Greener Trends in Food Science and Nutrition
Vol. 1(1), pp. 11-18, 2018
Copyright ©2018, the copyright of this article is retained by the author(s)
Biochemical Composition, Potential Food and Feed Values of Aerial Parts of Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.)
*Enyiukwu DN, Amadioha AC and Ononuju CC
Department of Plant Health Management, Michael Okpara Universty of Agriculture, Umudike PMB 7267 Umuahia, Abia State, Nigeria.
Article No.: 080118107
Cowpea is a multi-purpose crop tolerant to drought and salinity. In farming systems it plays important roles of mitigating climate change by sinking greenhouse gases, lowering aluminum toxicity in the rhizosphere and restoring soil fertility. Its haulms, hay, leaves and grains are reported as good sources of nutrients required for proper functioning of metabolic processes in livestock and humans. However, variations in biochemical compositions amongst its aerial organs are thought to exist; and this could affect its possible nutritional values and the attendant health benefits from these organs. The results of the biochemical profiling of cowpea aerial organs in this study indicated the presence at varying degrees of a wide array of nutrients in the organs. It showed that protein occurred in the range (11.21-34.91%), carbohydrates (31.11-54.02%), crude protein (prebiotics) (3.94-22.12%), fat (0.81-5.42%), iron (0.89-65.21 mg/100 g), calcium (1.50-16.15.20 mg/100 g), phosphorus (171.55-554.01 mg), magnesium (0.26-1658.84 mg), potassium (1.03-13,445.25 mg/ 100 g) and sodium (0.13-2,216.10 mg/ 100 g). The results further showed that the leaf was the most nutrient-dense, being especially rich in terms of protein, potassium, phosphorus, calcium, magnesium, zinc, iron and sodium contents; followed by the seed and then stem samples. Though the husk was the least in mean nutrient density, however, the highest levels of crude fibre and carbohydrate contents were recorded in the husk specimen. Amongst leafy vegetables and fruits for human consumption, the leaves and seeds are probably the highest known sources of organic potassium (13.5 g and 1.29 g), phosphorus (554.01 mg and 498.06 mg) and iron (65.21 mg and 11.00 mg) for the leaf and seed respectively which function to alleviate muscle cramps prevent hypertension, stroke, maintain sexual virility, confer strength and fight anaemia. Knowledge of the disparities in nutrient contents of these organs could aid in combining feedstuff for animal nutrition especially during dry season, to formulate feeds for poultry in intensive production systems and to prepare concentrates for infants and the elderly during bouts of famine, wars or natural disasters.
E-mail: enyidave2003 @ gmail.com
Cowpea, nutrients, feed value, protein, prebiotics, food value
Post-Publication Peer-review Rundown
View/get involved, click [Peer-review]
AATF (African Agricultural Technology Foundation) (2012). Policy brief on Pod borer resistant cowpea - potentials and constraints of cowpea for food and poverty alleviation. www.aatf.org/cowpea/...Accessed July 7, 2016.
Abdullahi A and Tsowa M. (2014). Economics of cowpea under small scale cowpea enterprise in Agricultural Zone 1 of Niger State Nigeria. ISOR J. Agric. Vet. Sci. 7(4): 84-94
Afolabi, I. S. Akpokene, O. N., Fashola, D. V. and Famakin, T. C. (2012). Comparative evaluation of the nutritional benefits of some underutilized plant leaves. J. Nat. Prod. Plant Res. 2(2): 261-266.
Alemu, M., Asfew, Z., Woldu, Z., Fanta, B. A. and Medvecky, B. (2016). Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp..) landrace density in northern Ethiopia. Int. J. Biodiiver. Conserv. 8(11): 217-309.
Amadi J. E. and Oso, B. A. (1996). Mycoflora of cowpea seeds (Vigna unguiculata L.) and their effects on seed nutrient contents and germination. Nig. J. of Science 30: 63-69.
A.O.A.C. (Association of Organic and Analytical Chemist) (2000) Official Methods of Analysis International (17th Ed). Washington DC., USA.
Aveling, T. (2007).Cowpea Pathology Research. Pretoria South, Africa. Pp 1-7.
Awurum, A. N. (2000). Effect of planting date on the incidence and severity of some fungi diseases of cowpea in the humid tropics of Southeast Nigeria. J. Sust. Agric. Environ 128-133.
Awurum, A. N. and Enyiukwu, D. N. (2013). Evaluation of the seed-dressing potentials of phytochemicals from Carica papaya and Piper guineense on the germination of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) seeds and incidence of the seed-borne fungi. Continental J. Agric. Sci. 7(1): 29-35.
Axe (2018). Natural remedies for iron – Top 10 iron rich food, iron deficiency and iron benefits. http://draxe.com.top-10-iron-rich-foods Accessed July 27, 2018
Balaiel, N. G. (2014). Effects of dietary levels of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.) seeds on broiler performance and some serum biochemical factors. Online Journal of Animal and Feed Sci. 4(1): 01-05.
Campos-Vega, R., Laorca-Pina, G. and Oomah, D.B. (2010). Minor pulses and their potential impacts on human health. Food Res. Int. 43: 461-482.
Chikwendu, J. N., Igbatim, A. C. and Obizoba, I. C. (2014). Chemical composition of processed cowpea tender leaves and husks. Int. J. Sci. Res. Publ. 4(5): 001-005.
