Greener Journal of Educational Research

Excellence and Timeliness


Choose Language

Oluoch et al

Greener Journal of  Educational Research Vol. 8(6), pp. 137-142, August 2018

 ISSN: 2276-7789

Research Article

Manuscript Number: 080818112




Adult Literacy Programme: Application of knowledge and skills acquired in Activities related to Environmental Development and Management



*1Oluoch, Audi; 2 Aurah, Catherine Muhonja; 3 Sika, James



*1Kisii University, P.O. Box 547-40601, Bondo, Kenya.

2Department of Science Education, Masinde Muliro University of Science and Technology, P.O. Box190-50100, Kakamega, Kenya.

3Department of Education Management and Foundation, Maseno University, Private Bag, Maseno, Kenya. 


Adult Literacy Programme provides knowledge and skills that enhance human capital useful for solving various problems. Despite the provision of the programme, the problem in Vihiga County has however, been environmental degradation due to deforestation. The study therefore, tried to establish how the learners used the skills acquired for environmental development and management. A conceptual framework based on educational production function theory was used to explain the link between the programme and environmental development and management. The study was qualitative in nature and used a descriptive survey design. Data analysis involved organization, transcription and categorization of data into emerging patterns and the results are presented narratively and in form of frequency tables, graphs and photos. The findings revealed that the knowledge and skills acquired were used to sustainably manage the environment. The findings may be used by educational planners to re-design the curriculum and to effectively link it to environmental issues of concern in society. Although the knowledge and skills acquired were being applied, more emphasis should however be put on occupation-education link to ensure practical application of skills.

Keywords: Adult, literacy, knowledge, skills, application.

Post-Publication review Rundown

View/get involved, click [Review Page]



Anderson, A. (2010). Combating climate change through quality education. Retrieved from http://.www.brookings.educ/research/papers/2010. Climate –change on 23rd September, 2015.


Ayodo, T.M.O, Gatimu, K. & Gravenir, FQ. (1991). Economics: Economics of education. Lecture series. University of Nairobi.


Barry, P.M. (2000). Community-based land management. Conakry: World Bank.


Bashir, M., Tanveer, A.M. & Azeem, M. (2008). Reliability and validity of qualitative and operational research paradigm. Pakistan Journal of Statistics and Operational Research 01/2008. 59


Borg, W.R. & Gall, M.D. (2007). Educational research: An introduction. New York: Longman.


Caillods, F. (2008). Education and unemployment revisited: Francoise Caillod’s Contribution to IIEP’s search for education-employment relationships. Paris: UNESCO.


Carr-Hill, R.A., Kweka, A.N. Rusimbi, M. & Chengelele, R. (1991). The functioning effects of the Tanzanian literacy programme: IIEP Research Report No. 93. Paris: UNESCO-IIEP.


Fereday, J. & Muir-Cochrane, E. (2006). Demonstrating rigour using thematic analysis: A Hybrid approach on inductive and deductive coding and thematic development. International Journal of Qualitative research, Vol. 5 (1): 1-11.


Filno, W.L. (1997). The environment: A unifying theme for adult education. Adult Education and Development. Issue No. 49: 117-119.


Hicking-Hudson, A. R. (2003). Beyond schooling: Adult education in post-colonial societies. Retrieved on 6th Dec. 2014 at 2.21pm from


KEEP (2013): Conservation of Kakamega forest. Retrieved on 23rd Sept. 2015 at 10.15 am.  From


Knight, J.B. & Sabot, R.H. (2011). Education, productivity and inequality: The East African natural experiment. Oxford University Press.


Kothari, C. R. (2004). Research methodology: Methods and techniques. 2nd Edition. New Delhi: New Age International.


Kotze, A. Von (2007). Poverty, work and education. Convergence. Vol. XL (3-4) 2007. ICAE. p.231.


Kwapong, O.T.F. (2005). Using adult education for empowerment of women. Adult Education and Development. Issue 65. P.135-162.


MaCrr Research (2015). Sample size calculation for research surveys. MaCrr Research Solutions.


Mapa, R. (2010). Community-based learning: Building capacities for change. Adult Education and Development. Issue 74 p37.


Mugenda, O.M. & Mugenda, A.G. (2005). Research methods.  Quantitative and qualitative approaches. Nairobi: African Centre for Technology Studies press.


Oluoch, P.A. & Othuon, L.A. (2008). Participation of learners in adult literacy programmes.  Kisumu: Lake Publisher and Printers.


Ospina S. (2004). Qualitative research. London: Sage Publications.


Republic of Kenya (2008). Education for sustainable development: Implementation strategy. Nairobi: UNESCO & National Environment Management Authority.


Smith M.K. (2002).  Malcolm-Knowles adult learning theories: Concept of andragogy. Retrieved on 12th January, 2015 at 8.30am from


Taylor-Powell & Renner, M. (2005). Analyzing qualitative data. Madison: University of Wisconsin.


Trochim,W.M.K. (2006). Qualitative validity.  Retrieved on 31st Jan. 2016 at 2.30pm.


UNESCO (2012). Education sector responses to climate change. Bangkok: Asia and Pacific Regional Bureau for Education.


UNESCO (2009). CONFINTEA V1/4. Belem Framework for Action: Harnessing the power and potential of adult learning and education for a viable future. UNESCO: Belem.


UNESCO (2006). Education for all: Global monitoring report: Literacy for life. Paris: UNESCO.


UNESCO (2005). Literacy for life: EFA Global Monitoring Report 2006. Paris: UNESCO.


UNESCO (2004). The literacy decade: Getting started: UN literacy decade 2003-2012.Paris: UNESCO.


Vaizey, J. (2011). Political economy of education. London: Duckworth & Co. Ltd.


Van der Kamp, M. & Scheeren, J. (1996). Functional literacy of older adults: The case of Netherlands. Proceedings of 1996 Conference on literacy. Groningen, Netherlands: Department of Adult Education, University of Groningen.


Van der Linden, J. & Rungo, R. (2006). Being literate means being somebody: Perceptions of participants of literacy programmes in Mozambique. Adult Education and Development. Issue 66.pp 283-296.


World Bank (2001). Education: Sector policy paper. Washington. D.C: World Bank.


WWF (2006). Climate change impacts on East Africa: Review of scientific literature. Gland, Switzerland: WWF.

Call for Papers/Books

Call for Scholarly Articles

Authors from around the world are invited to send scholary articles that suits the scope of this journal. The journal is currently open to submissions and will process and publish articles in a timely fashion.

The journal is centered on quality and goes about its processes in a very timely fashion. Seasoned editors/reviewers will be consulted to review each article(s), profer quality evaluations and polish the articles with expertise before publication.

Simply send your article(s) as an e-mail attachment to or

Call for Books

You are also invited to submit your books for online or print publication. We publish books related to all academic subject areas. Submit as an e-mail attachment to


Login Form

Other Journals