By Lawson, SD; Owhonda, GC; Ojum, S; Davies, S; Adebiyi, O; Nnokam, BA; Chisor-Wabali, N; Somiari, A; Ajunwa, CC; Alali, AA (2022).

Greener Journal of Medical Sciences

Vol. 12(1), pp. 77-83, 2022

ISSN: 2276-7797

Copyright ©2022, the copyright of this article is retained by the author(s)

https://gjournals.org/GJMS

 

 

 

 

Exploring Admitted Covid-19 Patients Perception and Quality of Care at a Treatment center in Rivers State.

 

 

*Lawson SD1; Owhonda GC2; Ojum S3; Davies S4; Adebiyi O4; Nnokam BA5; Chisor-Wabali N3; Somiari A6; Ajunwa CC7; Alali AA2

 

 

1Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, Rivers State University, Nigeria

2Department of Community Medicine, Rivers State University, Port Harcourt, Nigeria

3Department of Anaesthesia, Rivers State University Teaching Hospital, Port Harcourt, Nigeria

4Rivers State Hospitals Management Board, Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria

5Department of Family Medicine, Rivers State University, Rivers State, Nigeria

6Department of Community Medicine, University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital, Rivers State, Nigeria

7Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Rivers State University Teaching Hospital, Rivers State, Nigeria

 

 

ARTICLE INFO

ABSTRACT

 

Article No.: 020222012

Type: Research

Full Text: PDF, HTML, EPUB, PHP

 

Coronavirus disease (COVID-19), often known as SARS-CoV-2, is a novel RNA coronavirus that emerged in late 2019 in Wuhan, China. COVID-19 was declared a pandemic by the World Health Organization in early 2020. The goal of this study was to explore the perception and quality of care offered to COVID-19 patients at a treatment center in Eleme, Rivers State. A semi-structured questionnaire was used to interview 117 people who were conveniently chosen for a cross-sectional descriptive study. Participants' characteristics and responses were summarized using descriptive statistics. The overall mean age of the participants was 43.6±14.2 years, with males accounting for 88(75.2%) of the study participants. A significant number of individuals 56 (50%) said the attention/care they received was good and should be continued. In conclusion, COVID-19 patients have a wide range of experience in this facility, however there is room for improvement.

 

Accepted:  03/02/2022

Published: 17/02/2022

 

*Corresponding Author

Dr Lawson SD. (MBBS, FWACP)

E-mail: stephensonlawson@ yahoo.com

 

Keywords: Perception, Quality of Care, Covid-19, Rivers State

 

 

 

 

 


INTRODUCTION

 

SARS-CoV-2 commonly known as Coronavirus disease (COVID-19), is a new RNA coronavirus that arose in late 2019 in Wuhan, China (1). On January 30, 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared the situation a Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC). The World Health Organization declared COVID-19 a pandemic on March 11, 2020, putting everyone's health and well-being in jeopardy, especially those with comorbid diseases (2,3). The disease has spread to almost every country on the planet, with 167, 011,807 confirmed cases and 3,472,068 deaths as of May 25, 2021 (4). The Americas, Europe, Southeast Asia, and the Mediterranean are the most impacted regions of the world, with Africa and Western pacific having a lower frequency (4). As of May 25, 2021, the WHO estimates that there are over 3.5 million confirmed cases of COVID-19 across Africa, with over 85,000 deaths (4). Nigeria has had over 166,000 confirmed cases of COVID-19 and over 2,000 deaths nationwide, with Rivers State, an oil-rich state, ranking fifth in terms of prevalence (5).

COVID-19 patients have a wide range of clinical symptoms that affect different body systems, including the respiratory and digestive systems (6). Mild self-limited disease to severe pneumonia, acute respiratory distress syndrome, septic shock, and systemic multiple organ failure syndromes are examples of these symptoms. To improve patients' experiences throughout their COVID-19 hospitalization, a full therapy package may be required. Many affluent countries, for example, have used physical activity programs and strengthening aerobic capacity after COVID-19 to manage these patients (7-9). More so, patients treated for COVID-19 may provide useful data that can be used to improve management and treatment, particularly in resource-constrained locations where international recommendations may not be feasible. There are only few available data that have reported the attention/care given to COVID-19 patients in Nigeria (10) and England (14).  A recent study has shown the experiences of discharged covid-19 patients in Kano State, Nigeria using a qualitative method of data collection (10). As a result, the purpose of this study was to explore the quality of care given to COVID-19 patients at a treatment center in Eleme, Rivers State using a larger sample and a quantitative approach of data collection (Questionnaire based). The findings of this study are expected to provide data for informed policy on how to improve current interventions as well provide valuable information on COVID-19 patient experiences from an African perspective.

