating and implementing public policy. They also carry out government functions and development programs (Lebowski, 2015). They are expected to be at their duty post and carry out their duty assiduously with no biases. (Okonkwo, 2014) This should be based on mutual agreement between the employer and the employee that is the government and civil servant. This should be in accordance with the provision of Nigerian Labour Act 1974 which stated that ‘Daily hours of work are to be fixed by mutual agreement or by collective bargaining (section 13:1). Provision is made for rest intervals of no less than one hour in total if the day’s work is longer than 6 hours (section 13,3), and for one day’s rest per week (section 13:7)

. After twelve months of continuous service, a worker is entitled to an annual leave of at least six working days that may not be deferred by more than twelve months (section 18 )’ Ojo, Salau & Falola, (2014).  However, This is not the case most times amongst civil servants in Oyo State. The state dictates when to get to work and when to leave without a mutual agreement with workers.

Some countries of the world like Denmark, Sweden Norway and some European countries, according to Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) 2011 Report, have been ranked highest based on flex time which include leisure and personal care time, share of labour force that work for  very long hours like 50 hours  a week.

Leisure time for Nigerian civil servant women is believed to be used for something profitable like venturing into private business in order to support their homes. However, most times, the so-called Leisure time in Nigeria has been constricted  by official work and assignments. The need for this research work is to help as many female civil servants who desire or are already into the private business to be able to attain their dreams in life.

It is no secret that times are hard everywhere and the major reason for this paper at this period  is consequential on the recession, specifically unstable salary (Oketola, 2016) and restricted movement of public workers during the official hour in Oyo state, Nigeria. In spite of the unstable salary (which is a major concern as prompt payment of salary is one of the motivational factors for workers) Nnamdi; Offiong; Tonwe; 2004:93,  public servants, in Oyo state are expected to put in their best without any other private business interfering with their jobs within  official  work hours. They are expected to get to work on time between the hours of 7:30 – 7:45 am on Mondays and Fridays. Their closure time varies, depending on the position they occupy. Any worker found wanting in his/her duty post is no longer given a warning or query letter but rather fired immediately.

This paper, therefore, with the use of exploratory research, examined the following research objectives; i. to examine how social media can promote the self-employed business of female civil servants in Oyo state; ii. to find out those militating factors influencing the use of social media to improve self-employed businesses; iii. to determine the level of commitment to official work when female civil servants make use of social media to promote their private business. The tested hypotheses for this research work were; Hi: there is a significant relationship between self-employed business and the use of social media by civil servant women for the promotion of private business. Hii: Use of social media determines the promotion of personal business; Hiii: Use of social media has an effect on a commitment to official work when combined with personal business.

 This paper is thus, divided into different parts which include, Introduction, Balancing Work-Life with the use of social media, Methodology, Research and Discussions of findings, Conclusion, and Recommendations.

 

Balancing Work- Life with the Use of Social Media

 

Work-life Balance  in the context of this work  include the use of leisure time for private business  for women  in Nigeria and Africa generally, has not been given more attention unlike that of the western world (Ojo, I. S., Salau, O. P., & Falola, H. O., 2014).

In Africa, women, traditionally,  are expected to look after the homestead by helping on the farm and to procreate. (Mojekwu-Chikezie, 2012) Man (husband) ensures that he takes care of his immediate family, all things being equal, by searching for jobs outside the home or working on the farm together with his immediate family.  However, as a result of economic challenges, women outsource for fund rather than sit back at home while her husband works alone (Alao, 2012).  

Working as a woman brings self-esteem.  It helps her to contribute her quota to the standard of living of her family no matter how little she may earn. She is expected not to fail in her roles, that is, as a wife, mother, and executive in different institutions. ( McLellan & Uys, 2009). Consequently, she contributes her quota by working as a civil/ public servant, a housewife with a small business or an employer with her owned business. Being a career women does not mean that all is well especially in a situation where a woman is working and payment of salary is unstable. (Alao, 2012)

 As a result, many things are affected such as feeding, shelter, transportation, clothing, health etc. Therefore the need for an alternative source (s) of income to keep up with the family’s standard of living even when payment of salary is irregular. 

Civil Servants in Ibadan are not exempted from such scenario and there is the need to outsource for fund. Salaries of 2016 are yet to be fully paid in some states in Nigeria  as at the period this paper is being researched on. This is  coupled with recession in the country, as a result of drop in international price of crude oil, Niger Delta Militant Blowing up oil installation, high wage bill, low internal generated revenue,  Dollar exchange rate fluctuation etc., (Oketola, 2016). This situation has negativily affected Oyo state and the country as a whole. It is no news that indescribable hardship is everywhere in Nigeria but that of Oyo state civil servants are even worse as a result of unpaid salaries which led many civil servants to depend on their relatives for means of transportation to work, feeding and even shelter for as many that could not afford to pay house rent.  This is a ridiculous experience which linger on. No freedom of speech and  the National Labour Congress is believed to have been bought over by the government. (Awodipe, 2015). In some families, both husband and wife are Oyo state civil servants, hence the need for women to be more proactive with the use of social media to promote self-employed businesses in order to support their families and not be a burden to anyone. Private businesses such as event planning service, green cleaning service, fashion designing, selling of either male or female outfits, shoes or sandals, food stuff, bead making, pastry making, etc.  are various areas where women may venture.

