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Contribution of Agroforestry for Livelihood Improvement in Wamakko Local Government Area, Sokoto State, Nigeria

The study assessed the contribution of agroforestry for livelihood improvement in Wamakko Local Government area of Sokoto State. Four (4) districts were purposively selected for the study based on the dominance of agroforestry practices in the study areas. Two villages were randomly selected from each of the selected districts. From each village, 30 farmers were conveniently selected given a total sample size of 240 respondents. Structured questionnaire were administered, retrieved and analysed.Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Results of the study indicated that, majority (70.8%) of the farmers were within the age bracket of 15 to 30 years and 78.3 percent were married and they had attended at least one form of formal education or the other. Furthermore, 79 percent source information about climate change from family and friends, while 52.1 percent stated that high temperature was the main climate change experience they had. Majority (wms=3.87) of the farmers stated that dispersed tree on cropland was highly practiced. To encourage agroforestry practice, incentives through the distribution of improved tree seedlings would assist greatly. Read more
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Growth and Yield Response of Tiger Nut (Cyperus esculentus L.) to Different Rates of NPK, Cattle Dung and Poultry Droppings in Mubi Adamawa State Nigeria

A field experiment was conducted at Teaching and Research Farm, Adamawa State University, Mubi, in the Northern Guinea Savanna of Nigeria during the 2017 growing season June to December 2017, to investigate the response of tiger nuts (Cyperus esculentus L.) to NPK, Cattle dung and Poultry droppings with the objective of selecting the best fertilizer combinations that can boost the yield of tiger nut. The treatments consisted of T1=240kgha-1 NPK, T2= 240kgha-1 Poultry droppings (PD), T3= 480kg-1 Cow dung (CD) T4=177.5kgha-1 NPK+62.5kgha-1 Poultry droppings (PD), T5=177.5kg-1 NPK +302.5kg-1 Cow dung (CD) T6=100kgha-1 NPK+ 140kgha-1 Poultry droppings (PD)+240kg-1 Cow dung (CD) T7= Control (no fertilizer treatment). The experiment was laid out in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD), in three (3) replicates data was collected on Plant height, Number of leaves, Days of 50% flowering, Days to 90% maturity, Number of tuber per plant, 100 tuber weight, tuber yield per plot and tuber yield kg/ha. Data collected was subjected to Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) using MINITAB computer software program, significant means were separated using Duncan Multiple Range Test (DMRT) at P ≤ 0.05. Simple Pearson correlation was also conducted to show the relationship between these observed characters to yield. The result revealed that, the soil treated with the mixture of 100kgha-1 NPK+ 140kgha-1 Poultry droppings (PD)+240kg-1 Cow dung (CD) recorded the fastest growth, yielded the highest number of leaves, produced the heaviest tuber weight, highest number of tuber per plan, tuber yield per plot and tuber yield in Kgha-1 compared with the other treatments. The findings from this research revealed that a mixture of 100kgha-1 NPK+ 140kgha-1 Poultry droppings (PD) + 240kgha-1 Cow dung is the best fertilizer combination and rate that can enhance the yield of tiger nut. Significant positive correlation between tuber yield and plant height number of leaves, hundred tuber weights, number of tuber per plant, and tuber yield per plant suggest that increase in these characters will lead to increase in tuber yield of tiger nut, hence these are important characters to be considered when planning for hybridization involving tiger nut for yield improvement. Read more
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Study of relationships between morphological and agronomic traits of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz)

Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is a food and industrial commodity that plays a very important role in food security and the textile industry for the world's population. It ranks second among food crops after yam, with production estimated at 4.24 million tons in Côte d'Ivoire. In order to preserve the genetic diversity of cassava in the CNRA collection, several studies on morphological and agronomic characterization were carried out. However, no study on the relationship between morphological and agronomic traits has yet been conducted. It is in this context that a trial was carried out on the Adiopodoumé site in Abidjan with 261 accessions used as plant material. Work has shown a relationship between apex color, peduncle length, phelloderm color, adult limb color, average plant production, cooking and taste. In addition, the results revealed a correlation between branching habit, flowering, adult leaf shape, virus disease and dry matter content. Read more
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Poverty Analysis of Maize Farming Households in Oyo State, Nigeria

