Greener Journal of Educational Research

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Ndirangu and Orodho

Greener Journal of  Educational Research Vol. 8(5), pp. 119-130, July 2018

 ISSN: 2276-7789 

Research Article

Manuscript Number: 072118102




Contribution of Peace Education as a Determinant of Holistic Education of Students in Secondary Schools in Kiambu and Samburu Counties, Kenya



Dr. Waweru P.  Ndirangu1 and Prof. John Aluko Orodho2



Principal of Magogoni Community Secondary and Technical School, Thika East Sub- County, Kiambu County, Kenya.

Associate Professor of Research and Statistics in Department of Educational Management, Policy and Curriculum Studies, School of Education, Kenyatta University, Kenya


This study sought to determine the contribution of peace education as a determinant of holistic education of students in secondary schools in Kiambu and Samburu Counties, Kenya. An explanatory mixed methods research design that involves both quantitative and qualitative strands was adopted for the study. The actual sample reached for both phases was 707 participants. The research instruments used during the first quantitative strand of the study were questionnaires for principals, students and senior teachers. The qualitative data in the second phase was collected using observation checklists and interview guidelines for principals, senior teachers, members of BoM as well as Quality Assurance and Standards Officers from the Ministry of Education. Quantitative data from questionnaires was analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS). The major finding was that majority of respondents in Kiambu County compared to their counterparts in Samburu County considered peace education as one of the determinants of holistic education. The results especially based on regression analysis and corroborated by qualitative data from interviews and observations led to the conclusion that the use of a combination of peace education was one of the determinants of holistic education. It was thus recommended that Peace Education should be integrated into the syllabuses at all levels of learning from pre-unit to university to facilitate development of holistic education.


Keywords: Academic, non-academic variables, holistic education, secondary schools. Kenya.

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