According to Katyan Roach, a Social Media Consultant, recessionary period and financial trying times is an avenue to give social media networking a trial through Social Media Marketing (SMM) Strategy because it is the most cost - efficient way of engaging and communicating in business either physically or visually (Roach, 2017) .  Pavel(nd) averred that social media marketing is an inexpensive and effective tool for business, reason being that it can reach large number of   targeted customers within a short period with less effort required. Also, branding can be done effectively on social media through Facebook, Instagram, Youtube, among many other mediums. This attracts interaction with online users and as many that are interested in such brands. This consequently, leads to an increase in sales of such online products. Neti (2011) laid more emphasis that the role of social media in marketing  both small and large  scale businesses can not be over emphasised because of the benefits attached to it. This includes cost reduction by decreasing staff time and increasing probability of revenue generation. It is the best option avaliable to a brand for connecting with potential customers being a medium for socializing  online.

What then is Social Media Marketing? Social Media Marketing is a process which empowers individuals and organisations in reaching out to customers and potential customers on the product you want to market to them. It is a virtual network process that can be done through social media application which does not need someone’s presence before his/her product can be displayed or advertised to the outside world at a very low cost (Weinberg, 2009:14; Khan and Jan, 2015) . This fact was further asserted by Lazer and Kelly (1973) that SMM is ‘concerned with application of knowledge, concepts, and techniques to enhance social as well as economic ends’ in order to make profitable impact with less time and effort involved.

In order for female civil servants to reach consumers that are busy as well as those that are not during their liesure time and when off duty, it is very important to make use of the following channels made available by social media network which include LinkedIn, Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, and Youtube to reach their business partners and customers. This will ensure a balance between work life and private business life.

 

 

METHODOLOGY

 

This research is exploratory in nature. It adopted a mixed method which included quantitative and qualitative methods. The quantitative aspect includes the use of questionnaires administered to women civil servants under the ministry of women affairs. While that of qualitative involves relevant literatures. Sampling technique that was adopted for this paper was the simple random sampling technique which gives subjects in the population an equal chance of appearing in the sample size. The respondents for this study were limited to Ibadan, being the Administrative seat of the whole of Oyo state. The questionnaire consist of three (3) sections with 100 questionnaires administered to 100 female  respondents from Women Ministry Affairs, Secretariat, and Ibadan Oyo State which were randomly distributed. The information supplied in the questionnaire was organised, analysed and interpreted out to arrive at an empirical conclusion using simple percentage while Chi-square was used to test the stated hypotheses to show whether there is a significant relationship between self-employed business and the use of social media for enhancement of female civil servant income.

Frequency distribution of the parameters was found while the association or relationship between self-employed business and the use of social media to enhance female civil servants income such as gender, age, the type of social network, among others were determined using Chi-square test.

 

 

RESULTS AND INTERPRETATION

 

Findings from the survey on the use of social media by women in self – employed business in Oyo state civil service, Nigeria, obtained from the administration of questionnaire in the Ministry of Women Affairs in the state between the period of March and April 2016 are presented in this section.

The data was presented in tables using simple frequencies, percentages and mean.


 

 

Female

 

 

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid

Female

100

100.0

100.0

100.0

 

 


The above table shows the gender distribution of the respondents. Out of the total population under consideration, 100 respondents representing 100% represents female folks respectively.


 

 

Marital status

 

 

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid

Single

21

21.0

21.0

21.0

Married

77

77.0

77.0

98.0

Separated

2

2.0

2.0

100.0

Total

100

100.0

100.0

 

 

 


The above table shows the marital distribution of the respondents. Out of the total population under consideration, 21 respondents representing 21% of the population represent those that fall into the single category, while another 77 respondents representing77% represents the married group and 2 respondents represent those in separate groups respectively.


 

  Age

 

 

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid

18-39

52

52.0

52.0

52.0

40-49

34

34.0

34.0

86.0

50-59

14

14.0

14.0

100.0

Total

100

100.0

100.0

 

 

 


The table above shows the age distribution of the respondents. Out of the total population under consideration, 52 respondents representing 52% of the population fall within 18 -39 age group category while another 34 representing 34% falls within 40-49 age bracket and another 14 respondents representing 14% were within 50-59 age bracket. The implication from this is that those who fall under 18-39 age groups and 40-49 age groups are more active in the use of social media to promote their private business because they are in their youthful age.


