Greener Journal of Agricultural Sciences

Excellence and Timeliness


Change Language


Gaber et al

Greener Journal of  Agricultural Sciences Vol. 4 (1), pp. 001-008, January 2014.

 ISSN: 2276-7770 

Research Paper

Manuscript Number: 022013483


Effect of Partially Replacing Corn Meal by Date Stone on Growth Performance in Nile Tilapia Fingerlings, Diets Supplemented with Marjoram: Effects of Date Stone on Growth Nile Tilapia


Gaber M.M.1*, Labib E.H.2, Omar E.A.3, Zaki M.A.4 and Nour A.M.5


*1National Institute of Oceanography and Fisheries, Cairo Egypt.

2Research Center, Ministry of Agriculture and Land Reclamation, Dokki , Giza Egypt.

3Departments of Animal and Fish Production, Faculty of Agriculture, Saba Basha, Alexandria Univ., Egypt.

4,5Departments of Animal and Fish Production, Faculty of Agriculture, El Shatby, Alexandria Univ., Egypt.


*Corresponding Author’s Email: gabermagdy @


A 3-month randomized factorial design 4x2 (four levels of Date stone (DS) (0, 15, 30, and 45%), two levels (0 and 0.03%) of Marjoram (M) and three replicates). The trial was conducted in twenty four glass aquaria. Ten fingerlings of Nile tilapia were placed in each aquarium with an average weight 15.40 ± 0.3 g fish. Fish were fed twice daily (six days a week) at a rate of 3% of body weight. The results revealed that, mean final weight (g/fish), SGR (% /day), feed conversion ratio, PPV and PER, were significantly (p ≤ 0.05) affected by the levels of DS and level of M. And the best diet achieved which contain 15% DS and supplemented with 0.03 % M was not significantly different from control diet in fish performance.
 From the above results and the economic information of these study it can be concluded that, diet containing 15% of DS with 0.03% M exhibited the highest net profit and would seem to be the most desirable level of DS and M in the system studied.
Keywords: Nile tilapia, date stone, Marjoram.


Abd El-Maksoud AMS, Abouul-Fotouh GE,  Allam SM, Abou Zied RM (1999). Effect of Marjoram leaves (Majorana hortensis) as a feed additive on the performance of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis. niloticus) fingerlinger. Egyptian Journal of Nutrition and Feeds. 1:39-47.

AOAC (2000). Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Official Methods of Analysis, 17th Ed. Washington DC, USA.

Azaza MS, Mensi F, Kammoun W, Abd Elouaheb A, Brini B,  Kraiem M (2008). Nutritional evaluation of waste date fruit as partial substitute for soybean meal in practical diets of juvenile Nile tilapia, (Oreochrois.niloticus). Aquaculture Nutrition Published Online: 2 Jun 2008, Journal compilation © 2009 Blackwell Publishing.

Belal IEH (2008). Evaluating fungi-degraded date pits as a feed ingredient for Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L). Aquaculture Nutrition. 14 (5): 445-452.

Belal IEH, Al-Owafeir MA (2009). Incorporating date pits (Phoenix dactylifera) and their sprouts in semi-purified diets for Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L). Journal of the World Aquaculture Society. 35 (4): 452-459.

Carnevali O, De Vivo L, Sulpizio R, Gioacchin G, Olivotto I, Silvi S, Cresci A (2006). Growth improvement by probiotic European sea bass juveniles (Dicentrarchus labrax, L.), with particular attention to IGF-1, myostatin and cortisol gene expression. Aquaculture. 258: 430-438.

Cho CY, Kaushik SJ (1985). Effect of protein intake on metabolizable and net energy values of fish diets. In: Nutrition and Feeding in Fish (Ed. by CB Cowey, AM, Mackie, JG Bell). Academic Press, London, UK. pp. 95-117.

Diab AS, EL-Nagar OG, Abd-El-Hady MY (2002). Evaluation of Nigella sativa L. (black seeds; baraka), Allium sativum (garlic) & Biogen as a feed additives on growth performance of (Oreochromis niloticus) fingerlings. Vetrenary Medical Journal, Suez canal university. 2: 745-753.

Eid A, Mohamed KA (2008). Effect of using probiotic as growth promoters in commercial diets for monosex Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fingerlings.8th International Symosiumon tilapia in Egypt .

