Greener Journal of Agricultural Sciences

Excellence and Timeliness


Change Language

Gedifew and Tsige

Greener Journal of Agricultural Sciences

Vol. 9(1), pp. 37-56, 2019

ISSN: 2276-7770

Copyright ©2019, the copyright of this article is retained by the author(s)

DOI Link:



Morphological Characterization and Evaluation of Sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] Landraces in Benishangul Gumuz, North-western Ethiopia


 Gedifew Gebrie (MSc)1 and Tsige Genet (PhD)2


Department of Plant Science, Faculty of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, Bahir Dar University, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia





Article No.: 123118187

Type: Research

DOI: 10.15580/GJAS.2019.1.123118187



Although sorghum is an important cereal crop in Benishangul Gumuz, few studies have been undertaken on existing diversity. Hence, the objective of this study was to characterize sorghum landraces collected from five districts of north western BGRS. Twenty-five sorghum genotypes including the local check (Emohay) were tested in RCBD with three replications during the 20011/2012 rainy seasons at Pawe to assess the presence and degree of variability for desired morphological traits in sorghum landraces. Plots with two rows per plot each 5 m long with spacing of 0.75 m between rows, 0.15 m between plants and 1.5 m between blocks (a plot area of 7.5 m2) was used. Analysis of variance revealed significant differences among entries for most quantitative characters. Eleven landraces gave better grain yield between 41.38 to 48.9 q/ha indicating the possibility of identifying superior genotype to be selected among the landraces. Genotype 021pw-2010 was the highest yielded (48.9 q/ha) landrace. The lowest GCV and PCV were obtained for days to maturity while the highest PCV and GCV were obtained for plant height. Higher ratios of the phenotypic variance to genotypic variance were recorded for days to flowering, days to maturity, leaf length, leaf width, single leaf area, number of leaves, plant height, head length, head width, head weight and grain yield indicating that the traits will be highly influenced by the environment. Broad sense heritability estimates for the traits ranged from 45.1% (for head weight) to 99.8% (for single leaf area). Grain yield showed higher significant positive genetic correlation with days to maturity, head weight, head width and head length, and a negative significant correlation with single leaf area and number of leaves at phenotypic level. The high performing accessions of the landraces screened in this study should further be evaluated under a wide range of environments to find widely adapting landraces. The variability observed in the study could be given emphasis while planning a breeding strategy for increased grain yield. Collection, conservation and utilization of available materials across BGRS must be given attention.


Submitted: 31/12/2018

Accepted:  11/01/2019

Published: 31/01/2019


*Corresponding Author

Gedifew Gebrie

E-mail: gebriegedifew.y@

Phone: (+251)946 45 44 37


Keywords: Variability; Heritability; Genetic Advance; Correlation; Path analysis.



Return to Content       View [Full Article - PDF]  

[Full Article - HTML]               [Full Article - EPUB]

Post-Publication Peer-review Rundown

View/get involved, click [Peer-review]



Abdi Adugna, Endashaw B., Zemede A. and Awgechew Teshome (2002). Patterns of morphological variation of sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] landraces in qualitative characters in North Shewa and South Welo. Hereditas. 137:161–172.


Abe Shegro(2010). Biodiversity in plant, grain and nutritional characteristics of Sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] accessions from Ethiopia and South Africa, PhD thesis, University of the Free State, Bloemfontein, South Africa,164pp.


Addisu, G. A. (2011). Heritability and genetic advance in recombinant inbred lines for drought tolerance and other related traits in sorghum (Sorghum bicolor). Continental Journal of Agricultural Science, 5 (1), 1 - 9


Adugna Asfaw (2007). The role of introduced sorghum and millets in Ethiopian agriculture. J SAT Agric Res. 3(1)


Allard, R.W (1960). Principles of plant breeding. John Wiley and Sons, New York.


Amsalu Ayana and Endashaw Bekele (1998). Geographical patterns of Morphologic variation in Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L) Moench) germplasm from Ethiopia and Eritrea. Hereditas.129:195-205.


Amsalu Ayana (2000). Genetic diversity in sorghum germplasm from Ethiopia and Eritrea, PhD dissertation, University of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. 


