Owen et al
Greener Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol. 12(1), pp. 49-53, 2022
Copyright ©2022, the copyright of this article is retained by the author(s)
Blood Chemistry and Haematological Indices of Broiler Chickens Administered Varying Levels of Kaolin (Clay) Diets.
1Owen, O.J.; *1Ideozu, H.M.; 1Okachi, V.W.; 2Etekpe, G.W.; 3David, E.U
1Department of Animal Science, Rivers State University, P.M.B. 5080, Port Harcourt, Nigeria.
2Bayelsa State Polytechnic (BYSPOLY), Aleibiri, Bayelsa State, Nigeria.
3Captain Elechi Amadi Polytechnic, Rumuola, Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria.
Article No.: 011622004
A total of 120 Hubbard strain broilers having mean weights of 60g were used in a study that lasted for 56 days. The birds were divided into four groups of 30 birds each. Each treatment group was further subdivided into three replicates of 10 birds each in a completely randomized design (CRD). The four bird groups were assigned to; 1) basal diet only (control), 2) basal diet + 10 g kaolin per kg body weight, 3) basal diet + 20 g kg-1, and basal diet + 30 g kg-1. At the end of the study, three birds per treatment were randomly selected and bled by severing the jugular vein; blood samples were collected for haematological and biochemical evaluation. The results obtained showed that significant (p<0.05) differences existed in all the measured hematological and blood chemistry indices vis-à-vis RBC, Hb, WBC, PCV, Ca and P with the treated groups having a better result when compared to the control. It is therefore concluded that dietary kaolin could be added to broiler chickens’ diet without any detrimental effect to the physiological indices evaluated.
E-mail: hansino22@ gmail. com
Basal diet, blood chemistry, broiler chicken, haematology, kaolin
1. Abdel – wahhab, M.A.; Nada, S.A. and Amra, H.A (1999). Effect of aluminosilicates and bentonite on aflatoxin-induced developmental toxicity in rat. Journal of Applied Toxicology, 19:199-204.
2. Anonymous (1998). Kaolin clay tolerance requirement exemption 2/98. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Federal Register February 25, 63 (37):9427-9430.
3. Cambell, J.W. (1975). Avian haematology and cytology 2nd Ed. Towa state University Press pp.3-5.
4. Coates, M.E.R; Fullar G.I and Harrison, M. (1963). A comparism of chickens in the Gustafson germ free apparatus and in a conventional environment with and without dietary supplementation of penicillin. Brit. J. Nutrition 17: 141-150
5. Cromwell, G.L. (1982). Calcium and phosphorus in swines nutrition. Proc. Georgia Nutri. Conf. pp. 129
6. Dacie, J. and S.M Lewis (1991). Practical haematology, 8th Edn. Longman group Ltd. London pp. 21-68.
7. Doming, N.J.; Daroust, E. and Minekus, M (2004). Adaptive function of soil consumption an in-vitro study modelling the human stomach and small intestine. The Journal of Experimental Biology, 207: 319-324.
8. Frandson, R.D. (1981). Anatomy and physiology of farm animals. Lea fabinger publishers. Philadelphia. Isted.
9. Gebesh, V.V.; Ianchenko V.I. and Sukhor, I.U.A. (1999). Kaopectate in the combined treatment of patients with intestinal infection (in Russia). Likarska sprava, 3: 140- 142.
10. Hassen, A.; Jamoussi, F.; Saidi, N.; Mabrouki, Z. and Fakhfakh, E. (2003). Microbial and copper adsorption by smectitic clay- an experimental study. Environmental Technology, 24: 1117- 1127.
11. Heimann, G. (1984). Pharmacotherapy of acute infant enteritis (in German). Monatsschrift Kinderheilkunde 132: 303-305.
12. Kasi, M., P. Kausar, R. Naz, and L.C. Miller. (1995). Treatment of diarrhoea in infants by medical doctors in Balochistian,Pakistan. Journal Diarrheal Diseases Research 13:236-241.
13. Katsumata, H.; Kaneco, S.; Inomata, K; Itoh K.; Funasaka, E.; Masuyama K.; Suzuki, T. and Ohta, K. (2003). Removal of heavy metals in rinsing wastewater from plating factory by adsorption with economical viable materials. Journal of Environmental Management, 69:187- 191.
14. Knezevich D.L. and Tadic, V. (1994). Decontamination with clay or alcholate of pigs per-cutanacously poisoned with VX and soman (in Croatian) . Vojnosanitetski Pregled, 5: 488-491.
