Greener Journal of Medical Sciences

Excellence and Timeliness

  
  

Choose Language

Advertisements


Maduagwu et al

Greener Journal of Medical Sciences

Vol. 11(1), pp. 73-87, 2021

ISSN: 2276-7797

Copyright ©2021, the copyright of this article is retained by the author(s)

https://gjournals.org/GJMS

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Relationship between Fetal Umbilical Cord Length and Fetal Outcome

 

 

Maduagwu AO1; Okonkwo C2; Onyegbule O1; Egwim VA1; Ejelonu TU1

 

 

Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Federal Medical Center, Owerri.1

Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of Benin Teaching Hospital.2

 

 

ARTICLE INFO

ABSTRACT

 

Article No.: 041621036

Type: Research

 

 

Background: The umbilical cord develops from the extra-embryonic mesoderm and becomes the channel for blood vessels and through which all exchange and other activities of mother and fetus through placenta are carried out. At term normal umbilical cord length is about 50-70cm and with a diameter of 2.0-2.5cm. There seems to be a positive correlation between fetal umbilical cord length and fetal outcome.

Aim: The aim of the study was to determine the correlation between fetal umbilical cord length and the fetal outcome at the Federal Medical Center, Owerri.

Methodology: This was a cross-sectional study of 427 parturient at term who will meet the eligibility criteria for the study. The socio-demographic information were coded and analysed using the Statistical Packages for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 23.

Results: The mean fetal umbilical cord length in this study was 60.35cm + 10.39cm. the shortest fetal umbilical cord length was 33cm and the longest umbilical cord length was 120cm.. There was poor correlation between birth length and different umbilical cord length. There was a positive correlation between birth  length and normal fetal umbilical cord length(r=0.219) and between birth length and long umbilical cord length(r=0.378).The correlation between birth weight and different fetal umbilical cord length showed a positive correlation between birth weight and normal umbilical cord length(r=0.084) and long umbilical cord length(r=0.2467) There was poor positive correlation between APGAR score and short umbilical cord length(r=0.333) as well as between APGAR score and normal umbilical cord length(r=0.034). In overall, the total abnormal fetal umbilical cord length in this study was 4.9%. Also the overall prevalence of cord complication in this study was 3.7%, and the prevalence of cord complication was found to be higher in neonates with abnormal fetal umbilical cord length (P<0.0001,   χ2= 1.457). The fetal out come between abnormal fetal umbilical cord length and normal umbilical cord length was statistically significant (P<0.0001).

There was significant association between different cord complication and fetal umbilical cord length status (P<0.0006,   χ2= 18.288).

Conclusion; The study showed that the fetal umbilical cord length is variable. The maximum number of cases had normal umbilical cord length. Abnormal umbilical cord length had higher prevalence of cord complication. There are significant positive correlation between fetal umbilical cord length with birth weight, birth length.

 

Accepted:  16/04/2021

Published: 29/04/2021

 

*Corresponding Author

Dr. Maduagwo AO

Email: anslemobitex@ gmail,com; nslemoitex@ gmail.com

 

 

Keywords:

relationship; fetal; umbilical; cord; length; outcome

 

 

 

Return to Content       View [Full Article - PDF]  

[Full Article - HTML]              [Full Article - EPUB]


 

 

REFERENCES

 

1.           Abaiclo, C. S., Boateng, K. A. and Wareen, M. A., Morphological Vanation of the baby’s supply line. Journal of science and technology 2008; 28(2) 1-9.

2.           Atten, V. Pentu Alex, X. Phavare, P. D., Wilaket, R. George, S. Direction of umbilical Cord Twist and characteristics 2013, (1) 1-4.

3.           Adesina, N. T., Ogunlaya, O. O., Aboyeji, P. A., Olaramoye, O. A., Adeniran, A. S., Fakide, A. A. Umbilical cord parameter in Ilorin correlate and Fetal Outcome, Eastern African Med. Journal 2014, 91 (8) 274-280.

