Greener Journal of Agricultural Sciences

Vol. 11(4), pp. 250-254, 2021

ISSN: 2276-7770

Copyright 2021, the copyright of this article is retained by the author(s)

https://gjournals.org/GJAS

 

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Assessment of impact of Supplementing Lactating Desert Goats with kuk (Acacia sieberana) and Kadad (Dichrostacys cinerea) on Weight Changes and Body Measures of Kids

 

 

Adam Jumaa Hamid Hamdoun1, Musa Ahmed Musa Tibin1, Salah Abdelgabar Salah Bukhari1, Sallam Abdulfadil Bakheit Sabil2 and Jumaa Barram Jadalla*2

 

1 Department of Animal Production and Range, Faculty of Natural Resources and Environmental Studies, Alsalam University Alfula, Sudan. hamdonadam@ gmail. com, musatibin2015@ gmail. com and bukharisalah1968@gmail.com.

2* Departments of Animal Production, Faculty of Natural Resources and Environmental Studies, University of Kordofan, Sudan, corresponding Author jumaaaringola2000@ gmail. com.

2 Departments of Animal Production, Faculty of Natural Resources and Environmental Studies, University of Kordofan, Sudan.

 

 

ARTICLE INFO

ABSTRACT

 

Article No.:120321145

Type: Research

Full Text: PDF, HTML, PHP, EPUB

 

This study was conducted in Kadam village, West Kordofan State, Sudan with the objective of investing-ating the effects of supplementation of Desert goats on natural grazing with Kuk (Acacia sieberana) and Kadad (Dichrostacys cinerea) pods on body measurements and weight change of kids and their dams. Twenty-four lactating Desert goats at different parity were divided into four similar groups, each with six animals. The groups were fed on four diets I, II, III, and IV. Group I was fed a diet of 50% Kadad pods, 25% groundnut cake, 24% sorghum grains and 1% salt. Group II was given a ration that contained 25% kadad pods, 25% kuk, 24%, sorghum grains and 25%, groundnut cake and 1% salt. Group III was fed with a ration consisting of 50% kuk pods, 0% kadad pods, 24% sorghum grain, 25% groundnut cake and 1% salt. The last group of goats (IV) depended on natural pasture alone. The supplements were offered at a rate of 750 g per head per day, and the natural pasture was supplied ad libitum. Body weight measurements were recorded from the start of the experiment until the end of the lactation season that was observed for two years. Data were analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA). The results of the body measurements showed significant differences (P <0.05) in the height at wither / cm / month for kids before weaning period in the two seasons, and among the four groups, group (I) recorded significant increase in chest circumference / cm / month in the first and second seasons (48.5 and 48.7 cm / month) respectively, and group (II) 47.3 and 48.0 cm / month) for the two seasons respectively, and group (III) 47.6 and 48.5 cm / month)) respectively, while group (IV) had significantly lower values ​​ for chest circumference, reaching to 45.8 and 45.8 cm / month, respectively. The results showed no significant differences (P 0>.05) in the body length of the goats in two seasons. The three groups (I, II and III) recorded the highest body length / cm / month in the first season and the second season (43, 42.4 and 41.1 cm / month). As for group IV, it was shorter (38.4 cm / month). The results showed no significant differences (P <0.05) in the body weight of dams during the milk period in two seasons for groups (I, II and III). The weights of the three groups were (31.0, 30.7 and 29.6 kg) and were significantly (P<0.05) lower, respectively, while the fourth group (IV) was lighter. By weight, it was 24.1Kg. The study concluded that the use of Kuk and Kadad pods in rations resulted in an increase in the rate of kids' weight and body measurements as well as the weight of dairy goats during the season. It recommends that more research be conducted in the field of using tree pods in feeding various types of animals raised on natural pastures.

 

Accepted: 11/12/2021

Published: 31/12/2021

 

*Corresponding Author

Jumaa B. Jadalla

E-mail: jumaaaringola2000@ gmail.com

 

Keywords: Desert Goats, tree pods, Acacia sieberana, Dichrostacys cinerea.

