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Henry-Unaeze and Amadi

By Henry-Unaeze, HN; Amadi, RE (2022).

Greener Journal of Agricultural Sciences

Vol. 12(1), pp. 86-94, 2022

ISSN: 2276-7770

Copyright ©2022, the copyright of this article is retained by the author(s)





Proximate, Vitamins, Minerals, and Antinutrients Composition of Breads Made from African Yam Bean (Sphenostylis stenocarpa) and Corn (Zea mays) Seeds Flour Blends



Henry-Unaeze, Helen Nonye1*; Amadi, Rose Ezinne2



1 Department of Food, Nutrition, and Home Science, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria. email:  Phone: +2348063548581

2 Department of Human Nutrition and Dietetics, College of Applied Food Sciences and Tourism Michael Okpara University of Agriculture Umudike. Email:






Article No.: 031722037

Type: Research



Background: Malnutrition is a big threat to the world’s public health.

Objectives:  This work evaluated the chemical composition of the breads made from African yam bean (Sphenostylis stenocarpa) and corn (Zea mays) seeds flour blends.

Materials and Methods: The seeds of African yam bean (AYB) roasted at 1910C for 40 mins and corn oven-dried at 500C for 24 h were finely milled, and formulated into 5 flour samples in the ratios of AYB (70): Corn (30), AYB (50): Corn (50), AYB (30): Corn (70), AYB (100: 0), and Corn (100: 0) to yield one-third (1/3) of the daily dietary fiber requirement (12.7 g) of a reference man (70 kg). The samples and the control (wheat flour) provided 6 samples which were made into breads and evaluated for chemical composition using standard procedures. Data generated were analyzed using the IBM Statistical Product for Service Solution (version 21.0) and presented as means and standard deviations. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to compare the means and significance was accepted at p < 0.05.

Results: The proximate range of the samples were 10.92 to 25.11g protein, 2.29 to 4.03g fat, 1.40 to 2.82g ash, 0.46 to 3.10g fibre, 50.23 to 66.50g carbohydrates, 8.29 to 9.41g moisture, 321.66 to 330.29kcal energy, and 80.60 to 81.71 dry matter; the vitamins: 3.12 to 32.67µg carotene, 0.14 to 1.55mg thiamin, 0.62 to 1.38g niacin and 4.76 to 41.76mg vitamin C. The mineral contents ranged from 13.23 to 72.30mg calcium 25.76 to 142.57mg magnesium, 73.81 to 208.13mg potassium, and 28.38 to 66.15mg sodium; the phytochemicals ranged from 0.94 to 11.36mg flavonoid, 0.02 to 0.41mg saponin, and the anti-nutrients contents ranged from 0.06 to 1.02mg tannin and 0.21 to 1.11 mg alkaloids.

Conclusion: The breads had decreased carbohydrates and energy contents and improved nutrient density. All bread samples could be used for varied meals.


Accepted:  21/03/2022

Published: 04/04/2022


*Corresponding Author

Henry-Unaeze, Helen Nonye

E-mail: helen.henry-unaeze@

Phone: +2348063548581



African yam bean, corn, proximate, vitamins and minerals, anti-nutrients, flour blends.





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Cite this Article: Henry-Unaeze, HN; Amadi, RE (2022). Proximate, Vitamins, Minerals, and Antinutrients Composition of Breads Made from African Yam Bean (Sphenostylis stenocarpa) and Corn (Zea mays) Seeds Flour Blends. Greener Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 12(1): 86-94.



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