Ashante J.A. (1995). Sorghum grain quality and utilization, J. Afr. crop Sci. 3:231-240.


Bello D., Kadams A.M., Simon S.Y. and Mashi D.S. (2007). Studies on genetic variability in cultivated sorghum [sorghum bicolour (L.) Moench] cultivars of Adamawa state, Nigeria. American-Eurasian J. Agric. & Environ. Sci. 2:297-302.


Bohra P., Phal P.S. and Allah R. (1986). Association analysis for yield and quality traits in sorghum crop improvement. J. Agri. Sci. 12(2):89-93.


Burton G.A. (1952). Estimating Heritability in tall fescu (Festuca arundincea) from replicated clonal material. J. Agro. 45:481-487.


Deepalakshmi A.J. and Ganesamurthy K. (2007). Studies on Genetic variability and character association in kharif sorghum [sorghum bicolour (L) Moench], Indian J. Agric. Res. 41:177–182


Dewey, D.R. and Lu, K.H. (1959). A correlation and path analysis of components of crested wheat grass seed production. J. Agro. 51(6), 515-518.


Doggett H. 1988. Sorghum long mans. 2nd Edition, London.


Durrishahwar, Muhammad N., Hidayat-ur-Rahman, Ihteramullah, Irfan A. S., Farhan A., Syed M, Ali S. and Nasir M. (2012). Characterization of sorghum germplasm for various morphological and fodder yield parameters. Afr. J. Biotech. 11(56):11952-11959


Elangovan M., Prabhaker D. and Chandra S. R. (2007). Characterization and Evaluation of Sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] Germplasm, J. Agric. Sci. 20(4):840-842.


Ezeaku I.E. and Mohammed S.G. (2006). Character association and path analysis in grain sorghum, Afr. J. Biotech, 5 (14):1337-1340.


Falconer and Mackay (1961). How and when selection experiments might actually be useful. Integ. Comp. Biol. 45:391-104.


Falconer D.S. (1981). Introduction to quantitative Genetics. 2nd Edition. Longman Inc., New York.


Geremew Gebeyehu (1993). Morpho-agronomic characterization of sorghum land race s from Gambella.  MSc Thesis. Alemaya University, Ethiopia.


Godbharle A.R., More A.W. and Ambekar S.S. (2010). Genetic Variability and Correlation Studies in elite ‘B’ and ‘R’ lines in Kharif Sorghum. Electronic Journal of Plant Breeding. 1(4):989-993.


Gomez A.K. and Gomez A.A. (1984). Statistical procedures for agricultural research. 2nd Edition, John Willey and Sons Inc., Neyork, 680 pp.


Govindaraj M., Shanmugasundaram P and Muthiah A.R. (2010). Estimates of genetic parameters for yield and yield attributes in elite lines and popular cultivars of India’s pearl millet. Afr. J. Agric. Res. 5(22):3060-3064.


Habindavyi Esperance (2009). Morphological characterization of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) diversity in Burundi. MSc Thesis. University of Uppsala, Uppsala. Burundi. 48pp.


House L.R. (1985). A guide to Sorghum Breeding. 2nd Edition, International crops research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics, Patancheru, India. 206pp.


IBC (2008). Second Country report on the State of PGRFA to FAO. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia


IBPGR/ICRISAT. (1993). Descriptors for sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench]. International Board for Plant Genetic Resources, Rome, Italy; International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics, Patancheru, India.


Jalal A., Al-Tabal, Ahmad H. and AL-Fraihat. (2011). Genetic variation, Heritability, phenotypic and Genotypic Correlation studies for yield and yield components in promising Barley Genotypes, Journal of Agricultural Science. 4(3):193-210.


Mahajan R.C., Wadikar P B., Pole S P. and Dhuppe M.V. (2011). Variability, Correlation and Path analysis studies in sorghum. J. Agric. Sci. 2:101-103.


Mahdieh Dalkani, Abbas Hassani and Reza Darvishzadeh (2012). Determination of the genetic variation in Ajowan (Carum Copticum L.) populations using multivariate statistical techniques. J. Agro. 43(4): 698-705.