 

 

 


 

 

INTRODUCTION

 

Goat population in the Sudan was estimated to be 37.5 million heads with 3% annual growth rate (FAO 1999). Sudanese Desert goats are mainly found in western region of the Sudan which includes Darfur and Kordofan states. Desert goats are mainly raised for meat production especially in rural areas, and they also provide milk for family needs. Body weight gain expresses how the animal utilizes its feed in term of growth rate. Itidal (1989) reported 0.1 kg body gain per a day for desert goat. Mustaffa (1992) reported 87.9 grams average daily body weight gain for Sudanese desert goats from one day old up to 13 weeks of age; while he reported an average daily gain of 65 and 75 grams for the first and seventh months of age respectively in Sudanese Nubian goat kids. Adult body weight showed great variation among different goat breeds and environments. Wilson (1982) reported an average adult body weight of Sudanese desert goat breed of 38 and 33 Kg for males and females respectively, whereas, Mustaffa (1992) reported 22.3 kg at 12 month for Nubian goats.  Ibrahim and Tibin (2003) found an average body weight of 27 Kg for adult Sudanese Nubian goats at three years of age. Mohamed and Elimam (2007) conducted a study that included 330 females and 46 male desert goats in Elobied area- North Kordofan State, reported body weights ranged from 15.8 and 35kg for males and 14.4 and 19.2kg for females at 1and 4 years of age respectively. Elimam and Amir (2007) in another study calculated a body weight of 23.1 for male and 21.9kg for female Taggar goat at one year of age. El imam and Amir (2007) studied the characteristics of Ingessana goats in Blue Nile State- Sudan, and found average body weights ranging from 9.6 to 28.3kg in goats of age of less than one year up to more than four years.

 

 

MATERIALS AND METHODS

 

Study area

 

This study was conducted in Kaddam village, which located at west Kordofan state , Sudan, within latitudes 11 15′ - 16 30′ N and longitudes 27-32 E, about 850 Km west of Khartoum. (Ministry of Agriculture west Kordofan state, 2019).

 

Climate

 

Kaddam district lies within the low rainfall zone that is characterized by wet autumn and hot dry summer. The rainy season extends from July to October with a peak in August. Average annual rainfall is 350mm in the north and about 650mm in the southern parts. The temperatures are modified by rain, the highest annual temperatures (42 C) were recorded within a period extending from April to July, while the lowest values (14 C) were recorded during December and January (Meteorology Authorize west Kordofan state,2019).

 

Topography and Vegetation

 

The soil is generally of smoothly undulating clay muddy plain dissected by patches of loamy sands (Gardud) in the southern parts (Personal observations). The most common tree and shrub species are Combretium cordofanum (Habiel), Adansonia digitata (Tebeldi), Acacia Senegal (Hashab), Acacia mellifera (Kitr), Acacia nubica (Laout), Acacia albida (Haraz), Albizzia amara (Arad), Acacia sieberana (Kuk), Dichrostacys cinerea (Kadad), Acacia nilotica (Sunot) and Boscia senegalensis (Mokhait). Grasses are mostly annual including, Dactylcotenium aegyptium (Abu Asabei), Cenchrus biflorus (Hascheent), Echinochloa colonum (Difra), Eragrostis aspera (Banu), Andropogon gayanus (Abu-Rakhies).Herbaceous species are Zorniaglo chidiata (Shilini) and Ipomea cordiosphilla (Tabar). Heavily grazed areas are predominantly covered with unpalatable invaders plants such as Cassia tora (Kawl), Cassia occidentales (Soreib), Abutilon spp (El Neiada) and Cassia senna (Sanamuka) (Harrison and Jackson, 1958).