Davies, D. W. Oelke, E. A. Oplinger, E. S., Doll, J. D., Hanson, C. V. and Putnam, D. H. (2012). Cowpea alternative field crops manual, Pp 1-9. www.hort.pordue.edu/newcrop/afcm/cowpea.html Retrieved July 13, 2012.
Duke, J. A (1983). Vigna unguiculata L. Walp. Ssp. unguiculata. Handbook of energy crops (Unpublished). www.hort.org/cowpea...Accessed October 8, 2016.
Enyiukwu, D. N. and Awurum, A. N. (2013a). Fungitoxic effects of Carica papaya and Piper guineense extracts against Colletotrichum destructivum in the glasshouse. Continental J. Agric. Sci. 7(1): 23-28.
Enyiukwu, D. N. and Awurum, A. N. (2013b). Fungitoxic principles and antifungal activity of extracts from Carica papaya and Piper guineense on Colletotrichum destructivum. Continental J. Biol. Sci. 6(1): 29-36.
Enyiukwu, D. N., Amadioha, A. C.and Ononuju, C. C. (2018). (Accepted) Nutritional significance of cowpea leaves for human consumption. Greener Journal of Agriculture In Press.
FAO (Food and Agricultural Organisation of the United Nations) (International Year of Pulses) (2016). Nutritious seeds for a sustainable future. National Programme for Food Security (NPFS) Abuja, Nigeria, Pp 1-2.
FAO (Food and Agricultural Organisation of the United Nations) (2018). Nutrient sources – composition of feedstuff and fertilizers http://www.fao.org/docep/field/003/A... Accessed July 14, 2018
Hallensleben, M., Polreich, S., Heller, J. and Maas B. L. (2009). Assessment of the importance and utilization of of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.) as leafy vegetable in small scale farm livelihoods in Tanzania East Africa. Conference on International Research in Food Science Natural Resource Management and rural Development Tripentag, University of Hamburg, October 6-8, 2009.
Health Benefit Times (2016). Health benefits of cowpea leaves. www.healthbenefittimes.com/cowpea/cowpea/facts_health_benefits_and_nutrional_value… Accessed October 6, 2016.
Heuze V., Tran, G., Noziere, P., Bastianelli, D. and Lobas, F. (2015). Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L Walp.) forage. In: Feedipedia a programme by INRA, CIRAD, AFZ and FAO. http://www.feedipedia.org/node/233...Acessed December 12, 2016.
Kayode, O. F. Okafor, J. N. C., Adeyoju, O. A. Etoamaihe, M.A. and A.U. Ozumba (2008). Nutrient composition and sensory evaluation of selected Nigeria traditional soups. J. Ind. Res. Tech. 2(1): 51-55.
Leaf for Life (2016). Vigna unguiculata (Health benefits) www.leafforlife.org>vignaung Accessed November 14, 2016.
Mamiro, P. S., Mbwaga, A. M., Mamiro, D. P., Mwanri, A. M. and Kinabo, J. L. (2011) Nutritional Proquality and utilization of local and improved cowpea varieties in some regions in Tanzania. African J. Food, Agric. Nutri. Devpt, 11 (1) 4490-4506.
Neil, I. J. and Siebrits, F. C. (1992). Studies on the nutritive value of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.) S. Afr. J. Anim. Sci. 22(5): 157-160.
Nielsen, S. S., Ohler, T. A. and Mitchell, M. C. (1997). Cowpea leaves for human consumption: production, utilization and nutrient composition. In: Cowpea Research, IITA pp. 126-132.
Okwu, D. E and Njoku, E. E. (2009). Chemical composition and in vitro antifungal activity screening of seed and leaf extracts from Afromonum melenguata and Monodora myristica against Sclerotium rolfsii of cowpea plant. Pest Technology 3(1): 58 – 67.
Olayiwole, I. O. Folarami, F., Adebowale, a., Onabanjo, O. O., Sanni, S. A. and Alabi, W. A.O. (2012). Nutritional composition and sensory qualities of cocoyam-based recipes enriched with cowpea flour. J. Nutr. Food Sci. 2(10): 170-177.
Oluwatofunmi, E. G., Ishola, I. S. and Bamidele, F. J. (2015). Formulation and nutritional evaluation of maize, bambara groundnut and cowpea seeds blends complementary food. Am J. Food Nutri. 3(4): 101-105.
SADAFF (South Africa Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries) (2013). Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.). Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, Pretoria SA Pp 001-002.
Cite this Article: Enyiukwu DN, Amadioha AC, Ononuju CC (2018). Biochemical Composition, Potential Food and Feed Values of Aerial Parts of Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.). Greener Trends in Food Science and Nutrition, 1(1): 11-18, http://doi.org/10.15580/GTFSN.2018.1.080118107.
Call for Articles/Books
Call for Scholarly Articles
Authors from around the world are invited to send scholary articles that suits the scope of this journal. The journal is currently open to submissions and will process and publish articles monthly in two yearly issues.
The journal is centered on quality and goes about its processes in a very timely fashion. Seasoned editors/reviewers will be consulted to review each article(s), profer quality evaluations and polish the articles with expertise before publication.
Use our quick submit button to submit or simply send your article(s) as an e-mail attachment to email@example.com.
Call for Books
You are also invited to submit your books for online or print publication. We publish books related to all academic subject areas. Submit as an e-mail attachment to firstname.lastname@example.org.