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Greener Journal of Agricultural Sciences

Vol. 9(4), pp. 447-458, 2019

ISSN: 2276-7770

Copyright ©2019, the copyright of this article is retained by the author(s)

DOI Link: https://doi.org/10.15580/GJAS.2019.4.102319190

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Importance and Management of Sorghum Smuts with Special Reference To: the Covered Kernel Smut (Sphacelotheca sorghi [Link] Clinton), Loose Kernel Smut (Sphacelotheca cruenta [Kuhn] Potter) and Head Smut (Sphacelotheca reiliana [Kuhn] Clinton)

 

 

* Michael Kebede Wagari

 

*Ethiopian Institute of Agricultural Research (EIAR), Werer Agricultural Research Center, P.O. Box 2003, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

 

ARTICLE INFO

ABSTRACT

 

Article No.: 102319190

Type: Review

DOI: 10.15580/GJAS.2019.4.102319190

Sorghum known to be associated with one of the most important diseases of seed- and soil-borne pathogens Sphacelotheca spp. causing the smuts. Sorghum smuts remains to be an important biotic factor constraining its efficient productions in semi-arid tropics regions of the world especially Africa and Asia. The infections are entirely either through leaves, stalk, peduncle, panicle or the grain; while damages are almost entirely confined to the heads or panicles; reducing both the grain yield and forage value. The methods for controlling sorghum smuts are diverse depending on factors of the crop natures, the pathogens group, the socio­economic conditions, agricultural developments and environmental concerns. Even though; commonly various control measures like: chemical controls; cultural and traditional practices, biological controls and use of resistant varieties are practiced, the control of sorghum smut remains very challenging in many sorghum growing regions related to the pathogens infection mechanisms twinned with its severities and distributions. The controls of smuts are primarily believed possible through the use of resistant varieties and seed treatments. Direction on the use of resistant varieties, it has been difficult to find cultivars with multiple resistances against all the major diseases progress. Seed dressing with fungicide has been one of the cheapest and the most effective means of controlling seed-borne sorghum smut diseases yet lack of information, availability and cost of the chemicals were the major constraints for wider adoption by the target groups–resource poor, smallholder farmers from the developing countries. Therefore, for continued sustainable production of sorghum, the managements of these sorghum smuts are important through cultural practices, chemical control, biological control and use of resistant varieties by farmers must be emphasized. Therewith, the overall objectives of this article is to give a general overviews over the importance, occurrences, epidemiology and control measures used for the major economically important sorghum smut diseases of covered kernel smut, loos kernel smut and head smut.

 

Submitted: 23/10/2019

Accepted:  29/10/2019

Published: 30/11/2019

 

*Corresponding Author

Michael Kebede Wagari

E-mail: kebedeyomichael@ gmail.com

 

Keywords: Covered kernel smut; Loose kernel smut; Head smut; Sorghum; Sphacelotheca spp

 

 

 


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Cite this Article: Wagari, MK (2019). Importance and Management of Sorghum Smuts with Special Reference To: the Covered Kernel Smut (Sphacelotheca sorghi [Link] Clinton), Loose Kernel Smut (Sphacelotheca cruenta [Kuhn] Potter) and Head Smut (Sphacelotheca reiliana [Kuhn] Clinton). Greener Journal of Agricultural Sciences 9(4): 447-458, https://doi.org/10.15580/GJAS.2019.4.102319190   

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