 

The Experimental Animals

 

Twenty four lactating Sudanese Desert does were used in this study. The animals were divided into four similar groups. Prior to commencement of the trials, the goats were weighed, drenched with a broad spectrum anthelmentic, ear tagged and individually penned. The animals were also vaccinated against diseases endemic to the study area. Watering and feeding troughs were provided in each pen. The feed supplement was offered twice a day after estimating the amount consumed at 7:00 am by subtracting the residual amount from the quantity offered. Water was provided continuously. The animals were at early pregnancy stage and the kids were weighed at birth and once every week to 16 weeks. For season two the goats were mated at the same time and their kids were also weighed similarly. The does were milked twice a day after allowing kids to suckle one teat. The amount of milk was recorded to the end of the lactating period. Body Measurements of length, chest circumference, height at wither and body weight of kids was recorded.

 

The Experimental Feed

 

Four rations were formulated. The percent ingredients used in the rations formulation are presented Chemical composition of the ingredients is presented in table (3.2) while chemical composition of the rations used in feeding the four groups is presented in table (3.3). The experiments was conducted to study the effect of feeding locally available tree pods; kadad Dichrostachys cinerea and kuk Acacia sieberiana added to groundnut cake, sorghum grains and salt on milk production, body weight and various body measurements of the Desert goats and their kids for two lactation periods. The concentrates were offered at 750 g / head/ day as supplementary ration and natural grazing as basal feed that was offered ad libitum. The experimental animals in Group four (IV) were kept depending on natural pasture only as control group. The feeding trials were carried out during the lactation period through early 120 days of lactation.

 


 

 

Table (1) percent Ingredients used in formulation of the of experimental rations percentage

Feed

Rations

 

I

II

III

IV

Kadad pods

50

25

0

0

Sorghum grain

24

24

24

0

ground nut cake

25

25

25

0

Kuk pods

0

25

50

0

Common salt

1

1

1

0

Total

100

100

100

0

 

 

Table (2) Chemical composition of the ingredients used in formulation of experimental rations

Feed

DM

OM

CP

CF

EE

NFE

ASH

Kada pods

93.65

86.95

6.93

29.23

2.20

48.64

6.70

Kuk pods

92.2

87.5

4.4

39.10

1.20

42.83

4.70

Sorghum grains

92.5

85.4

13.48

11.77

5.30

54.85

7.10

Groundnut cake

93.4

89.0

42.18

17.68

7.60

21.54

4.40

Salt

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Table (3)Chemical composition of the rations used feeding the experimental groups

Ration

DM

OM

CP

CF

EE

NFE

ASH

I

92.3

86.22

17.25

21.86

4.27

42.87

6.15

II

91.98

86.36

16.62

24.33

4.02

41.42

5.65

III

91.65

86.50

15.98

26.80

3.77

39.96

5.15

IV

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

Salt

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


Body weight and management:

 

Every goat body weight was recorded at the beginning of the trial, then monthly until the end of experimental period which lasted for 120 day.

Height at withers (HW) was measured from the highest point on the dorsum of the animal to ground surface at the level of back feet.

Body length (BL) was measured from the tip of the scapular to the pin bone.

Heart girth (HG) was measured around the circumference of the chest just behind the fore legs and along xiphoid depression.

 

 

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

 

Effect of Supplementation on body weight of kids before weaning

 

The effects of supplementation of Desert kids from does on natural grazing with rations formulated using kadad (Dichrostachys cinerea) and Kuk (Acacia sieberiana) or a mixture of the two pods on body weight is presented in table (1) The result revealed that body weight was higher in group (I) that was fed a ration formulated with kadad at 50% and followed by the group on a ration with 25% kadad and 25% Kuk (II) as well as the group that consumed a ration with 50% kuk(III). The lowest body weight/kg was recorded from the group that was on the natural grazing alone (IV) for the two seasons. The body weight season one was 9.11, 8.61, 8.46and 6.40kg/month for group I, II, III and IV respectively.

In season two body weights were 10.40, 9.67, 9.38 and 8.00 kg/month for group I, II, III and IV respectively. The results revealed that there was significant differences (P<0.05) on the fourth groups.