One of the problems cited as constraining the production of maize in Nigeria is stagnant production technology among Nigerian farming community, majority of who are small-scale producers. Thus, this study examined the poverty status as well as analysed the factors affecting poverty profile of maize farming households in Oyo State. Primary data were obtained from 180 maize farmers by multistage random sampling with the aid of well-structured questionnaire and interview schedule. The data were analysed using descriptive statistics, Foster-Greer Thorbecke index and probit regression model. The results of descriptive statistics revealed that 68.3% of maize farmers were male with majority (56.1%) between 41 and 60 years of age who were married (86.6%) with relatively large household members. The results also showed that 76.1% of them used their personal land either acquired by inheritance or bought and 79.9% had formal education. The results of FGT analysis showed that poverty incidence was 35.2%, poverty depth was 16.1% and poverty severity was 10.9%. Meanwhile, probit regression model results revealed that household size, farmer’s expenditure, age, gender, marital status and improved technology were the factors affecting the poverty profile of the maize farming households. The study therefore recommended that farmers in the study area could reduce their poverty depth by controlling the number of child births, increase revenue generated from maize farm and adoption of new/improved technology. Read more
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Comparative Analysis of the Technical Efficiency of Beneficiary and Non-Beneficiary Rice Farmers of the Anchor Borrowers’ Programme in Benue State, Nigeria

Comparative analysis of the technical efficiency of beneficiary and non-beneficiary rice farmers of the Anchor Borrowers’ Programme in Benue State, Nigeria was investigated. Data for the study were collected with the aid of well-structured questionnaire from 768 rice farmers consisting of 388 beneficiaries and 380 non-beneficiaries from 18 communities and 18 Local Government Areas using multi-stage sampling technique. The collected data were analysed using descriptive statistics, multiple regression analysis, and stochastic frontier production function. The findings revealed that the beneficiary rice farmers achieved lower levels of technical efficiency compared to the non-beneficiary rice farmers and that seed (0.483) and agrochemical (1.60) used, increased technical efficiency more among beneficiary rice farmers than the non-beneficiary rice farmers while fertilizer (-1.285) used, decreased technical efficiency of beneficiary rice farmers more compared to the non-beneficiary rice farmers. The results also showed that rice production among the beneficiaries was in stage I of the production curve and that gender (1.249), educational level (-0.045), age (0.058), membership of cooperative (-0.250), extension visit (0.126), marital status (-2.633), and household size (0.059) significantly influenced their technical inefficiency. The study recommended policies and programmes targeted at reallocation and redistribution of farm production inputs and taking cognizance the incorporation of farmers’ socio-economic characteristics in their formulation. Read more
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Determinants of Maize Framers’ Productivity among Smallholder Farmers in Oyo State, Nigeria

Smallholders farmer’s productivity has be declining due to many problems ranging from declining soil fertility to lack of basic inputs for their production. Hence, this study examined the determinants of Maize farmers’ productivity among smallholder Farmers in Oyo state Nigeria. A three stage sampling procedure was used to collect data from rural maize farmers in Lagelu Local Government area of Oyo state. Descriptive statistics, productivity analysis and Ordinary Least Square Regression Model were used to isolate the factors that affect maize farmers’ productivity in the study area. The socio-economic characteristics of the respondents showed that majority of them are male (68.3%), the age distribution showed that 56.1% are between ages 41-60 years, a very good productive age for maize production. Majority of the respondents are married (86.6%), while only 4.9% are youths, an obvious albatross to maize production in Nigeria, with less youth population in farming. The distribution of the Total factor productivity (TFP) indicated that, 72(50.7%) of the respondents having TFP <1, 58(40.8%) having TFP 1.01-2.00, 09(6.3%) and 03(2.1%) having TFP>2 and TFP=1 respectively. The result of double log production function showed that the coefficients of labour, farm size (hectares) are statistically significant at 1% p>1, while that of farming experience is significant at 5% (p>5), with positives coefficients. The adjusted R-squared of 0.8572 explained the coefficient of variation of the maize farmers productivity model. It’s recommended that farmers in the study area should be provided with tractors and other farm implements that can help increase their productivity, also increasing the farm size and land hectarage used for maize production should be prioritize. There is also the need to train the farmers adequately on new and improved farm practices; this will be like a boost to their experience in maize production. Read more
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Leaf Decomposition and Nutrient Release in Four Selected Species in Makurdi, Benue State, Nigeria

Leaf decomposition rates in Prosopis africana, Parkia biglobosa, Daniellia oliveri and Morinda lucida were investigated in Makurdi, Benue State, Nigeria. Decomposition was determined as loss in mass of litter over a period of 8 weeks (January 15- March 15, 2016 and August 15 –October 15, 2016). The exponential decay model Wt / W0 =e-kd t. was used to evaluate the percentage mass of litter remaining over time while the time taken for half the initial material to decompose (t50) was evaluated using t50= ln 2/k and the nutrient accumulation index was determined by (NAI = ωtXt/ωoXo) Leaf decomposition rates (g d-1) varied significantly (p<0.01) with species exposure time with % dry weight remaining ranging from 89.63% to 77.4% in both seasons. P. africana (0.0033, 0.0039) had the fastest decomposition rates in both seasons, while P. biglobosa, M. lucida and D. oliveri (0.0017) were slowest in the wet season. Mean projected residence time ranged between 363 and 476 days (wet and dry seasons) across species. Average C: N ratio increased generally across species in both seasons with a net mineralization of nitrogen except in M. lucida (0.99) and D. oliveri (0.16), while carbon was immobilized except in P. africana (0.93) with net mineralization in both seasons. The contributions of selected species in nutrient cycling are implicated in this study, hence their importance in ecosystem management. Read more
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Effect of Mycorrhiza, Fertilizer and Watering Regime on the Growth and Development of Mansonia altissima A CHEV. Seedlings