El-Sayed AFM, Hamza WR, Al-Darmaki M (2006). Evaluation of date pits as a feed ingredient for juvenile and adult Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) reared in a recirculating system. Proceeding of 7th International Symposium on Tilapia aquaculture.

El-Shazly K, Ibrahim I, Karam H (1963). Nutritional value of date seeds for sheep. Journal of Animal Science. 22:894–897.

El-Dakar AY, Shalaby SM, Saoud IP (2007). Assessing the use of dietary probiotic/prebiotic as an enhancer of spinefoot rabbitfish Singanus rivulatus survival and growth. Aquaculture Nutrition. 13: 407-412.

FAO, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) (2004). Fishery Statistics 2002, Capture Production, FAO, Rome.

Golterman HL, Clymo RS, Ohnstad MAM (1978). Methods of physical and chemical analysis of fresh waters. Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford, 214pp.

Gaber MM, Labib EH, Omar EA, Zaki MA, Nour AM (2012). Effect of Partially Replacing Corn Meal by Date Stone on Growth Performance in Nile Tilapia (Oreockromis Niloticus) Fingerlings, Diets Supplemented with Digestarom® Open Access Scientific Reports. 1 (10):1-5.

Khattab YAE, Shalaby AME, Saffa MS, El-Marakby H, RizlAlla EH (2004). The physiological changes and growth performance of the Nile Tilapia (O. niloticus) after feeding with Biogen® as growth promoter. Egypt. J. Aquat. Biol. and Fish. 8 (2): 145-158.

Mehrim AIM (2001). Effect of some chemical pollutants on growth performance, feed and nutrient utilization of Nile Tilapia (O. niloticus). M.Sc. thesis, Saba. Basha. Alex. University, 215 pp.

Mohamed KA, Abdel FB, Eid AMS (2007). Evaluation of Using Some Feed Additives on Growth Performance and Feed Utilization of Monosex Nile Tilapia (O. niloticus)  Fingerlings. Agricultural Research Journal, Suez Canal University. 7 (3): 49-54.

NRC (1993). Nutrient requirements of warm water fishes and shellfishes. National Academy Press, Washington DC.

Osman MF, Alhadrami GA,  Ben Zayed AA (2001). Sulfuric acid treated date pits as a dietary ingredient in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) diets. Egyptian Journal of Nutrition and Feeds. 4 (special issue):753-754.

Salem MEM (2008).Studies on some medicinal plants as mycotoxins in fish diets .M.Sc. Department of Animal Production.Thesis submitted to the Faculty of Agriculture,  Kafr Elsheikh University.

Santiago CB, Lovell RT (1988). Amino acid requirements for growth of Nile tilapia. Journal of Nutrition. 188: 1540-1546.

Shiau SY, Lin SE (1993). Effect of supplemental dietary chromium and vanadium on the utilization of different carohydrates in tilapia Oreochromis niloticus × Oreochromis  aurues. Aquaculture. 110:321-330.

Statistical Analysis System (1993). SAS/STAT user’s guide release 6.03 edition. SAS Institute Inc. Cary, North Carolina, USA.

Stickney RR (1979). Principles of warm water aquaculture. Wiley International Science, New York.

Thakare MN (2004). Pharmacological screening of some medicinal plant as antimicrobial and feed additives. M.Sc. Department of Animal and Poultry Science. Thesis submitted to the faculty of the Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University.

Yousif OM, Osman MF, Alhadrami GA (1996). Evaluation of date and date pits as dietary ingredients in tilapia (Oreochromis aureus) diets differing in protein sources. Bioresearch Technology. 57: 81-85.

Xie S, Cui Y, Yang Yi, Liu J (1997). Energy budget of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus in relation to ration size. Aquaculture. 154: 57-68.

Zar JH (1986). Biostatistician Analysis. Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, USA.

Call for Articles/Books

Call for Scholarly Articles

Authors from around the world are invited to send scholarly articles that suits the scope of this journal. The journal is currently open to submissions and will process and publish articles daily, immediately they are ready.

The journal is centered on quality and goes about its processes in a very timely fashion. Seasoned editors/reviewers will be consulted to review each article(s), profer quality evaluations and polish the articles with expertise before publication.

Use our quick submit button to submit or simply send your article(s) as an e-mail attachment to or

Call for Books

You are also invited to submit your books for online or print publication. We publish books related to all academic subject areas.    Submit as an e-mail attachment to



Other Journals