 


 

 

 

Table: (1) Effect of Supplementation on body measurement on kids during lactation period (body weight/kg/month)

 

Lactation period (days)

Treatments

Overall mean

120

90

60

30

9.11

12.10b

10.50abc

9.00ab

4.83ab

I1

10.40

14.83a

11.50a

9.75a

5.50a

I2

8.61

12.42b

9.50bc

7.83b

4.67ab

II1

9.67

13.33ab

10.83ab

9.50ab

5.00ab

II2

8.46

11.58b

9.42bc

8.58ab

4.25bc

III1

9.38

13.00ab

10.67ab

9.25ab

4.58ab

III2

6.40

8.67c

7.42d

6.00c

3.50c

IV1

8.00

11.25b

8.91cd

7.83b

4.10bc

IV2

I II III IV treatments 1, 2 seasons

 

 


Effect of Supplementation on body measurement (body length) of kids during lactation period

 

The effects of supplementation of Desert kids from does on natural grazing with rations formulated using kadad (Dichrostachys cinerea) and Kuk (Acacia sieberiana) or a mixture of the two pods on body measurement is presented in table (2) The result showed that body length was higher in group (I) that was fed a ration formulated with kadad at 50% and followed by the group on a ration with 25% kadad and 25% Kuk (II) as well as the group that consumed a ration with 50% kuk(III). The lowest body length cm/month was recorded from the group that was on the natural grazing alone (IV) for the two seasons. The body length in season one was 41.8, 40.9, 41.22 and 38.38cm/month for group I, II, III and IV respectively.

In season two, body weight was 42.8, 43.1, 43.21 and 39.6cm/month for group I, II, III and IV respectively. The results revealed that there was significant differences (P<0.05) on the fourth groups

 


 

Table: (2) Effect of Supplementation on body measurement on kids during lactation period (body length /cm/month)

 

Lactation period ( days )

Treatments/seasons

Overall mean

120

90

60

30

41.80

44.83abc

44.00abc

42.50a

35.83ab

I1

42.80

47.00a

46.50ab

41.00ab

36.67a

I2

40.90

44.33bc

43.83bcd

40.33ab

34.20abc

II1

43.10

47.33a

46.20ab

43.20a

35.67abc

II2

41.22

44.33bc

43.00bcd

42.20a

35.33abc

III1

43.21

47.00ab

47.50a

42.50a

35.83abc

III2

38.38

41.20d

40.33d

38.50b

33.50bc

IV1

39.6

43.50cd

42.50cd

39.20b

33.20c

IV2

I II III IV treatments 1, 2 seasons

 

 


Effect of Supplementation on Body Measurement on Kids during Lactation Period (Heart Girth/cm/month)

 

The effects of supplementation of Desert kids from does on natural grazing with rations formulated using kadad (Dichrostachys cinerea) and Kuk (Acacia sieberiana) or a mixture of the two pods on body measurement is presented in table (3) The result revealed that heart girth was higher in group (I) that was fed a ration formulated with kadad at 50% and followed by the group on a ration with 25% kadad and 25% Kuk (II) as well as the group that consumed a ration with 50% kuk(III). The lowest heart girth cm/month was recorded from the group that was on the natural grazing alone (IV) for the two seasons. The heart girth in season one was 48.49, 47.33, 47.96 and 45.38cm/month for group I, II, III and IV respectively.

In season two, the body weight was 48.5, 48.85, 48.33 and 45.67cm/ month for group I, II, III and IV respectively. The results revealed that there were no significant differences (P<0.05) on the fourth group.


 

 

Table: (3) Effect of Supplementation on body measurement of kids before weaning (heart girth/cm/month).