A greenhouse investigation was conducted to determine the effect of Arbuscular mycorrhiza, N. P. K fertilizer and moisture supply on Mansonia altissima seedlings. The experiment was 3x3x3 factorial experiment in completely randomized design with each of factor has 3 levels and was replicated 5 times. Application of arbscular mycorriza does not have significant effect on growth parameters assessed, while N. P. K fertilizer and moisture supply had significant differences at (p<0.05) on seedling height, collar diameter and leaf production. Seedlings treated to 1g of fertilizer had the highest seedlings height mean value of 17.34cm, collar diameter of 3.63mm and leaf count of 8 while control had the least value of seedlings height, collar diameter and leaf production with 14.80cm, 3.02mm and 7 leaves respectively. Seedlings watered at pot capacity on daily basis had the highest seedling height and collar diameter of 16.99cm and 3.52mm respectively. Response observed in the present investigation revealed that more research work can be carried out to ascertain the appropriate arbuscular mycorrhiza to be used on the species based on compatibility. Read more
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Effects of Poultry Manure and Spent Mushroom Substrate on Soil, Weed and Maize Performance in an Ultisol

Field experiment was carried out at the Teaching and Research Farm of the University of Port Harcourt, Rivers State to determine effects of poultry manure and spent mushroom substrate on soil, weed and maize performance in an Ultisol. The experiment consisted of five treatments namely: control (0 tons/ha), 5 tons / ha of poultry manure (PM5), 10 tons / ha of poultry manure (PM10), 2.5 tons / ha of poultry manure + 2.5 tons / ha of spent mushroom substrate (PM2.5 + SWS2.5) and 5 tons / ha of poultry manure + 5 tons / ha of spent mushroom substrate (PM5 + SWS5). The treatments were laid out in randomized complete design (RCBD) and replicated four times. Result showed that Bulk density ranged from 1.18 g cm-3 for PM5 to 1.35 g cm-3 for the control, total porosity ranged from 21.22% for the control to 34.62% for PM5, saturated hydraulic conductivity ranged from 12.96 cm/hr for the control to 23.13 cm/hr for PM10. Aggregates stability ranged from 0.587 mm for the control to 0.784 mm for PM10. Poultry manure and spent mushroom substrate significantly (P < 0.05) increased soil organic carbon, pH and total N compared with the control. At 12 weeks after sowing (WAS) plots that received 5 tons/ha tends to have better weed suppression than other treatments. Plots that received 10 tons/ha of poultry manure produced the tallest plants while plots that received 5tons/ha of poultry manure had the highest leaf area index and grain yield when compared to other treatments. Since the application of poultry manure at 5 tons/ha can greatly improve soil physico-chemical properties, suppressed weed growth which led to higher grain yield of maize, it is thus recommended to farmers in the area of study. Read more
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Impact of Improved Soybean (Belessa-95) Variety on Income among Smallholder Farmers in Bambasi Woreda, Benishangul Gumuz Regional State

The importance of agricultural technology in enhancing the welfares of farmers can be realized when yield gain from the technologies results in meaningful income gain. This article aimed to assess economic impact of improved soybean (Bellessa-95) variety on income among farm households in Bambasi District, BGRS. In this study a multi-stage stratified sampling technique was employed to select rural kebeles and households. Three rural kebeles were selected randomly. Structured interview schedule was developed, pre-tested and used for collecting the essential quantitative data for the study from 134 randomly selected households. Descriptive statistics and propensity score machining (PSM) models were employed to analyze data. Results of descriptive analysis showed that there were statistically significant differences between adopter and non-adopter households with distance to market, livestock ownership, and frequency of extension visit, farm income as well as number of oxen owned. Consistent with the findings of previous studies, regression results showed that adoption of improved soybean has a positive and significant effect on farm income by which adopters are better-off than non-adopters. Based on results obtained it is recommended to continuous training in improved soybean production. Promoting farmers to form or join cooperatives. Strengthening demonstration centers and Farmers Training Centers (FTC). Transaction costs should be reduced and scaling up and diffusion of improved soybean varieties in the study area should be broadened. Read more
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