Greener Journal of Agricultural Sciences

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Greener Journal of Agricultural Sciences

Vol. 10(2), pp. 120-128, 2020

ISSN: 2276-7770

Copyright ©2020, the copyright of this article is retained by the author(s)









Living Condition at Bottom of the Pyramid: Case of Oil Palm Farmers around Presco Nucleus Estates in Edo State, Nigeria



Famous Baa Adade (PhD)



Cambridge Assessment International Education Programme, Word of Faith Schools, Benin City, Edo State, Nigeria






Article No.: 051020068

Type: Research



The study examined the living condition of oil palm farmers at the base of the pyramid (BOP) located around Presco nucleus estates in Edo and Delta States, Nigeria. A two stage sampling procedure was used to sample 242 oil palm farmers. Using an absolute poverty line of $2.00 per person per day, the BOP households were identified in the dataset of the respondents based on their income levels. Descriptive statistics were used to analyse the data. The findings indicated that about 55% of the respondents live at the bottom of the economic pyramid, earning per capita income less than $2(N400) per day. About 76% did not have additional sources of income outside farming, and 15% accessed credit while only about 40% applied fertilizer on their farms.  Those at first two income quintiles did not have savings; their per capita expenditures were in excess of per capita income by about 58% and 32% respectively. About 59% of the consumption was on food and non-alcoholic drinks. Moreover, about 58% the BOP oil palm farmers were food poor, with majority also poorly asset-endowed, implying that the cultivation of oil palm did not seriously improved the living condition of the growers despite its potential to enhance income and alleviate poverty. The findings have policy implications. First, BOP farmers not participating in the Presco out-grower scheme, not belonging to cooperative societies and/or not having accessed credit though such opportunities might have  been available can be encouraged through their village heads to belong in order to access facilities capable of enhancing their productive capabilities and income. The large expenditure on food and non-alcoholic drinks provide marketing opportunity for products consumed by BOP farmers.


Accepted:  11/05/2020

Published: 17/07/2020


*Corresponding Author

Dr. Famous Adade

E-mail: fb_adade@



Living condition; Base of the Pyramid (BOP); Oil palm; Nigeria.



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Cite this Article: Adade, FB (2020). Living Condition at Bottom of the Pyramid: Case of Oil Palm Farmers around Presco Nucleus Estates in Edo State, Nigeria. Greener Journal of Agricultural Sciences 10(2): 120-128.



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