 

 

MATERIALS AND METHODS

 

At the General Hospital in Nchia, Eleme, Rivers state, a cross-sectional descriptive study with 117 participants was conducted. Before interviewing patients who were admitted and discharged from this center due to COVID-19, we received consent from both the participants and the appropriate authority. The participants in the study were chosen through convenience sampling. As a result, all adult patients who had been at the point discharged from the treatment center were eligible to participate in the study. All authors created a semi-structured interview questionnaire, which was face validated by research supervisors before the start of the main investigation. The survey gathered data on demographics, clinical features, and experience. The interviews were conducted in English, and those who did not speak English fluently were assisted by an interpreter for about twenty minutes. The research took place over five months (November 2020 to March 2021). The Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 23 and Microsoft Excel 2016 were used to analyze the data. To summarize the characteristics and responses of the participants, descriptive statistics were employed.

 

 

RESULTS

 

A total of 117 participants were included in the study. Tables 1 shows the distribution of the socio-demographic characteristics of the participants including age, sex, education, occupation, marital status, religion, contact history, travel history, and places traveled to. A major proportion of 88(75.2%) of the participants were males. The overall mean age of study participants was 43.6 ± 14.2 years with male mean age being 43.5 ± 12.6 years and female mean age being 43.9 ± 18.5 years. A majority of the study participants 45(38.5%) were between 35-49 years and was closely followed by those between 18-34 years 36(30.8%). A majority of the study participants 113(96.6%) were non-health workers. A majority of the study participants 111(94.9%) have had tertiary education. Some 91(78.4%) of the study participants were married. A majority of the study participants 110(94.0%) were Christians. A majority of the study participants 107(98.2%) had no contact history with a case. A few participants 10(9%) have had a travel history and of the participants who had travel history, some 2(20%) had traveled outside the country.

 


 

 

Table 1: Frequency Distribution of Socio-Demographic Characteristics of Participants (N=117)

Variables  

n (%)

Age (years)

<17

18-34

35-49

≥50

Total

Sex

Male

Female

Total

Education

Primary

Tertiary

Total

Occupation

Health Workers

+Non-workers

Total

Marital Status

Single

Married

Total

Religion

Christian

Muslim

Total

Contact History

Yes

No

Total

Travel History

Yes

No

Total

Places Traveled To

In-Nigeria

*Out-of-Nigeria

Total

 

1(0.9)

36(30.8)

45(38.5)

35(29.9)

117(100)

 

88(75.2)

29(24.8)

117(100)

 

6(5.1)

111(94.9)

117(100)

 

4(3.4)

113(96.6)

117(100)

 

25(21.6)

91(78.4)

116(100)

 

110(94)

7(6)

117(100)

 

2(1.8)

107(98.2)

109(100)

 

10(9)

101(91ss)

111(100)

 

8(80.0)

2(20.0)

10(100)

+Drillers, Seafarers, Lawyers, Public/Civil Servants *Germany, Britain, Croatia

 


 

 

Figure 1 shows the distribution of the clinical characteristics and drug use a prior diagnosis of the participants including diabetes mellitus (DM), allergy, asthma, vomiting, diarrhea, dysphagia, sore throat, myalgia, headache, fatigue, cough, fever, anosmia, ageusia, HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Syndrome), swelling and antimalarial use. Mostly, the participants presented with headache 36(30.8%), fatigue 40(34.2%), cough 45(38.5%), and fever 45(38.5%). A proportion of 14(12.4%) of the participant had taken treatment before diagnosis and of this proportion 5(41.7%) used the antimalaria drug only, 4(33.3%) used a combination of antimalaria and other drugs and 3(25%) used other drugs without antimalaria.

 


 

 

 

Title: % - Description: %

Figure 1a: Frequency (Percentage) Distribution of Clinical Characteristics of Participants (N=117)

 

 

Figure 1b: Frequency (Percentage) Distribution of Clinical Characteristics of Participants (N=117)

 

 

 

Figure 1c: Frequency (Percentage) Distribution of Drug Use Prior Diagnosis of Participants (N=117)

 

Others- Vitamin C, Anti-hypertensives, Anti-inflammatory and Anti-pyretic

 

 


Tables 2 shows the distribution of perception of attention/care received by participants at the treatment center. A majority of the study participants 93(80.9%) felt they were treated excellently. All participants reported they were given their drugs regularly. A large proportion of participants 96(83.5%) reported they were satisfied with their feeding with some 10(8.9%) suggesting improvement in diet and nutrition especially adding fruits to a meal. Some 56(48.3%) felt the attitude of the health workers was very good though 6(5.4%) advised there should be an improvement on healt personnel pieces of training and incentives. A few proportions 3(2.6%) of participants reported they enjoyed the exercises and games provided with 5(4.5%) of participants suggesting improvements in exercises/rehabilitation therapy. A good proportion 56(50%) of participants felt the attention/care received at the center was good and should be kept up.