 

 

Level

 

 

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid

1-5

15

15.0

15.0

15.0

6-10

58

58.0

58.0

73.0

12-16

27

27.0

27.0

100.0

Total

100

100.0

100.0

 

 

 


The table above shows the distribution of the respondents based on their level at work. Of the total population under study, only 15 respondents representing 15% of the population represents the respondents that are within grade levels 1 – 5 while another 58 respondents representing 58% represents those that fall within grade levels 6 – 10. Another 27 respondents representing 27% also, fall within grade level 12 – 16.


 

Do you think social media can be helpful in promoting your business as a civil servant?

 

 

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid

Yes

84

84.0

84.0

84.0

No

16

16.0

16.0

100.0

Total

100

100.0

100.0

 

 

 

 


Out of the total population under study, 84 respondents representing 84% of the population do believe the use of social media is helpful in promoting their business as a civil servant while the remaining 16 respondents representing 16% did not agree. In agreement with the above statement, there is a positive relationship between the use of social media and enhancement of private business. Therefore, it should be upheld and accepted.


 

How do you access your social media network for your personal business?

 

 

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid

Smartphone

55

55.0

55.0

55.0

Desktop

2

2.0

2.0

57.0

Laptop

7

7.0

7.0

64.0

IPad

5

5.0

5.0

69.0

Others

20

20.0

20.0

89.0

None of the Above

11

11.0

11.0

100.0

Total

100

100.0

100.0

 

 

 


From the above table, the respondents were asked how they access their social media network for promoting their private business. Out of the population under study 55 respondents representing 55% of the population do gain access to their social media network for promoting their business through the smartphone while another 2 respondents representing 2% gain access through the use of the desktop. Another 7 respondents representing 7% use IPad while the remaining 20 and 11 respondents representing 20% and 11% use none of the above categories since they are not into any private business. This table shows that majority of civil servant women in Oyo state are into one private business or another in order to support their families during this harsh period in Nigeria.


 

 

Highlight the factors hindering you from making use of social media to advertise as you ought to

 

 

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid

Inadequate finance

34

34.0

34.0

34.0

Power failure

28

28.0

28.0

62.0

No Leisure time

11

11.0

11.0

73.0

Ignorance

10

10.0

10.0

83.0

Others

17

17.0

17.0

100.0

Total

100

100.0

100.0

 

 


 

The above table shows the factors hindering the respondents from making use of social media to advertise their business as they ought to. 34 respondents representing 34% of the population agreed that inadequate finance is their own hindrance while another 28 respondents representing 28% put their own hindrance at power failure. Another 11 respondents put the hindrance confronting them as no leisure time while another 10 and 17 respondents representing 10 and 11% respectively put their hindrances at ignorance and others.


 

Social media enhances your personal business life.

 

 

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid

Strongly Agree

45

45.0

45.0

45.0

Agree

40

40.0

40.0

85.0

Undecided

10

10.0

10.0

95.0

Disagree

4

4.0

4.0

99.0

Strongly Disagree

1

1.0

1.0

100.0

Total

100

100.0

100.0

 

 


 

The above table shows the respondents view whether social media enhances their personal business life or not. From  the above statistics, (45+ 40 = 85) respondents representing 85% strongly agree and agreed that social media enhances their private business life while the remaining 10 and (4 + 1 = 5) respondents representing 10 and 5% respectively were undecided, strongly disagree and disagree respectively that social media do not enhance their private business life.


 

Social media can help balance official work with personal business life when used to advertise your business during office hour or after without physical presence

 

 

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid

Strongly Agree

33

33.0

33.0

33.0

Agree

41

41.0

41.0

74.0

Undecided

15

15.0

15.0

89.0

Disagree

7

7.0

7.0

96.0

Strongly Disagree

4

4.0

4.0

100.0

Total

100

100.0

100.0

 

 


 

The above table shows the respondents’ opinion on whether social media can help balance official work with personal business life when used to advertise business during office hour or after without physical presence or not.  Statistics shows that, (33+ 41 = 74) respondents representing 74% strongly agree and agreed that social media can help balance official work with personal business life when used to advertise business during office hours or after without physical presence while the remaining  15 and (7 + 4 = 11) respondents representing 15 and 11% respectively were undecided, strongly disagree and disagree respectively that social media cannot help balance official work with personal business life when used to advertise business during office hours or after without physical presence.

 

 


Which of these networking applications did you find useful in advertising your business?