 

Lactation period( days )

Treatments

Overall mean

120

90

60

30

48.49

53.83a

50.50abc

47.33a

42.33a

I1

48.50

54.00a

51.50abc

47.50a

41.00ab

I2

47.33

53.20ab

49.50abcd

46.83a

39.50ab

II1

48.85

55.33a

52.20a

48.67a

39.20b

II2

47.96

53.67a

48.83bcd

48.67a

40.67ab

III1

48.33

53.50a

51.67ab

48.50a

39.67ab

III2

45.38

49.83b

46.83d

45.67ab

38.20b

IV1

45.67

52.50ab

48.33cd

43.50b

38.33b

IV2

I II III IV treatments 1, 2 seasons

 

 


Effect of Supplementation on body measurement on kids during lactation period (height at wither /cm/month).

 

The effects of supplementation of Desert kids from does on the natural grazing with rations formulated using kadad (Dichrostachys cinerea) and Kuk (Acacia sieberiana) or a mixture of the two pods on body measurement is presented in table (4) The result revealed that height at wither was higher in group (I) that was fed a ration formulated with kadad at 50% and followed by the group on a ration with 25% kadad and 25% Kuk (II) as well as the group that consumed a ration with 50% kuk(III). The lowest height at wither cm/month was recorded from the group that was on the natural grazing alone (IV) for the two seasons. The height at wither season one was 37.18, 36.17, 36.88 and 34.30cm/month for group I, II, III and IV respectively.

In season two, body weight was 37.88, 38.10, 37.10 and 35.46cm/month for group I, II, III and IV respectively. The results revealed that there was significant differences (P<0.05) on the fourth groups

 


 

Table: (4) Effect of Supplementation on body measurement on kids during lactation period (height at wither /cm/month).

 

Lactation period (days)

Treatments

Overall mean

120

90

60

30

37.18

39.83ab

39.20ab

37.50abc

32.20ns

I1

37.88

41.20ab

39.83ab

38.00ab

32.50ns

I2

36.17

39.67ab

37.50bc

35.50bcd

32.00ns

II1

38.10

41.67a

40.20a

38.20a

32.33ns

II2

36.88

38.83b

39.20ab

37.67ab

31.83ns

III1

37.10

40.00ab

39.33ab

37.20abcd

31.67ns

III2

34.30

35.83c

36.20c

34.83d

30.33ns

IV1

35.46

38.83b

37.50bc

35.00cd

30.50ns

IV2

I II III IV treatments 1, 2 seasons

 

 


REFERENCES

 

1.      Elimam M E and Amir A Y 2007 Body measurements and carcass characteristics of the Ingessanagoat, Sudan. Proceeding of the genetic resources of the Sudanese livestock wealth, 5-6 March 2007, Khartoum- Sudan

 

2.      Elimam M, Mudawi T M and Mohamoud K A 2007 Characterization of the Tagger goat in El delang Area in the Nuba mountains in South Kordofan Sudan Proceedings of the genetic resources of the Sudanese livestock wealth, 5-6 March 2007, Khartoum, Sudan.

 

3.      Ibrahim A and Tibin I M 2003 Feeding Potential of Faidher biaalbida rise pod for Sudan desert Goats. Journal of King Faisal University , 4(1): 137-145.

 

4.      Ministry of Agriculture west Kordofan state, 2015

 

5.      Mustaffa Y A 1992 Goats Breeding Husbandry. Ministry of Agriculture, Khartoum State (Booklet), Silver Star press

 

6.      Wilson R T 1982 Husbandry, nutrition and productivity of goats and sheep in tropical Africa In: Gatenby RM and Trail JCM Trial (eds) Small ruminant breed productivity in Africa. Proceedings of a seminar held at ILCA, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 61-74.


 

 

Cite this Article: Hamdoun, AJH; Tibin, MAM; Bukhari, SAS; Sabil, SAB; Jadalla, JB (2021). Assessment of impact of Supplementing Lactating Desert Goats with kuk (Acacia sieberana) and Kadad (Dichrostacyscinerea) on Weight Changes and Body Measures of Kids. Greener Journal of Agricultural Sciences 11(4): 250-254.