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Henry-Unaeze and Amadi

By Henry-Unaeze, HN; Amadi, RE (2022).

Greener Journal of Agricultural Sciences

Vol. 12(1), pp. 95-101, 2022

ISSN: 2276-7770

Copyright ©2022, the copyright of this article is retained by the author(s)






Evaluation of Functional and Sensory Attributes of Bread Samples Made from African Yam Bean (Sphenostylis stenocarpa) and Corn (Zea mays) Seeds Flour Blends.



Henry-Unaeze, Helen Nonye 1; Amadi, Rose Ezinne 2



1 Department of Food, Nutrition, and Home Science, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria.

2 Department of Human Nutrition and Dietetics, College of Applied Food Sciences and Tourism Michael Okpara University of Agriculture Umudike.






Article No.: 032622039

Type: Research



Background: The development of new food products necessitates the need to evaluate their applicability in local diets.

Objectives:  The study evaluated the functional and sensory properties of bread made from African yam bean (Sphenostylis stenocarpa) and corn (Zea mays) seeds flour blends.

Materials and Methods: African yam bean (AYB) (roasted at 1910C for 40 min) and corn seeds (oven-dried at 500C for 24 h) were finely milled, and formulated into 5 flour samples in the ratios of 70): 30 (AYB: Corn), 50: 50 (AYB: Corn), 30: 70 (AYB: Corn), 100: 0 (AYB: Corn), and 100: 0 (AYB: Corn), to yield one-third (1/3) of the daily dietary fiber requirement (12.7 g) of a reference man (70 kg). The 5 samples and the control (wheat flour) were baked into bread and evaluated for functional and sensory attributes using standard procedures. Data generated were analyzed using the IBM Statistical Product for Service Solution (version 21.0) and presented as means and standard deviations. The means were compared with Analysis of variance and significance was accepted at p < 0.05.

Results: The functional properties of the bread samples ranged from 0.73 to 0.87g/ml bulk density, 1.77 to 3.09g/ml water absorption capacity, 0.86 to 2.16g/ml oil absorption capacity, 8.42 to 16.71% foam capacity, 1.18 to 3.43g/ml foam stability and 17.39 to 79.53oC gelatinization temperature. There was a significant increase (p <0.05) of the oil absorption capacity, water absorption capacity, bulk density, foam capacity, and swelling index; and a decrease in the gelation temperature of composite samples. Sensory scores ranged from 4.80 to 7.70 taste, 4.03 to 7.73 flavor, 4.73 to 7.63 texture, 4.77 to 7.63 appearance, 4.80 to 7.33 mouthfeel, 4.73 to 7.61 general acceptability. There was a significant difference (p <0.05) between the control and the study samples.

Conclusion: The bread could increase available foods and add variety to consumer diets.


Accepted:  27/03/2022

Published: 04/04/2022


*Corresponding Author

Henry-Unaeze, Helen Nonye

E-mail: helen.henry-unaeze@

Phone: +2348063548581



African yam bean, corn, flour blends, bread, functional and sensory properties.





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Cite this Article: Henry-Unaeze, HN; Amadi, RE (2022). Evaluation of Functional and Sensory Attributes of Bread Samples Made from African Yam Bean (Sphenostylis stenocarpa) and Corn (Zea mays) Seeds Flour Blends. Greener Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 12(1): 95-101.



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