 

 

Table 2a: Perception of Attention/Care Received by Participants at Treatment Center (N=117)

Variables  

n (%)

I felt I was treated

Good

Very Well

Excellent

Total

Drugs were given regularly

Yes

Total

My feeding was

Non-satisfactory

Fair

Satisfactory

Total

The attitude of Health Personnel

Fair

Good

Very Good

Excellent

Total

I enjoyed the Internet Services

Yes

No

Total

I enjoyed the TV provided

Yes

No

Total

I enjoyed the indoor games provided

Yes

No

Total

I enjoyed the indoor games provided

Yes

No

Total

 

 

9(7.8)

13(11.3)

93(80.9)

115(100)

 

117(100)

117(100)

 

3(2.6)

16(13.9)

96(83.5)

115(100)

 

1(0.9)

14(12.1)

56(48.3)

45(38.8)

116(100)

 

2(1.7)

114(98.3)

116(100)

 

112(96.6)

4(3.4)

116(100)

 

3(2.6)

113(97.4)

116(100)

 

3(2.6)

113(97.4)

116(100)

 

 

 

Table 2b: Perception of Attention/Care Received by Participants at Treatment Center (N=117)

Variables  

n (%)

Advice to the facility

Improved diet with fruits/nutrition/feeding

Health Personnel Training and Improved Incentive, Improved facility waiting time/Ward arrangement for newly diagnosed

Improvement on Environmental Hygiene

Improved Exercise/Rehabilitation/Games

Good, keep it up

Good, but there is room for improvement

Total

 

10(8.9)

6(5.4)

 

14(12.5)

5(4.5)

56(50.0)

21(18.8)

112(100)

 

 

 

 


DISCUSSION

 

The purpose of this study was to explore the perception and quality of care offered to COVID-19 patients at a treatment center in Eleme, Rivers State. The major outcomes of this study indicated that participants presented with headaches, fatigue, fever, and cough more. The quality of care, on the other hand, was rated as good by some participants. This report is similar to finding from a previous study reporting quality of care to be excellent (10). Study participants stated that there was room for improvement in the areas of caregiver/patient interaction and healthcare provider welfare and ward arrangement for newly diagnosed cases in the isolation center. This report is similar to finding from a previous study suggesting improvement in the welfare of health care providers (10). This finding is significant because healthcare providers have long advocated for a better welfare package (11). Bringing this information to light may thus be beneficial to relevant authorities seeking to improve the quality of healthcare delivery in similar low-resource settings, particularly during this pandemic, when healthcare workers are afraid of jeopardizing their livelihoods.

It's worth noting that many of the isolation centers are equipped with brand new, cutting-edge medical technology (12). However, the participants mentioned a low use of other complementary treatments such as rehabilitation, which could help patients increase their physical activity and raise their immunity to COVID-19 patients (13). There are areas in which the study excels. These include looking into the perspectives of patients at the point of being discharged from the hospital to avoid recall bias. This is critical for gathering accurate and trustworthy data. In addition, all interviews were done by the same researchers to ensure that the data was collected consistentl7y. However, a larger-sized/random study is needed in further studies for generalization.

 

 

CONCLUSION

 

In conclusion, COVID-19 patients have a wide range of experience in this facility. However, they tend to agree that the level of service and health infrastructure was very commendable. Nevertheless, a few areas involving caregiver/patient contact and health worker wellbeing and environmental hygiene may require further improvement.

 

 

REFERENCES

 

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2. Vannabouathong C, Devji T, Ekhtiari S, Chang Y, Phillips SA, Zhu M et al. Novel coronavirus COVID-19: current evidence and evolving strategies. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2020 May 6;102(9):734-744.

3. World Health Organization (2020). WHO Director-General’s Opening Remarks at Media Briefing on COVID-19.

4. World Health Organization (2021). WHO Coronavirus (COVID-19) Dashboard.

5. Nigeria Centre for Diseases Control (2021). NCDC Coronavirus COVID 19 microsite.

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11. A Madhi S, E Gray G, Ismail N, Izu A, Mendelson M, Cassim N et al. COVID-19 lockdowns in low-and middle-income countries: success against COVID-19 at the price of greater costs. S Afr Med J. 2020;110(8):724-6.

12. Okunola A. Everything you need to know about the COVID-19 Nigeria solidarity support fund. Sept 3, 2020.

13. Maugeri G, Castrogiovanni P, Battaglia G, Pippi R, D'Agata V, Palma A, et al. The impact of physical activity on psychological health during COVID-19 pandemic in Italy. Heliyon. 2020;6(6): e04315.

14. Key, T, Kulkarni, A, Kandhari, V, Jawad, Z, Hughes Angela & Mohanty, K (2021). The Patient Experience of Inpatient Care During the COVID-19 Pandemic: Exploring Patient Perceptions, Communication, and Quality of Care at a University Teaching Hospital in the United Kingdom. Journal of Patient Experience. 8:1-6

 


 

 

Cite this Article: Lawson, SD; Owhonda, GC; Ojum, S; Davies, S; Adebiyi, O; Nnokam, BA; Chisor-Wabali, N; Somiari, A; Ajunwa, CC; Alali, AA (2022). Exploring Admitted Covid-19 Patients Perception and Quality of Care at a Treatment center in Rivers State. Greener Journal of Medical Sciences, 12(1): 77-83.