15. Knezevich, M. (1998). Geophagy as a therapeutic mediator of endoparasitsm in a free- ranging group of rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). American Journal of Primatology, 44:71-82
16. Kolacz, R.; Korniewicz, A.; Dobranski, Z; Korniewicz, D. and Trziszka, T. (2005). Effects of dietary halloisyte on the performance and meat quality of pigs (In Polish). Medycyna Weterynaryjna, 61: 1266-1269.
17. Maxwell, M.H.; Robertson, G.W.; Spence, S and McCorquodule, C.C. (1990). Ad-libitum fed domestic red blood characteristics. British Poultry Science, 31: 407-413
18. Mitruka, H.M. and Rawnsley, S.K (1997). Chemical, Biochemical and haematological reference in normal experimental animal. Mason, N.Y pp. 287 -380.
19. Mmerole, F.U.C (2008). The effect of replacing groundnut cake with rubber seed meal on haematology and serological profiles of broilers. Int Journal of Poultry Science, 7 (6): 622-624.
20. Nwonu, P.C; Ubosi, C.O and Mohammed, T.G. (1996). Effects of Furaprol, Embazin and Terramycin on some blood components of Norman chicken in the sudano- Sahelian zone of Nigeria. Annuals of Bornu 11/12: 264-269. University of maiduguri press.
21. Obi, I.U. (1990). Statistical methods of detecting differences between treatment means 2nd ed. Snap press, Enugu-Nigeria.
22. Owen, O.J.; Alawa, J.P.; Wekhe, S.N.; Aniebo, A.O.; Ngodigha, E.M. and Amakiri, A.O. (2008). Haematological and biochemical responses of weaner rabbits fed diets containing graded levels of poultry litter. International . Journal of Biotechnology and Biochemistry. Vol. 4 No. 1: 33 – 37.
23. Owen, O.J.; Amakiri, A.O. and E.M. Ngodigha (2009) Physiological responses of wearer rabbits fed graded levels of poultry litter. International Journal of Poultry Science, 8(2): 183-187.
24. Owen, O.J. and A.O Amakiri (2011). Serological and haematological profile of broiler finishers fed graded levels of bitter leaf (Vernonia amygdalina) Meal. Advances in Agricultural Biotechnology, 1: 77- 81.
25. Phillips, T.D. (1999). Dietary clay in the chemoprevention of aflatoxin-induced disease. Toxicological sciences, 52: 118-128.
26. Robbins, S.I. and Angel, M. (1976). Basic pathology, 2nd Ed. W. B. Sanders Co. pp. 31-68.
27. Sakata, T. (1986). Effects of indigestible dietary bulk and short chain fatty acids on the tissue weight and epithelial cell proliferation rate of the digestive tract in rats. Journal of Nutritional Science and vitaminology, 32: 355-362.
28. Savory, C.J. (1984). Regulation of food intake by brown Leghorn Cockerels in response to dietary dilution with Kaolin. British Poultry Science, 25: 253-258.
29. Schalm, D.M.; N.C. Jain and E.J. Carrol (1975) Veterinary Haematology (Ed) Lea and Fabinger. Phildelphia, pp 256-262.
30. Schell, T.C.; Lindemann, M.D; Kornegay E.T. and Blodgett, D.J. (1993). Effects of feeding aflatoxin-contaminated diets with and without clay to weanling and growing pigs on performance, liver function and mineral metabolism. Journal of Animal Science, 71: 1209 -1218.
31. Simkis, K. (1967). Calcium in reproductive physiology. Chancer press Ltd. Great Britain.
32. Steel, R.G.D. and J.H.Torrie (1980). Principles and procedures of statistics. 2nd ed. MacGraw –Hill.Singapore.
33. Tion, M.A. and Njoku, P.C (2009). Assessing Calcium availability from limestone sources through bone and blood status of chickens. Nig J. Animal Prod. 36(1): 85 – 95.
Cite this Article: Owen, OJ; Ideozu, HM; Okachi, VW; Etekpe, GW; David, EU (2022). Blood Chemistry and Haematological Indices of Broiler Chickens Administered Varying Levels of Kaolin (Clay) Diets. Greener Journal of Biological Sciences, 12(1): 49-53.
Call for Articles/Books
Call for Scholarly Articles
Authors from around the world are invited to send scholarly articles that suits the scope of this journal. The journal is currently open to submissions and will process and publish articles daily, immediately they are ready.
The journal is centered on quality and goes about its processes in a very timely fashion. Seasoned editors/reviewers will be consulted to review each article(s), profer quality evaluations and polish the articles with expertise before publication.
Use our quick submit button to submit or simply send your article(s) as an e-mail attachment to email@example.com or firstname.lastname@example.org.
Call for Books
You are also invited to submit your books for online or print publication. We publish books related to all academic subject areas. Submit as an e-mail attachment to email@example.com.