Mehmoods, Bashira A., Ahmad A., Z. Akram (2008). Molecular characterization of regional sorghum bicolor varieties from Pakistan. Pak. J. Bot., 40(5): 2015-2021


Melakhail Mengesha (1975). Crop germplasm diversity and resource in Ethiopia. In: Crop genetic resources for today and tomorrow. Cambridge University press, Cambridge, pp.433-465.


Melakhaile Mengesha and Rao P. (1982). Current situation and future of sorghum in the eighties. Proceedings. The international Symposium, Patacheru, A.P. India, ICRSAT. pp. 323-333.


Melaku Worede (1988). Diversity and genetic resources base. J. Agric. Sci. 10:39-52


Miller P.A., J.C. Williams H.F. Robinson and Comstock R.E. (1958). Estimates of genetic and environmental variance and covariance and their implication in selection. J. Agro. 50:126-131.


NCSS (2004). Number Cruncher Statistical Systems, Dr. Jerry L. Hintze, 329 North 1000 East, Kaysville, Utah 84037, Canada.


Negash Geleta (2003). Genetic Variability and Associations among yield and yield relate d traits in sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] Landraces of western Ethiopia. MSc Thesis, Alemaya University, Ethiopia.


Pascal Institute Software solution (1994) GenRes, a statistical package for genetic researchers. Version 3.11.


Rangswamy R. (1995). A text book of Agricultural statics. Willey Eastern Ltd. Ney Delhi. 496pp.


Rao P., K.E. and M.H. Mengesha (1981). A pointed collection of Zera zera sorghum in the Gambella area. 30/march/2012.


SAS Institute (2008). Statistical Analysis Software version 9.2. SAS Institute Inc., USA.


Singh P. and Narayanan S.S. (1993). Biometrical techniques in plant breeding. Kalyani Publishers, New Delhi.


Singh, B.D. (1999). Plant Breeding, principles and merhods. 4th Edition. Kalyani publishers, New Delhi, India. Pp.639


Solomon Benor and Lemlem Sisay. (2003). Folk classification of sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] landraces and its ethnobotanical implication.  Etnobiología. 3:29-41


Stemler A., B. L., Harlan J.R. and De Wet J., M.J. (1977). The sorghum of Ethiopia. J. Econ. Bot. 31:446-460.


Stickler F.C.S. Wearden A.W. (1961). Leaf area determination in grain sorghum. J. Agro. 53:187-188


Taylor S. L., M. E. Payton & W. R. Raun (1999). Relationship between mean yield coefficient of variation, mean square error, and plot size in wheat field experiments, Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis, 30:9-10, 1439-1447


Thakur R.P., Rao V.P., and Sharma R. (2008). Characterization of grain mold resistant sorghum germplasm accessions for physio-morphological traits. Journal of SAT Agricultural Research. 6:1-7.


Vittal R., Ghosh N., Weng Y., Stewart B.A. (2010). Genetic diversity among Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench genotypes as revealed by prolamines and SSR markers, Journal of Biotech Research, 2:101-111


Wasihun Legesse (2007). Agro-morphological characterization of Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L) Moench Landraces from Metekel area, MSc Thesis. Hawasa University, Ethiopia. 104pp.


Wright S. (1921). Systems of mating Genetics. 6:111-178.


Yilma Kedede (1991). The role of Ethiopian sorghum germplasm resource in the national breeding program. In: Englkans J., G. Hawks and Melaku Worede (Eds.), Plant genetic resource of Ethiopia. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. pp. 315-322.


Cite this Article: Gedifew G; Tsige G (2019). Morphological Characterization and Evaluation of Sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] Landraces in Benishangul Gumuz, North-western Ethiopia. Greener Journal of Agricultural Sciences 9(1): 37-56,

Call for Articles/Books

Call for Scholarly Articles

Authors from around the world are invited to send scholary articles that suits the scope of this journal. The journal is currently open to submissions and will process and publish articles daily, immediately they are ready.

The journal is centered on quality and goes about its processes in a very timely fashion. Seasoned editors/reviewers will be consulted to review each article(s), profer quality evaluations and polish the articles with expertise before publication.

Use our quick submit button to submit or simply send your article(s) as an e-mail attachment to or

Call for Books

You are also invited to submit your books for online or print publication. We publish books related to all academic subject areas.    Submit as an e-mail attachment to


Login Form

Other Journals