4.           Valsamakis. G., Kanako, G., Malametisi Pirchner, A., Mostorajav, G. cause of Intra-uterine growth restriction and post natal development of metabolic syndrome. Ann. N. Y., Acad. Sci. 2006; (1092): 138-147

5.           Yelter, I. F., Examination of the placenta. Am Academy Fam. Physician 1998: 57; (5); 1045-1054

6.           Vanden Broek, N. Ntonya, C., Kayare, E., White, S., Nelson, J. preterm birth in rural Malawi High Incidence in ultrasound dated population. Hum. Reprod. 2006, (20) 3235-3237

7.           Benischke, K. the umbilical cord Neo-review 2009; 5(4) 34.

8.           Baergen, R. N., Maileaken, D., Brehlug, C., Benaschke, K. Morbidity, mortality and placenta morphology in excessively long umbilical cord. Retrospective study pediatric Dev. Pathel 2001; 4(2) 144-153

9.           Maileaken, D., Brehlug, C., Benaschke, K. Morbidity, mortality and placenta morphology in excessively long umbilical cord. Retrospective study pediatric Dev. Pathel 2001; 4(2) 144-153

10.        Krakowale, P. Smit, E. N., de Brayn, G., Lydon Rochelli, M. T. Risk factors and outcome associated with short umbilical cord. Obstet Gynaecol 2004; 103 (I) 119-127

11.        Jason, A. Collins, Charles, L. Collins and Candance, C. Collins, perenata umbilical cord project 2002, vol. 1

12.        Naeye, R. L., cause of perinatal mortality in the collaborative perinatal project 1977. 238; 228-229.

13.        Incerpi, M. H., Miller, D. A., Samadi, R., Settlage, R. H., Godwin, T. M. stillbirth evaluation, what test are needed. Am. J. Obstet Gynaecol 1998 178, 1121-25

14.        Alessandri, T. M., Stanley. F. S., Garner, J.B., Newnham, J., Walters, BNJ, A case control study of unexplained ante-partum stillbirth Brit. J. Obstet Gynaecol 1992 99; 711-18

15.        Oron, T., Sheiner, E., Shoham Vardi, T., Mazor, M., Katz, M., Hallak, M., Risk factors for ante-partun fetal death. J. Reprod. Med. 2001, 46; 825-30

16.        Kirukup, B., Welch, G., Normal but dead, perinatal mortality in non-malformed babies of birth weight 2.5kg and over in the Northern region in 1983, Brit, J. Obtstet Gynaecol 1990, 97, 381-392

17.        Lee, K. S., Khoshmood, B., Chen, I., Wall, S. N., Cromies, W. J. Mittendorf, R. L. infant mortality from congenital malformation in the United States 1970-1997, Obstet Gynael 2001: 98, 620-627

18.        Namesi, A. K., Kohnen, G., Milovaov, A. P., Domogatsky, S. P., Kaifmain, P. strime Differentiation and architecture of the human umbilical cord and placenta 1997; 18, 53-64

19.        Sarwono, E., Disse, W.S., Oudesluys Morphy, H. M., Oosting, H., Groot, C. J. umbilical cord length and intra uterine well being 1991, 31, 136-40.

20.        Bernholtz, J. C., Eedose physiology of the fetus ultrasonography of supply line deprivation syndromes Raduol Clin North Aver 1990, 28, 179-88

21.        Amiel-Tison, C., Stewart, A. The newborn infant, one brain for life 1994, InSERM Paris France

22.        Balkawade, N. U., Smude, M. A., study of umbilical cord and fetal outcome in a study of 1000 deliveries obstetric gynaecol India 2012; (62), 520-525.

23         Malipa, P. Length  of umbilical cord at term, British Med. J. 1964 4(1) 674-4.

24.        Mishra, R., Jayalaxim, P., Nirmala Kuren, J. Correlation of the length of umbilical cord of the fetus with outcome in labour, J. Obstetric, Gyneacol, India 1987, 37, 781

25.        Olaye, C. M. Immuno-histochemical protein expression profiting of growth and apopotic related factors in relation to umbilical cord length, early Hum Dev. 2015, 91(5) 2911-7.