 

 

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid

WhatsApp

41

41.0

41.0

41.0

Facebook

21

21.0

21.0

62.0

Twitter

1

1.0

1.0

63.0

Instagram

3

3.0

3.0

66.0

LinkedIn

1

1.0

1.0

67.0

None of the above

33

33.0

33.0

100.0

Total

100

100.0

100.0

 

 

 


The table above shows the respondents’ take on which of the networking applications did the respondents find useful in advertising their businesses. 41 respondents representing 41% use WhatsApp application while another 21 respondents representing 21% use Facebook. Another 1 and 3 respondents use Twitter and Instagram. While the remaining 1 and 33 respondents representing 1 and 33% respectively use LinkedIn and none of the above application to advertise their business.

  

Chi-square Test

 

Hypothesis 1

 

H0: There is no significant relationship between the use of social media and promotion of self-employed business by civil servants in Oyo state.

 

H1: There is significant relationship between the use of social media and promotion of self-employed business by civil servant in Oyo state.


 

 

 

Value

do

Asp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square

40.932a

1

.000

Continuity Correctionb

38.119

1

.000

Likelihood Ratio

42.996

1

.000

Fisher's Exact Test

 

 

 

Linear-by-Linear Association

40.522

1

.000

N of Valid Casesb

100

 

 

b. Computed only for a 2x2 table

 

 

 

 


From the above analyses α at 0.05, the p-value is ˂ 0.05 (i.e. 0.00 ˂ 0.05) hence there is a relationship between the variables. There is a significant relationship between the use of  social media and promotion of self-employed business by a civil servant in Oyo State. Therefore, H1 should be accepted which stated that there is significant relationship between the use of social media and promotion of self-employed business by civil servants in Oyo state while H0 which stated that there is no significant relationship between the use of social media and promotion of self-employed business by civil servants in Oyo state should be rejected.

 

Hypothesis 2

 

H0: Use of social media does not determine the promotion of Personal Business

HI: Use of social media determines the promotion of personal Business.


 

 

Chi-Square Tests

 

Value

df

Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square

28.427a

4

.000

Likelihood Ratio

20.788

4

.000

Linear-by-Linear Association

16.358

1

.000

N of Valid Cases

100

 

 

 


 

From the above analyses α at 0.05, the p-value is ˂ 0.05 (i.e. 0.00 ˂ 0.05) hence there is a relationship between the variables. There is a positive relationship between social media and promotion of personal business. Therefore, H1 should be accepted which stated that use of social media determine the promotion of personal business while H0 which stated that use of social media does not determine the promotion of personal business should be rejected.

 

Hypothesis 3

 

H0:  Use of social media does not have an effect on a commitment to official work when combined with personal business.

 

H1: Use of social media has an effect on a commitment to official work when combined with personal business.


 

Chi-Square Tests

 

Value

df

Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square

41.605a

20

.003

 Likelihood Ratio

38.147

20

.008

Linear-by-Linear Association

8.310

1

.004

N of Valid Cases

100

 

 

a. 25 cells (83.3%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .08.

 


 

From the above analyses α at 0.05, the p-value is ˂ 0.05 (i.e. 0.03 ˂ 0.05) hence there is a relationship between the variables. There is a positive relationship between social media and commitment to official work when combined with personal business. Therefore, H1 should be accepted which stated that use of social media have a significant effect on a commitment to official work when combined with personal business while H0 which stated that use of social media does not have an effect on a commitment to official work when combined with personal business should be rejected.

 

 

CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

 

Now that there is a medium by which work life and  business life can be balanced, there is need for discipline on how  female civil servants in Oyo state plan their time and how they spend the money they have in hand in order to ensure that the dream of balancing work life with business life becomes a reality thereby enhancing the welfare of their homes by supporting their families and contributing to the growth of the nation as a whole. 

Furthermore, to make this a reality,  female civil servants  in Oyo state must ensure that the content displayed on their social media is present. They should learn to update as soon as possible because dead adverts can make one lose customers, it is also important that an expert in the area of social media networking is consulted to know which design, research, graphic or monitoring inter alia should be used.  What is worth doing at all is worth doing well. Therefore, it is important to go the extra mile to achieve this. Another recommendation though not a social media but a cheaper medium for those that might not be able to access the social media platform to make advertisement is WhatsApp application Displayed Pictures where everyone on your contact can reach you and see the kind of business you are into via ones Display Pictures (DP). For instance, advertisement of cakes, beads, shoes, bags, wigs, pizza among many others.  Finally, the government of Oyo state should work with their workers in ensuring that they do not stay longer than necessary at work. If there is any need to stay longer than necessary at work, then it should attract financial benefit. This will encourage dedication to work.

 

 

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Cite this Article: Isola, AA (2019). Women, Social Media and Self – Employed Business: The Study of Oyo State Civil Service, Southwest, Nigeria. Greener Journal of Social Sciences, 9(2): 18-26, http://doi.org/10.15580/GJSS.2019.2.071619136.