26         Nilesh Unmesh Backawadi, Mangala Ashok Shinde. Study of length of umbilical cord and fetal outcome. A study of 1000 deliveries. J. Obst. Gynaecol India 2012, 62(5) 520-525. Dec. 2007 – Oct. 2009

27         Yadav. B. B., Kordakar DVR, Darale, N. A., Correlation of umbilical cord length and fetal and maternal outcome. Journal of evolution of medical and dental science 2013; 2 Issue (1-4)

28         Shunji Suzuki, Yukiko Fuse. The length of the umbilical cord and perinatal outcomes in a Japanese singleton pregnancies delivered at great than or equal to 34 weeks gestation. Japans Med Journal 2012, Vol.1, 1-5

29         Birla Nandi, Jain Despal, Bhatu Bilcapel, Are Shahken, Dhotre Jyathi Relationship between cord length and maternal and fetal outcome. Pampex Indian Journal of Research 2015, Vol. 4, issue 7

30         Rayburn, W. F., Beynen, A., Brinkman, D. L., umbilical cord length and intra-partum complication. Obstet. Gynaecol 1981, 57; 450.

31         Anma, G., Kalante, E. Osmond, C. Erukson Koyal. A prospective, population based cohort study, Eur, previous, cordis 2015 22, (9) 1154-60

32         Adinma, J. The umbilical cord. A study of 1000 consecutive deliveries Int. Ferti Menopausal study 1993-38 (3) 175-9

33         Agbola, A. Correlation of human umbilical cord length Int. J. Gynaecol Obstet 1979 16(3) 238-239

34         Ogunlaya, O. A., Ogunlaya, I.P. Correlation between umbilical cord length, birth weight and birth length of singleton delivery at term in Nigeria population 2015; (1) 1, 3

35         Naeye, R. L. umbilical cord length and clinical significance Journal of Paediatric 1986, volume 157, issue 2, pg 278-280

36         Wright, D., Chas, G. M. fetal bone strength and umbilical cord length Journal of Perinatology 2009, 29;, 603-605

37         Harold, F., Elston, C. W. pathology of the umbilical cord, pathology of the placenta major problems.

38         Spellency, M., Graven, H., Fischi, R. O. The umbilical cord complication of true knot, Nuchal coils and cord around the body Am J., Obstet. Gynaecol 1966, 94 (8) 1136-42

39         Donard, A., Des Camp, P., Wigres, P., Mangante, C., Gegore, J. A., Pourcalat, D., Feorro, G., Lansar, J., Body, G., Pourcelot, C., in-utero measurement of the umbilical cord in full term pregnancy. 1966 25(1) 78-86

40         La-Monica, Wilson, M.L., Fullulase, A. M., minimal cord length that allows vaginal delivery. J. Reprod. Med. 2008 53(3) 217-9

41         Olaya, M., Bernald, J. E. umbilical cord abnormalities in fetal and neonatal pathology, in Biogote Achievers of perinatal medicine. APM – 2014; (20) 22-27.

42         Jaykaran C and Tamoghna B. How to Calculate Sample Size  for Different Styudy Designs in Medical Research Indian Journal of Psychol Med.2013, 35(2): 121- 126.

 


 

 

 

Cite this Article: Maduagwu AO; Okonkwo C; Egwim VA; Ejelonu TU (2021). The Relationship between Fetal Umbilical Cord Length And Fetal Outcome. Greener Journal of Medical Sciences, 11(1): 73-87.

 

 


Call for Papers

Call for Scholarly Articles


Authors from around the world are invited to send scholary articles that suits the scope of this journal. The journal is currently open to submissions and will process and publish articles monthly in two yearly issues.


The journal is centered on quality and goes about its processes in a very timely fashion. Seasoned editors/reviewers will be consulted to review each article(s), profer quality evaluations and polish the articles with expertise before publication.


Simply send your article(s) as an e-mail attachment to manuscripts@acad.gjournals.org or manuscripts.igj@gmail.com.



Advertisements


Search

Login Form

Other Journals


Newsletter